WoRMS taxon details

Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000

233037  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:233037)

accepted
Species
marine
(of Gymnodinium veneficum D.Ballantine, 1956) Ballantine D. 1956. Two new marine species of Gymnodinium isolated from the Plymouth area. J. mar.biol. Ass. U.K. 35: 467-474., available online at https://doi.org/10.1017/s0025315400010316 [details]   
Type locality contained in Devonport (New Zealand)  
type locality contained in Devonport (New Zealand) [details]
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:50156  
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:50156 [details]

Description Cells oval (8–18 μm long, 7–14 μm wide). Epicone conical to rounded, hypocone hemispherical. Golden-brown...  
Description Cells oval (8–18 μm long, 7–14 μm wide). Epicone conical to rounded, hypocone hemispherical. Golden-brown chloroplasts (2–4) containing many pyrenoids. Nucleus rounded and located on the left side of the hypocone or centrally. Elongate ventral pore on the left side of the epicone. Apical groove extending dorsally over about 1/7 of the epicone. Many rows of minor depressions and plug-likes structures beneath the amphiesmal vesicles.  [details]
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2024). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=233037 on 2024-03-04
Date
action
by
2006-07-26 09:25:08Z
created
Camba Reu, Cibran
2008-11-21 06:40:06Z
checked
2015-06-26 12:00:51Z
changed

Copyright notice: the information originating from AlgaeBase may not be downloaded or replicated by any means, without the written permission of the copyright owner (generally AlgaeBase). Fair usage of data in scientific publications is permitted.


original description  (of Gymnodinium veneficum D.Ballantine, 1956) Ballantine D. 1956. Two new marine species of Gymnodinium isolated from the Plymouth area. J. mar.biol. Ass. U.K. 35: 467-474., available online at https://doi.org/10.1017/s0025315400010316 [details]   

original description  (of Karlodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) J.Larsen, 2000) Leadbeater B.S.C. & Dodge J.D. 1966. The fine structure of Woloszynskia micra sp. nov., a new marine dinoflagellate. Br. phycol. Bull. 3: 1-17. [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245., available online at http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

context source (Deepsea) Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), available online at http://www.iobis.org/ [details]   

basis of record Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world's oceans. <em>Acta Bot. Croat.</em> 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2023). AlgaeBase. <em>World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.</em> searched on YYYY-MM-DD., available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source Abbott, B. C.; Ballantine, D. (1957). The toxin from <i>Gymnodinium veneficum</i> Ballantine. <em>J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K.</em> 36: 169-189. [details]   

additional source Deeds J.R., Terlizzi D.E., Adolf J.E., Stoecker D.K. & Place A.R. 2002. Toxic activity from cultures of <i>Karlodinium micrum</i> (=<i>Gyrodinium galatheanum</i>) (Dinophyceae) - a dinoflagellate associated with fish mortalities in an estuarine aquaculture facility. Harmful Algae 1: 169-189. [details]   

additional source Adolf J.E., Bachvaroff T.R., Krupatkina D.N., Nonogaki H., Brown P.J.P., Lewitus A.J., Harvey H.R. & Place A.R. 2006. Species specificity and potential roles of <i>Karlodinium micrum</i> toxin. African Journal of Marine Science 28: 415-419. [details]   

additional source Steidinger, K. A., M. A. Faust, and D. U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 131–154 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College [details]   

additional source Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source Chang, F.H.; Charleston, W.A.G.; McKenna, P.B.; Clowes, C.D.; Wilson, G.J.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Myzozoa: dinoflagellates, perkinsids, ellobiopsids, sporozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 175-216. [details]   

additional source Lutaenko, K.A.; Furota, T.; Nakayama; S.; Shin, K.; Xu, J. (2013). Atlas of Marine Invasive Species in the NOWPAP Region. Beijing: NOWPAP DINRAC (Northwest Pacific Action Plan, Data and Information Network Regional Center). 189 pp. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

redescription Bergholtz T., Daugbjerg N., Moestrup Ø. & Fernández-Tejedor M. 2005. On the identity of <i>Karlodinium veneficum</i> and the description of <i>Karlodinium armiger</i> sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), based on light and electron microscopy, nuclear-encoded LSU rDNA, and pigment composition. J. Phycol. 42: 170-193. [details]   

new combination reference Daugbjerg, N.; Hansen, G.; Larsen, J.; Moestrup, O. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. <em>Phycologia.</em> 39(4): 302-317., available online at https://doi.org/10.2216/i0031-8884-39-4-302.1 [details]   

ecology source Leles, S. G.; Mitra, A.; Flynn, K. J.; Tillmann, U.; Stoecker, D.; Jeong, H. J.; Burkholder, J.; Hansen, P. J.; Caron, D. A.; Glibert, P. M.; Hallegraeff, G.; Raven, J. A.; Sanders, R. W.; Zubkov, M. (2019). Sampling bias misrepresents the biogeographical significance of constitutive mixotrophs across global oceans. <em>Global Ecology and Biogeography.</em> 28(4): 418-428., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12853 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

ecology source Mitra, A.; Caron, D. A.; Faure, E.; Flynn, K. J.; Leles, S. G.; Hansen, P. J.; McManus, G. B.; Not, F.; Do Rosario Gomes, H.; Santoferrara, L. F.; Stoecker, D. K.; Tillmann, U. (2023). The Mixoplankton Database (MDB): Diversity of photo‐phago‐trophic plankton in form, function, and distribution across the global ocean. <em>Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology.</em> 70(4)., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12972 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

ecology source Nygaard, K.; Tobiesen, A. (1993). Bacterivory in algae: A survival strategy during nutrient limitation. <em>Limnology and Oceanography.</em> 38(2): 273-279., available online at https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1993.38.2.0273 [details]   

ecology source Li, A.; Stoecker, D.; Coats, D.; Adam, E. (1996). Ingestion of fluorescently labeled and phycoerythrin-containing prey by mixotrophic dinoflagellates. <em>Aquatic Microbial Ecology.</em> 10: 139-147., available online at https://doi.org/10.3354/ame010139 [details]   

ecology source Calbet, A., M. Bertos, C. Fuentes-Grünewald, E. Alacid, E. Figueroa, B. Renom & Garcés, E. (2011). Intraspecific variability in Karlodinium veneficum: Growth rates, mixotrophy, and lipid composition. <em>Harmful Algae.</em> 10(6): 654-667., available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2011.05.001 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
 Present  Present in aphia/obis/gbif/idigbio   Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
   

From editor or global species database
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:50156 [details]

From regional or thematic species database
Description Cells oval (8–18 μm long, 7–14 μm wide). Epicone conical to rounded, hypocone hemispherical. Golden-brown chloroplasts (2–4) containing many pyrenoids. Nucleus rounded and located on the left side of the hypocone or centrally. Elongate ventral pore on the left side of the epicone. Apical groove extending dorsally over about 1/7 of the epicone. Many rows of minor depressions and plug-likes structures beneath the amphiesmal vesicles.  [details]

Harmful effect Toxic to a range of marine invertebrates and fish. Produces so-called karlotoxins that exhibit a broad-spectrum lytic effect on membranes from very diverse cell types [details]

Identification According to Bergholtz et al. (2005), Karlodinium veneficum and Karlodinium micrum are conspecific species with similar toxicities. Several other species could be conspecific (Place et al., 2012).
 [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Norway (Nation) : Shipping [details]

From other sources
Synonymy Gómez (2005) is not sure whether or not Karlodinium veneficum is synonym of K. vitiligo [details]