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Ludwig, H. (1899). Echinodermen des Sansibargebietes. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, Bonn. 21(1): 537-563.
6130
Ludwig, H.
1899
Echinodermen des Sansibargebietes.
Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, Bonn
21(1): 537-563
Publication
This paper is a composition of the echinodermal fauna collected in the region of Zanzibar (defined at first page). The literature of the authors, the collectors, the find-spots and publications about the species are given.
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Actinometra fimbriata (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Capillaster multiradiatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (basis of record)
Actinometra solaris (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Comatula (Comatula) solaris Lamarck, 1816 (basis of record)
Actinopyga echinites (Jaeger, 1833) (additional source)
Actinopyga mauritiana (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) (additional source)
Actinopyga miliaris (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) (additional source)
Amphioplus hastatus (Ljungman, 1867) represented as Amphioplus (Lymanella) hastatus (Ljungman, 1867) (additional source)
Asteropsis carinifera (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Brissus carinatus (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Brissus latecarinatus (Leske, 1778) (basis of record)
Cyrtechinus verruculatus (Lütken, 1864) accepted as Nudechinus verruculatus (Lütken, 1864) (additional source)
Dichrometra flagellata (Müller, 1841) (basis of record)
Dorocidaris canaliculatus (A. Agassiz, 1863) accepted as Austrocidaris canaliculata (A. Agassiz, 1863) (basis of record)
Echinobryssus recens (Milne Edwards, 1836) accepted as Apatopygus recens (Milne Edwards, 1836) (basis of record)
Echinocardium australe Gray, 1851 accepted as Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) (basis of record)
Echinodiscus bisperforatus Leske, 1778 (additional source)
Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) (additional source)
Echinometra oblonga (Blainville, 1825) (basis of record)
Echinothrix calamaris (Pallas, 1774) (additional source)
Echinothrix turcarum Peters, 1853 accepted as Echinothrix diadema (Linnaeus, 1758) (basis of record)
Euapta godeffroyi (Semper, 1868) (additional source)
Eucidaris metularia (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Gymnasteria Gray, 1840 accepted as Asteropsis Müller & Troschel, 1840 (basis of record)
Halodeima edulis (Lesson) accepted as Holothuria (Halodeima) edulis Lesson, 1830 (source of synonymy)
Holothuria (Halodeima) signata Ludwig, 1875 (source of synonymy)
Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835) (additional source)
Holothuria (Microthele) aethiops Brandt, 1835 accepted as Holothuria (Halodeima) pulla Selenka, 1867 (basis of record)
Holothuria (Platyperona) parvula (Selenka, 1867) (additional source)
Holothuria (Selenkothuria) lubrica Selenka, 1867 (basis of record)
Holothuria lagoena Haacke, 1880 accepted as Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835) (source of synonymy)
Holothuria maxima Delle Chiaje, 1823 accepted as Holothuria (Holothuria) tubulosa Gmelin, 1791 (additional source)
Holothuria vagabunda Selenka, 1867 accepted as Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835) (source of synonymy)
Linckia guildingi Gray, 1840 (additional source)
Linckia laevigata (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Macrophiothrix hirsuta (Müller & Troschel, 1842) (additional source)
Metalia maculosa (Gmelin, 1791) accepted as Metalia spatagus (Linnaeus, 1758) (basis of record)
Monachaster sanderi (Meissner, 1892) (additional source)
Muelleria maculata (Brandt) accepted as Holothuria (Microthele) whitmaei Bell, 1887 (basis of record)
Ophiactis savignyi (Müller & Troschel, 1842) (additional source)
Ophiarachnella gorgonia (Müller & Troschel, 1842) (additional source)
Ophiarachnella septemspinosa (Müller & Troschel, 1842) (additional source)
