WoRMS taxon details

Gymnodinium F.Stein, 1878

109475  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:109475)

accepted
Genus
Proaulax Diesing, 1866 · unaccepted (synonym)

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  1. Species Gymnodinium abbreviatum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  2. Species Gymnodinium achromaticum Lebour, 1917
  3. Species Gymnodinium acutissimum Okolodkov, 1997
  4. Species Gymnodinium acutiusculum Okolodkov, 1997
  5. Species Gymnodinium adriaticum (Schmarda) Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  6. Species Gymnodinium aequatoriale Hasle, 1960
  7. Species Gymnodinium agaricoides P.H.Campbell, 1973
  8. Species Gymnodinium agiliforme Schiller, 1928
  9. Species Gymnodinium albidum J.B.Lackey & E.W.Lackey, 1970
  10. Species Gymnodinium albulum Er.Lindemann, 1928
  11. Species Gymnodinium allophron J.Larsen, 1994
  12. Species Gymnodinium amphityphlum J.Larsen, 1994
  13. Species Gymnodinium amphora Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  14. Species Gymnodinium amplinucleum P.H.Campbell, 1973
  15. Species Gymnodinium antarcticum A.E.Thessen, D.J.Patterson & S.A.Murray, 2012
  16. Species Gymnodinium arcticum Wulff, 1919
  17. Species Gymnodinium arcuatum Kofoid, 1931
  18. Species Gymnodinium arenicola Dragesco, 1965
  19. Species Gymnodinium atomatum J.Larsen, 1994
  20. Species Gymnodinium attenuatum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  21. Species Gymnodinium aurantium P.H.Campbell, 1973
  22. Species Gymnodinium auratum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  23. Species Gymnodinium aureolum (E.M.Hulburt) Gert Hansen, 2000
  24. Species Gymnodinium aureum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  25. Species Gymnodinium australense Ruiner, 1938
  26. Species Gymnodinium baccatum Balech, 1965
  27. Species Gymnodinium bicaudatum Pavillard, 1905
  28. Species Gymnodinium biconicum J.Schiller, 1928
  29. Species Gymnodinium bicorne Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  30. Species Gymnodinium bifurcatum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  31. Species Gymnodinium bilobatum Van Meel, 1969
  32. Species Gymnodinium birotundatum van Goor, 1925
  33. Species Gymnodinium boguense P.H.Campbell, 1973
  34. Species Gymnodinium boguensis P.H.Campbell, 1973
  35. Species Gymnodinium bonaerense Akselman, 1985
  36. Species Gymnodinium boreale Gaarder, 1953
  37. Species Gymnodinium canus Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  38. Species Gymnodinium capitatum Conrad & Kufferath, 1954
  39. Species Gymnodinium caput J.Schiller, 1928
  40. Species Gymnodinium cassieorum R.E.Norris, 1961
  41. Species Gymnodinium catenatum H.W.Graham, 1943
  42. Species Gymnodinium chiasmonetrium Norris, 1961
  43. Species Gymnodinium chukwanii D.Ballantine, 1961
  44. Species Gymnodinium cinctum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  45. Species Gymnodinium cnodax Conrad & Kufferath, 1954
  46. Species Gymnodinium contractum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  47. Species Gymnodinium corii J.Schiller, 1928
  48. Species Gymnodinium corollarium A.M.Sundström, Kremp & Daugbjerg, 2009
  49. Species Gymnodinium costatum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  50. Species Gymnodinium cucumis Schütt, 1895
  51. Species Gymnodinium cyaneofungiforme Conrad & Kufferath, 1954
  52. Species Gymnodinium danicans P.H.Campbell, 1973
  53. Species Gymnodinium dentatum J.Larsen, 1994
  54. Species Gymnodinium diamphidium R.E.Norris, 1961
  55. Species Gymnodinium diploconus Schütt, 1895
  56. Species Gymnodinium dissimile Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  57. Species Gymnodinium dogielii Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  58. Species Gymnodinium doma Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  59. Species Gymnodinium dorsalisulcum (Hulbert, J.J.A.McLaughlin & Zahl) Shauna Murray, Salas & Hallegraeff, 2007