Ophidiaster hemprichi Müller & Troschel, 1842 (basis of record)
Ophiolepis annulosa (de Blainville, 1834) accepted as Ophiolepis superba H.L. Clark, 1915 (basis of record)
Orcula cucumiformis Semper, 1868 accepted as Afrocucumis africana (Semper, 1867) (basis of record)
Patinapta crosslandi Heding, 1929 accepted as Patinapta crosslandii Heding, 1929 (additional source)
Peronella rostrata (L. Agassiz, 1841) accepted as Peronella lesueuri rostrata (L. Agassiz, 1841) (basis of record)
Phyllacanthus imperialis (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Prionocidaris baculosa (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Prionocidaris verticillata (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Plococidaris verticillata (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Protoreaster nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Pseudocucumis africana (Semper) accepted as Afrocucumis africana (Semper, 1867) (basis of record)
Salmacis sulcata L. Agassiz in L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846 accepted as Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) (basis of record)
Stichopus (Gymnochirota) leucospilota Brandt, 1835 accepted as Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835) (source of synonymy)
Synapta beselii Jaeger, 1833 accepted as Synapta maculata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821) (basis of record)
Thyone sacellus (Selenka) accepted as Thyone buccalis Stimpson, 1855 accepted as Stolus buccalis (Stimpson, 1855) (basis of record)
Tripneustes (Hipponoe) variegasta (Leske, 1778) accepted as Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758) (basis of record)
Tripneustes (Hipponoe) variegasta (Klein, 1734) accepted as Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758) (basis of record)
Tropiometra carinata (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Aldabra for Cidaris metularia (Lamarck, 1816) 
Aldabra for Holothuria (Halodeima) atra Jaeger, 1833 
Aldabra for Holothuria (Lessonothuria) pardalis Selenka, 1867 
Aldabra for Metalia sternalis (Lamarck, 1816) 
Aldabra for Ophidiaster pustulatus (von Martens, 1866) 
Aldabra for Ophiocoma brevipes Peters, 1851 
Aldabra for Ophiocoma scolopendrina (Lamarck, 1816) 
Aldabra for Ophiocoma valenciae Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Ambon for Ophidiaster pustulatus (von Martens, 1866) 
Comores for Microcyphus maculatus L. Agassiz in L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846 
Comores for Ophiocoma scolopendrina (Lamarck, 1816) 
Kenya for Antedon flagellata (Müller, 1841) 
Kenya for Echinodiscus biforis (Gmelin, 1778) 
Madagascar for Actinometra fimbriata (Lamarck, 1816)  (doubtful)
Madagascar for Antedon carinata (Lamarck, 1816) 
Madagascar for Cidaris metularia (Lamarck, 1816) 
Madagascar for Colobocentrotus atratus (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Madagascar for Culcita schmideliana (Bruzelius, 1805) 
Madagascar for Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778) 
Madagascar for Echinobryssus recens (Milne Edwards, 1836) 
Madagascar for Echinodiscus biforis (Gmelin, 1778) 
Madagascar for Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758)  (inaccurate)
Madagascar for Heterocentrotus trigonarius (Lamarck, 1816) 
Madagascar for Holothuria (Halodeima) atra Jaeger, 1833 
Madagascar for Holothuria (Lessonothuria) pardalis Selenka, 1867 
Madagascar for Holothuria (Thymiosycia) impatiens (Forsskål, 1775) 
Madagascar for Laganum depressum L. Agassiz, 1841 
Madagascar for Leiocidaris baculosa (Lamarck, 1816) 
Madagascar for Leiocidaris imperialis (Lamarck, 1816) 
Madagascar for Leiocidaris verticillata (Lamarck, 1816) 
Madagascar for Linckia miliaris (Muller & Troschel, 1840) 
Madagascar for Linckia multifora (Lamarck, 1816) 
Madagascar for Muelleria miliaris (Quoy & Gaimard) 
Madagascar for Parasalenia gratiosa A. Agassiz, 1863 
Madagascar for Pentaceros muricatus Gray, 1840 
Madagascar for Salmacis bicolor L. Agassiz in L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846 
Mascarene Basin for Ophidiaster pustulatus (von Martens, 1866) 
Mauritius for Holothuria (Lessonothuria) pardalis Selenka, 1867 
Mauritius for Holothuria lagoena Haacke, 1880 
Mauritius for Linckia ehrenbergii (Müller & Troschel) 
Mauritius for Pseudocucumis africana (Semper) 
Mozambique for Amphiura candida Ljungman, 1867 
Mozambique for Amphiura hastata (Ljungman, 1867) 
Mozambique for Asterina cepheus (Müller & Troschel, 1842) 
Mozambique for Astropecten hemprichi Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Mozambique for Astropyga radiata (Leske, 1778) 
Mozambique for Cidaris metularia (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Clypeaster reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Mozambique for Culcita coriacea Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Mozambique for Culcita pentangularis Gray, 1847  (inaccurate)
Mozambique for Culcita schmideliana (Bruzelius, 1805) 
Mozambique for Culcita schmideliana var. africana Döderlein, 1896 
Mozambique for Echinocardium australe Gray, 1851 
Mozambique for Echinodiscus auritus Leske, 1778 
Mozambique for Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758)  (inaccurate)
Mozambique for Echinoneus cyclostomus Leske, 1778 
Mozambique for Echinostrephus molaris (Blainville, 1825) 
Mozambique for Echinothrix desori (L. Agassiz in L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846) 
Mozambique for Echinothrix turcarum Peters, 1853 
Mozambique for Echinus verruculatus (Lütken, 1864)  (doubtful)
Mozambique for Goniodiscus sebae Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Mozambique for Gymnasteria carinifera (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Holothuria (Halodeima) atra Jaeger, 1833 
Mozambique for Holothuria (Lessonothuria) pardalis Selenka, 1867 
Mozambique for Holothuria (Metriatyla) scabra Jaeger, 1833 
Mozambique for Holothuria (Microthele) aethiops Brandt, 1835  (doubtful)
Mozambique for Holothuria (Psolus) monacaria Lesson, 1830 
Mozambique for Holothuria (Semperothuria) cinerascens (Brandt, 1835) 
Mozambique for Holothuria (Thymiosycia) impatiens (Forsskål, 1775) 
Mozambique for Holothuria lagoena Haacke, 1880 
Mozambique for Holothuria maxima Delle Chiaje, 1823 
Mozambique for Holothuria vagabunda Selenka, 1867 
Mozambique for Leiaster coriaceus Peters, 1852 
Mozambique for Leiaster glaber Peters, 1852 
Mozambique for Leiocidaris baculosa (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Leiocidaris verticillata (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Linckia ehrenbergii (Müller & Troschel) 
Mozambique for Linckia miliaris (Muller & Troschel, 1840) 
Mozambique for Linckia multifora (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Luidia savignyi (Audouin, 1826)  (doubtful)
Mozambique for Metalia maculosa (Gmelin, 1791) 
Mozambique for Muelleria mauritiana (Quoy & Gaimard) 
Mozambique for Muelleria miliaris (Quoy & Gaimard) 
Mozambique for Nardoa variolata (Bruzelius, 1805) 
Mozambique for Ophiarthrum elegans Peters, 1851 
Mozambique for Ophidiaster pustulatus (von Martens, 1866) 
Mozambique for Ophiocoma brevipes Peters, 1851 
Mozambique for Ophiocoma scolopendrina (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Ophiocoma valenciae Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Mozambique for Ophiolepis annulosa (de Blainville, 1834) 
Mozambique for Ophiolepis cincta Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Mozambique for Ophiomastix venosa Peters, 1851 
Mozambique for Ophiopeza fallax Lütken, 1869 (non Peters, 1851) 
Mozambique for Ophioplocus imbricata (Müller & Troschel, 1842) 
Mozambique for Pectinura gorgonia (Müller & Troschel, 1842) 
Mozambique for Pentaceros muricatus Gray, 1840 
Mozambique for Pentaceros tuberculatus Sladen, 1889 † 
Mozambique for Pseudocucumis africana (Semper) 
Mozambique for Psolidium ornatum (Perrier, 1893) 
Mozambique for Salmacis bicolor L. Agassiz in L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846 
 Authority