  60. Species Gymnodinium elongatum B.Hope, 1954
  61. Species Gymnodinium endofasciculum P.H.Campbell, 1973
  62. Species Gymnodinium enorme Ballantine, 1964
  63. Species Gymnodinium exechegloutum R.E.Norris, 1961
  64. Species Gymnodinium filum Lebour, 1917
  65. Species Gymnodinium flavum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  66. Species Gymnodinium fossarum Conrad & Kufferath, 1954
  67. Species Gymnodinium fulgens Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  68. Species Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein, 1878
  69. Species Gymnodinium fusiforme Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  70. Species Gymnodinium fusus Schütt, 1896
  71. Species Gymnodinium galaeformis Matzenauer, 1933
  72. Species Gymnodinium galeaeforme Matzenauer, 1933
  73. Species Gymnodinium galeatum J.Larsen, 1994
  74. Species Gymnodinium galeiforme Okolodkov, 1997
  75. Species Gymnodinium galesianum P.H.Campbell, 1973
  76. Species Gymnodinium gelbum Kofoid, 1931
  77. Species Gymnodinium gibbera J.Schiller, 1928
  78. Species Gymnodinium glandiforme Conrad & Kufferath, 1954
  79. Species Gymnodinium gleba Schütt, 1895
  80. Species Gymnodinium gracilentum P.H.Campbell, 1973
  81. Species Gymnodinium grammaticum (Pouchet) Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  82. Species Gymnodinium guttiforme J.Larsen, 1994
  83. Species Gymnodinium guttula Balech, 1976
  84. Species Gymnodinium hamulus Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  85. Species Gymnodinium herbaceum Kofoid, 1921
  86. Species Gymnodinium heterostriatum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  87. Species Gymnodinium hiroshimaense Hada, 1968
  88. Species Gymnodinium hulburtii P.H.Campbell, 1973
  89. Species Gymnodinium impudicum (S.Fraga & I.Bravo) Gert Hansen & Moestrup, 2000
  90. Species Gymnodinium incertum E.C.Herdman, 1924
  91. Species Gymnodinium incisum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  92. Species Gymnodinium incoloratum Conrad & Kufferath, 1954
  93. Species Gymnodinium inconstans van Meel, 1969
  94. Species Gymnodinium intercalare A.S.Bursa, 1961
  95. Species Gymnodinium inusitatum H.Gu, 2013
  96. Species Gymnodinium irregulare B.Hope, 1954
  97. Species Gymnodinium japonicum Hada, 1974
  98. Species Gymnodinium katodiniforme Elbrachter, 1979
  99. Species Gymnodinium kesslitzii (J.Schiller) Moestrup, 2018
  100. Species Gymnodinium kowalevskii Pitzik, 1967
  101. Species Gymnodinium lachmannii Kent, 1881
  102. Species Gymnodinium lanskoi Rouchijajnen, 1968
  103. Species Gymnodinium lazulum Hulburt, 1957
  104. Species Gymnodinium leptum R.E.Norris, 1961
  105. Species Gymnodinium lineatum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  106. Species Gymnodinium lineopunicum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  107. Species Gymnodinium litoralis A.Reñé, 2011
  108. Species Gymnodinium lobularis P.H.Campbell, 1973
  109. Species Gymnodinium loburare P.H.Campbell, 1973
  110. Species Gymnodinium lucidum D.Ballantine, 1964
  111. Species Gymnodinium luteo-viride van Meel, 1969
  112. Species Gymnodinium maguelonnense Biecheler, 1952
  113. Species Gymnodinium mammosum van Meel, 1969
  114. Species Gymnodinium marinum Kent, 1880
  115. Species Gymnodinium massarti J.Schiller, 1932
  116. Species Gymnodinium maximum Nordli, 1951
  117. Species Gymnodinium metum Hulburt, 1957
  118. Species Gymnodinium microreticulatum C.J.S.Bolch, Negri & G.M.Hallegraeff, 1999
  119. Species Gymnodinium minor Lebour, 1917
  120. Species Gymnodinium minus Lebour, 1917
  121. Species Gymnodinium minutulum J.Larsen, 1994
  122. Species Gymnodinium modestum Balech, 1976
  123. Species Gymnodinium multilineatum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  124. Species Gymnodinium multistriatum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  125. Species Gymnodinium najadeum J.Schiller, 1928
  126. Species Gymnodinium nanum Schiller, 1928
  127. Species Gymnodinium neapolitanum J.Schiller, 1928