Selenka is the original author in Vaney (1905). Theel as author in Kalk (1958) [details]

 Description

Ranges eastward up to Japan (Tortonese, 1949). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed around Japan. [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed around Amboia (Indonesia) and around Archipelago of Mergui (Burma) (Lampert, 1896). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed around Indonesia; Celebes (Selenka, 1867). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in whole the Pacific and the Indian Ocean (Lampert, 1896). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Florida (Selenka, 1867) [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in east coast of India, Bonin, Aru, Tonga, New Caledonie and Australia (Lambert, 1923). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in the Pacific and Indian Ocean (Lampert, 1896). From the Celebes in Selenka (1867). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in the Pacific and Indian Ocean (Lampert, 1896). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Südsee, Sandwich Is. And Java (Selenka, 1867); Hong Kong and Pacific Islands (Pearson, 1910); ... [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Singapore and the Pelew Islands (A.H. Clark, 1911). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Guam (Clark, 1954). [details]

 Distribution

Also known in Australia (Lampert, 1896). [details]

 Distribution

Cosmopolitan by Ludwig (1899). Also recorded from Acapulpo (Selenka, 1867) [details]

 Distribution

Distribution also eastwards in the Indian Ocean to the Phillippines. [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Fiji Is. (Pearson, 1910). [details]

 Distribution

Tropical Indo-Pacific, also distributed in Australia in Kalk (1958) [details]

 Holotype

Holotype Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA) 147, paratype Museum of ... [details]

 Remark

Actinometra solaris var. albonotata Bell, 1884 has Albany Island as type locality (A.H. Clark, 1908). [details]

 Remark

Also recorded from 'Coin Peros' by Bell (1909) - locality can't be traced. [details]

 Remark

Also recorded from 'Coin Peros' by Bell (1909) - locality can't be traced. [details]

 Remark

Also recorded from 'Coin Peros' by Bell (1909) - locality can't be traced. [details]

 Remark

Can't be a valid species: genus name has been abolished by Pearson (1914). Can't trace specific epitheton to either ... [details]

 Remark

Genus Pseudocucumis not valid anymore. Pseudocucumis africana Semper is treated as a synonym of Cucumaria africana ... [details]

 Remark

In family Pentagonasteridae in Ludwig (1899). [details]

 Remark

In subgenus (Psammechinus). Holotype Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark). Type ... [details]

 Remark

In Subgenus: (Chondrocloea) Oestergren. [details]

 Remark

In subgenus: (Hipponoë) in Ludwig (1899). [details]

 Remark

Ludwig (1899) cites Linck as authority. [details]

 Remark

Quoy & Gaim as authors in Lampert (1896). [details]

 Remark

Quoy & Gaimard are the original authors in Pearson (1910). [details]

 Remark

Status unclear: A.M. Clark (1968) refers 'the remaining species which have been referred to Pectinura' to ... [details]

 Remark

Subgenus: (Euapta[details]

 Remark

Subgenus: (Synapta) Oestergren. [details]

 Remark

Syntipes Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA) No. 722 (12 specimens), ... [details]

 Remark

Type specie of the genus Muelleria Jaeger, 1833 (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Synonymy

L. dubiaBrandt and L. fustigera A. Agassiz treated as a synonym of L. Imperialis (Ludwig, 1899). [details]

 Synonymy

In Subgenus (Mertensiothuria) Deichmann, 1958. [details]

 Synonymy

Listed in the citations as E. Desorii [details]

 Synonymy

Ludwig (1899) cites Koehler in that H. leucospilota is probably a synonym of H. vagabunda[details]

 Synonymy

Ludwig (1899) treats H. parva as a synonym of H. lubrica. Type species of the Subgenus (Selenkothuria) Deichmann, ... [details]

 Synonymy

Ludwig treats Holothuria pulla Selenka as a synonym of Holothuria aethiops[details]

 Synonymy

Needs confirmation [details]

 Synonymy

Needs confirmation [details]

 Synonymy

Needs confirmation [details]

 synonymy

Needs confirmation!! Possibly a misidentification by Bell 1909 <495>. [details]

 Synonymy

Needs confirmation. Clark says: '… there are none in the MCZ which can properly be called serpentina so I am ... [details]

 Synonymy

Or misidentification by Ludwig 1899? Jangoux did not see Decary's 1924 paper. [details]

 Synonymy

Pearson (1914) combines the genera Muelleria and Holothuria under the latter name, and divided the old genus ... [details]

 Synonymy

See note on M. mauritiana [details]

 Synonymy

See remark with M. mauritiana [details]

 Synonymy

See remark with M. mauritiana [details]

 Synonymy

Status of Pectinura not clear, possibly type species (only known from the holotype from the Meditteranean) only species. [details]

 Type locality

Flores, Amboina. [details]

 Type locality

Red Sea (Tortonese, 1949). [details]