  128. Species Gymnodinium nolleri M.Ellegaard & Ø.Moestrup, 1999
  129. Species Gymnodinium nucaceum Okolodkov, 1997
  130. Species Gymnodinium obliquum Okolodkov, 1997
  131. Species Gymnodinium oceanicum Hasle, 1960
  132. Species Gymnodinium ochraceum Kofoid, 1931
  133. Species Gymnodinium octo J.Larsen, 1994
  134. Species Gymnodinium oppressum Conrad, 1926
  135. Species Gymnodinium opressum Conrad, 1926
  136. Species Gymnodinium ostenfeldii J.Schiller, 1928
  137. Species Gymnodinium ovatocapitatum Van Meel, 1969
  138. Species Gymnodinium ovoideum Okolodkov, 1997
  139. Species Gymnodinium ovulum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  140. Species Gymnodinium pallidum Skuja, 1939
  141. Species Gymnodinium parvum J.Larsen, 1994
  142. Species Gymnodinium patagonicum Balech, 1971
  143. Species Gymnodinium paulseinii Schiller
  144. Species Gymnodinium paulsenii J.Schiller, 1928
  145. Species Gymnodinium perplexum van Meel, 1969
  146. Species Gymnodinium pingue van Meel, 1969
  147. Species Gymnodinium placidum E.C.Herdman, 1922
  148. Species Gymnodinium polycomma J.Larsen, 1994
  149. Species Gymnodinium prolatum J.Larsen, 1994
  150. Species Gymnodinium pulchrum J.Schiller, 1928
  151. Species Gymnodinium pumilum J.Larsen, 1994
  152. Species Gymnodinium punctatum Pouchet, 1887
  153. Species Gymnodinium puniceum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  154. Species Gymnodinium purpureum Skuja, 1956
  155. Species Gymnodinium pygmaeum Lebour, 1925
  156. Species Gymnodinium pyrenoidosum T.Horiguchi & Chihara, 1988
  157. Species Gymnodinium radiatum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  158. Species Gymnodinium ravenescens Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  159. Species Gymnodinium regulare van Meel, 1969
  160. Species Gymnodinium rete Schutt, 1895
  161. Species Gymnodinium rhomboides Schütt, 1895
  162. Species Gymnodinium roseostigma P.H.Campbell, 1973
  163. Species Gymnodinium rubricauda Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  164. Species Gymnodinium rubrocinctum Lebour, 1925
  165. Species Gymnodinium rubrum Koifoid & Swezy, 1921
  166. Species Gymnodinium scaphium van Meel, 1969
  167. Species Gymnodinium schaefferi S.Morris, 1937
  168. Species Gymnodinium scopulosum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  169. Species Gymnodinium semidivisum J.Schiller, 1928
  170. Species Gymnodinium servatum W.Busch, 1927
  171. Species Gymnodinium situla Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  172. Species Gymnodinium smaydae N.S.Kang, H.J.Jeong & Ø. Moestrup., 2014
  173. Species Gymnodinium soyai Hada, 1970
  174. Species Gymnodinium sphaericum (Calkins) Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  175. Species Gymnodinium sphaeroideum Kofoid, 1931
  176. Species Gymnodinium stellatum Hulburt, 1957
  177. Species Gymnodinium striassimum Hulbert
  178. Species Gymnodinium subroseum P.H.Campbell, 1973
  179. Species Gymnodinium subrufescens G.W.Martin, 1929
  180. Species Gymnodinium suffuscum van Meel, 1969
  181. Species Gymnodinium sulcatum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  182. Species Gymnodinium telma van Meel, 1969
  183. Species Gymnodinium translucens Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  184. Species Gymnodinium translucens P.H.Campbell, 1973
  185. Species Gymnodinium trapeziforme Attaran-Fariman & Bolch, 2007
  186. Species Gymnodinium triangularis Lebour, 1917
  187. Species Gymnodinium uberrimum (G.J.Allman) Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  188. Species Gymnodinium valdecompressum P.H.Campbell, 1973
  189. Species Gymnodinium variabile E.C.Herdman, 1924
  190. Species Gymnodinium vas Van Meel, 1969
  191. Species Gymnodinium venator Flo Jørgensen & Murray, 2004
  192. Species Gymnodinium verruculosum P.H.Campbell, 1973
  193. Species Gymnodinium violescens Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  194. Species Gymnodinium virescens Wood, 1963
  195. Species Gymnodinium viridaliut J.Schiller, 1955
  196. Species Gymnodinium viridans van Meel, 1969
  197. Species Gymnodinium viridescens Kofoid, 1931
  198. Species Gymnodinium voukii J.Schiller, 1928
  199. Species Gymnodinium wilczekii Pouchet, 1894
  200. Species Gymnodinium wulffii J.Schiller, 1933
  201. Species Gymnodinium acutiusclum Okolodkov, 1997 accepted as Gymnodinium acutiusculum Okolodkov, 1997
  202. Species Gymnodinium affine Dogiel, 1906 accepted as Chytriodinium affine (Dogiel) Chatton, 1920
  203. Species Gymnodinium agile Kofoid & Swezy, 1921 accepted as Durinskia agilis (Kofoid & Swezy) Saburova, Chomérat & Hoppenrath, 2012 (synonym)
  204. Species Gymnodinium agile Herdman, 1922 accepted as Herdmania litoralis J.D.Dodge, 1981 (synonym)
  205. Species Gymnodinium archimedis Pouchet, 1883 accepted as Cochlodinium archimedes (Pouchet) Lemmermann, 1899 (synonym)
  206. Species Gymnodinium arenicolum Dragesco, 1965 accepted as Gymnodinium arenicola Dragesco, 1965
  207. Species Gymnodinium bei H.J.Spero, 1987 accepted as Pelagodinium bei (H.J.Spero) Siano, Montresor, Probert & Vargas, 2010 (deleted in Algaebase)
  208. Species Gymnodinium béii H.J.Spero, 1987 accepted as Pelagodinium bei (H.J.Spero) Siano, Montresor, Probert & Vargas, 2010
  209. Species Gymnodinium breve C.C.Davis, 1948 accepted as Karenia brevis (C.C.Davis) Gert Hansen & Moestrup, 2000 (basionym)
  210. Species Gymnodinium brevisulcatum F.H.Chang, 1999 accepted as Karenia brevisulcata (F.H.Chang) Gert Hansen & Moestrup, 2000 (basionym)
  211. Species Gymnodinium chlorophorum Elbrächter & Schnepf, 1996 accepted as Lepidodinium chlorophorum (M.Elbrächter & E.Schnepf) Gert Hansen, Botes & Salas, 2007 (synonym)
  212. Species Gymnodinium coeruleum Dogiel, 1906 accepted as Balechina coerulea (Dogiel) F.J.R.Taylor, 1976 accepted as Cucumeridinium coeruleum (Dogiel) F.Gomez, P.López-García, H.Takayama & D.Moreira, 2015 (synonym)
  213. Species Gymnodinium conicum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921 accepted as Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca (Pouchet) J.Cachon & M.Cachon, 1968 (synonym)
  214. Species Gymnodinium fissum Levander, 1894 accepted as Levanderina fissa (Levander) Moestrup, Hakanen, Gert Hansen, Daugbjerg & M.Ellegaard, 2014 (basionym)
  215. Species Gymnodinium frigidum Balech, 1965 accepted as Gymnodinium antarcticum A.E.Thessen, D.J.Patterson & S.A.Murray, 2012
  216. Species Gymnodinium fungiforme Anisimova [Anissimowa], 1926 accepted as Katodinium fungiforme (Anissimova) Fott, 1957 accepted as Speroidium fungiforme (Anisimova) Moestrup & Calado, 2018 (synonym)
  217. Species Gymnodinium fungiforme Schiller, 1933 accepted as Speroidium fungiforme (Anisimova) Moestrup & Calado, 2018 (synonym)
  218. Species Gymnodinium galatheanum Braarud, 1957 accepted as Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000 (synonym)
  219. Species Gymnodinium geminatum Schütt, 1895 accepted as Cochlodinium geminatum (Schütt) Schütt, 1896 accepted as Polykrikos geminatus (Schütt) D.Qiu & S.Lin, 2013 (synonym)
  220. Species Gymnodinium glandula Lebour, 1925 accepted as Katodinium glandulum (Herdman) Loeblich III, 1965 accepted as Aduncodinium glandula (E.C.Herdman) N.S.Kang, H.J.Jeong & Moestrup, 2015 (synonym)
  221. Species Gymnodinium glandula Herdman, 1924 accepted as Katodinium glandulum (Herdman) Loeblich III, 1965 accepted as Aduncodinium glandula (E.C.Herdman) N.S.Kang, H.J.Jeong & Moestrup, 2015 (synonym)
  222. Species Gymnodinium glaucum Conrad, 1926 accepted as Amphidinium conradii J.Schiller, 1932 (synonym)
  223. Species Gymnodinium gracile Bergh, 1881 accepted as Balechina gracilis (Bergh) F.Gómez, Artigas & Gast, 2021
  224. Species Gymnodinium halophilum Biecheler, 1952 accepted as Biecheleria halophila (Biecheler) Moestrup, Lindberg & Daugbjerg, 2009
  225. Species Gymnodinium helix Pouchet, 1887 accepted as Cochlodinium helix (Pouchet) Lemmermann, 1899 (synonym)
  226. Species Gymnodinium helix Schütt, 1895 accepted as Cochlodinium helix (Pouchet) Lemmermann, 1899 (synonym)
  227. Species Gymnodinium hiemale Woloszynska, 1917 accepted as Jadwigia hiemalis (Woloszynska) Moestrup, 2018
  228. Species Gymnodinium instriatum (Freudenthal & J.J.Lee) D.W.Coats, 2002 accepted as Levanderina fissa (Levander) Moestrup, Hakanen, Gert Hansen, Daugbjerg & M.Ellegaard, 2014
  229. Species Gymnodinium lebourae Pavillard, 1921 accepted as Gymnodinium lebouriae Pavillard, 1921 accepted as Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca (Pouchet) J.Cachon & M.Cachon, 1968 (misspelling)
  230. Species Gymnodinium lebouriae Pavillard, 1921 accepted as Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca (Pouchet) J.Cachon & M.Cachon, 1968
  231. Species Gymnodinium leopoliensis Woloszynska, 1917 accepted as Woloszynskia leopoliensis (Woloszynska) R.H.Thompson, 1951 accepted as Tovellia leopoliensis (Woloszynska) Moestrup, K.Lindberg & Daugbjerg, 2005 (synonym)
  232. Species Gymnodinium linucheae R.V.Trench & L.-V.Thinh, 1995 accepted as Symbiodinium linucheae (Trench & Thinh) T.C.LaJenesse, 2001
  233. Species Gymnodinium lira Kofoid & Swezy, 1921 accepted as Cucumeridinium lira (Kofoid & Swezy) F.Gómez, P. López-García, H.Takayama & D.Moreira, 2015
  234. Species Gymnodinium lohmannii Paulsen, 1908 accepted as Gymnodinium gracile Bergh, 1881 accepted as Balechina gracilis (Bergh) F.Gómez, Artigas & Gast, 2021 (synonym)
  235. Species Gymnodinium lunula Schütt, 1895 accepted as Pyrocystis lunula (Schütt) Schütt, 1896 (synonym)
  236. Species Gymnodinium microadriaticum (Freudenthal) F.J.R.Taylor, 1971 accepted as Symbiodinium microadriaticum LaJeunesse, 2017 (synonym)
  237. Species Gymnodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) Loeblich III, 1970 accepted as Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000 (synonym)
  238. Species Gymnodinium mikimotoi Miyake & Kominami ex Oda, 1935 accepted as Karenia mikimotoi (Miyake & Kominami ex Oda) Gert Hansen & Moestrup, 2000 (synonym)
  239. Species Gymnodinium minutum Lebour, 1925 accepted as Heterocapsa rotundata (Lohmann) Gert Hansen, 1995 (synonym)
  240. Species Gymnodinium monadicum (Deising) W.S.Kent, 1881 accepted as Gymnodinium partitum (Perty) Moestrup, 2018
  241. Species Gymnodinium myriopyrenoides H.Yamaguchi, T.Nakayama, A.Kai & I.Inouye, 2011 accepted as Nusuttodinium myriopyrenoides (H.Yamaguchi, T.Nakayama, A.Kai & I.Inouye) Y.Takano & H.Yamaguichi, 2014
  242. Species Gymnodinium nagasakiense H.Takayama & M.Adachi, 1985 accepted as Karenia mikimotoi (Miyake & Kominami ex Oda) Gert Hansen & Moestrup, 2000 (synonym)
  243. Species Gymnodinium natalense T.Horiguchi & R.N.Pienaar, 1994 accepted as Ansanella natalensis (T.Horiguchi & R.N.Pienaar) Dawut, Sym & T.Horiguchi, 2018
  244. Species Gymnodinium nelsonii G.W.Martin, 1929 accepted as Akashiwo sanguinea (K.Hirasaka) Gert Hansen & Moestrup, 2000 (synonym)
  245. Species Gymnodinium ovato-capitatum van Meel, 1969 accepted as Gymnodinium ovatocapitatum Van Meel, 1969
  246. Species Gymnodinium pachydermatum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921 accepted as Balechina pachydermata (Kofoid & Swezy) A.R.Loeblich Jr. & A.R.Loeblich III, 1968 accepted as Balechina gracilis (Bergh) F.Gómez, Artigas & Gast, 2021
  247. Species Gymnodinium parvulum Schütt, 1895 accepted as Gyrodinium parvulum (Schütt) Kofoid & Swezy, 1921
  248. Species Gymnodinium pascheri (Suchlandt) Schiller, 1954 accepted as Borghiella pascheri (Suchlandt) Moestrup, 2018 (synonym)
  249. Species Gymnodinium pellucidum Wulff, 1916 accepted as Gyrodinium pellucidum (Wulff) J.Schiller, 1933 (synonym)
  250. Species Gymnodinium pellucidum (E.C.Herdman) Flø Jørgensen & Shauna Murray, 2004 accepted as Gymnodinium venator Flo Jørgensen & Murray, 2004 (synonym)
  251. Species Gymnodinium pigmentosum (Dodge) Loeblich, 1970 accepted as Aureodinium pigmentosum Dodge, 1967 (synonym)
  252. Species Gymnodinium pirum Schütt, 1895 accepted as Cochlodinium pirum (Schütt) Lemmermann, 1921 (synonym)
  253. Species Gymnodinium polyphemus Pouchet accepted as Warnowia polyphemus (Pouchet) J.Schiller, 1933 (synonym)
  254. Species Gymnodinium pouchetii Lemmermann, 1899 accepted as Oodinium pouchetii (Lemmermann) Chatton, 1912
  255. Species Gymnodinium pseudonoctiluca Pouchet, 1885 accepted as Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca (Pouchet) J.Cachon & M.Cachon, 1968 (synonym)
  256. Species Gymnodinium pulchellum J.Larsen, 1994 accepted as Takayama pulchella (Larsen) de Salas, Bolch & Hallegraeff, 2003 (synonym)
  257. Species Gymnodinium pyrocystis Jørgensen, 1912 accepted as Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca (Pouchet) J.Cachon & M.Cachon, 1968 (synonym)
  258. Species Gymnodinium quadrilobatum T.Horiguchi & R.N.Pienaar, 1994 accepted as Dinothrix quadrilobata (T.Horiguchi & R.N.Pienaar) R.Onuma & T.Horiguchi (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  259. Species Gymnodinium sangineum Hirasaka, 1924 accepted as Gymnodinium sanguineum K.Hirasaka, 1922 accepted as Akashiwo sanguinea (K.Hirasaka) Gert Hansen & Moestrup, 2000
  260. Species Gymnodinium sanguineum K.Hirasaka, 1922 accepted as Akashiwo sanguinea (K.Hirasaka) Gert Hansen & Moestrup, 2000 (synonym)
  261. Species Gymnodinium simplex (Lohmann) Kofoid & Swezy, 1921 accepted as Protodinium simplex Lohmann, 1908
  262. Species Gymnodinium spirale Bergh, 1881 accepted as Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy, 1921 (synonym)
  263. Species Gymnodinium splendens Lebour, 1925 accepted as Akashiwo sanguinea (K.Hirasaka) Gert Hansen & Moestrup, 2000 (basionym)
  264. Species Gymnodinium strangulatum F.Schütt, 1895 accepted as Cochlodinium strangulatum (F.Schütt) F.Schütt, 1896 (synonym)
  265. Species Gymnodinium striatissimum E.M.Hulburt, 1957 accepted as Gyrodinium striatissimum (E.M.Hulburt) Gert Hansen & Ø.Moestrup, 2000 (synonym)
  266. Species Gymnodinium sugashimanii J.Cachon, H.Saton, M.Cachon & S.Sato, 1989 accepted as Gyrodinium sugashimanii J.Cachon, H.Saton, M.Cachon & S.Sato, 1989 (synonym)
  267. Species Gymnodinium tenuissimum Lauterborn, 1894 accepted as Borghiella tenuissima (Lauterborn) Moestrup, Gert Hansen & Daugbjerg, 2008
  268. Species Gymnodinium uncatenatum (Hulburt) Hallegraeff, 2002 accepted as Levanderina fissa (Levander) Moestrup, Hakanen, Gert Hansen, Daugbjerg & M.Ellegaard, 2014 (synonym)
  269. Species Gymnodinium veneficum D.Ballantine, 1956 accepted as Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000 (synonym)
  270. Species Gymnodinium vestifici Schütt, 1895 accepted as Kapelodinium vestifici (Schütt) Boutrup, Moestrup & Daugbjerg, 2016
  271. Species Gymnodinium viride Lebour, 1917 accepted as Gymnodinium conicum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921 accepted as Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca (Pouchet) J.Cachon & M.Cachon, 1968 (synonym)
  272. Species Gymnodinium viridis Lebour, 1917 accepted as Gymnodinium conicum Kofoid & Swezy, 1921 accepted as Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca (Pouchet) J.Cachon & M.Cachon, 1968 (synonym)
  273. Species Gymnodinium vitiligo D.Ballantine, 1956 accepted as Karlodinium vitiligo (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000 (synonym)
  274. Species Gymnodinium excavatum Van Meel, 1969 (uncertain)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Not documented
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:6790  
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:6790 [details]
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2024). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Gymnodinium F.Stein, 1878. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=109475 on 2024-03-01
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
db_admin
2006-07-12 06:39:56Z
changed
Camba Reu, Cibran
2010-08-12 12:41:00Z
changed
2019-09-06 07:43:12Z
changed
2024-02-21 07:10:53Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


basis of record Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world's oceans. <em>Acta Bot. Croat.</em> 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Kofoid, C.A.; Swezy, O. (1921). The free-living unarmored Dinoflagellata. <em>Memoirs of the University of California.</em> 5: i-viii, 1-562., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/20306447 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Steidinger, K.A.; Tangen, K. (1997). Dinoflagellates. pp. 387-584. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.) (1997). Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780126930184500057 [details]   

additional source Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2023). AlgaeBase. <em>World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.</em> searched on YYYY-MM-DD., available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). , available online at http://www.itis.gov [details]   

additional source Hayward, P. J.; Nelson-Smith, A.; Shields, C. (1996). Collins pocket guide: sea shore of Britain and Europe. <em>Collins pocket guides. Harper-Collins Publishers: London, UK. ISBN 0-00-219955-6.</em> 352 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Parker, S.P. (Ed.) (1982). Synopsis and classification of living organisms. McGraw Hill Book Company: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-07-079031-0. 1166, 1232 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
   

From editor or global species database
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:6790 [details]

From other sources
Classification This genus was originally placed under the family Gymnodiniidae as proposed by Hayward and Ryland (1990). [details]

Diet general for group: both heterotrophic (eat other organisms) and autotrophic (photosynthetic) [details]

Ecology Blooms of this genus were recorded as early as 1937 in the Oslo Fjord (Braarud, 1945) an have occured more recently as G. sanguinum with concentrations up to 35 106 ind/l. [details]

Habitat pelagic [details]

Importance General: known for producing dangerous toxins, particularly when in large numbers, called "red tides" because the cells are so abundant they make water change color. Also they can produce non-fatal or fatal amounts of toxins in predators (particularly shellfish) that may be eaten by humans. [details]

Predators marine microorganisms and animal larvae [details]

Reproduction general for group: both sexual and asexual [details]
LanguageName 
Japanese ギムノディニウム属  [details]