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Xenia umbellata Lamarck, 1816

210023  (

marine, fresh, terrestrial
Lamarck, J.-B. M. de. (1816). Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Tome second. <em>Paris. Verdière.</em> Vol. 2 pp. 1-568., available online at
page(s): 410 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
McFadden, C.S.; Cordeiro, R.; Williams, G.; van Ofwegen, L. (2024). World List of Octocorallia. Xenia umbellata Lamarck, 1816. Accessed through: Odido, M.; Appeltans, W.; BelHassen, M.; Mussai, P.; Nsiangango, S.E.; Vandepitte, L.; Wambiji, N.; Zamouri, N. Jiddou, A.M. (Eds) (2024) African Register of Marine Species at: on 2024-02-22
Odido, M.; Appeltans, W.; BelHassen, M.; Mussai, P.; Nsiangango, S.E.; Vandepitte, L.; Wambiji, N.; Zamouri, N. Jiddou, A.M. (Eds) (2024). African Register of Marine Species. Xenia umbellata Lamarck, 1816. Accessed at: on 2024-02-22
1997-10-30 10:47:35Z
1998-05-20 06:57:39Z
2008-01-16 10:35:54Z
2010-09-17 06:17:46Z

original description Lamarck, J.-B. M. de. (1816). Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Tome second. <em>Paris. Verdière.</em> Vol. 2 pp. 1-568., available online at
page(s): 410 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

context source (Hexacorallia) Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record Verseveldt, J. (1971). Octocorallia from North-Western Madagascar (Part II). <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 1-73, plates 1-15. [details]   

additional source Williams, G.C. (1992). Biogeography of the octocorallian coelenterate fauna of southern Africa. <em>Biol. J. Linn. Soc.</em> 46: 351-401.
page(s): 372, 395, 398 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source van Ofwegen, L.P., S.D. Cairns & J. van der Land (eds). (2000-2007). as a contribution to UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Alderslade, P. (2001). Six new genera and six new species of soft coral, and some proposed familial and subfamilial changes within the Alcyonacea. <em>Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington.</em> 10:15-65.
page(s): 49 [details]   

additional source Thomson, J.A.; Henderson, W.D. (1905). Report on the Alcyonaria collected by Professor Herdman, at Ceylon, in 1902. In:. <em>Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar.</em> Part 3, supplementary report 20:269-328., available online at
page(s): 273 [details]   

additional source Benayahu, Y. (1995). Species composition of soft corals (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea) on the coral reefs of Sesoko Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. <em>Galaxea.</em> 12: 103–124.
page(s): 108 [details]   

additional source Reinicke, G.B. (1997). Xeniidae (Coelenterata: Octocorallia) of the Red Sea, with descriptions of six new species of Xenia. <em>Fauna of Saudi Arabia.</em> 16: 5-62.
page(s): 45-48 [details]   

additional source Benayahu, Y. (1990). Xeniidae (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) from the Red Sea, with the description of a new species. <em>Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden.</em> 64(9): 113-120.
page(s): 113, 118 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Williams, G.C. (1992). The Alcyonacea of southern Africa. Stoloniferous octocorals and soft corals (Coelenterata, Anthozoa). <em>Annals of the South African Museum.</em> 100: 249-358., available online at
page(s): 342, 352 [details]   

additional source Thomson, J.A.; Henderson, W.D. (1906). The marine fauna of Zanzibar and British East Africa, from collections made by Cyril Crossland, M.A., B.Sc., F.Z.S., in the years 1901 and 1902 -- Alcyonaria. <em>Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.</em> 1906, 393-442, plates 26-31., available online at
page(s): 410-411 [details]   

additional source Reinicke, G.B. (1995). Xeniidae des Roten Meeres (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea). <em>Beitrage zur Systematik und Okologie.</em> 6: 1-193.
page(s): 44-46 [details]   

additional source Tixier-Durivault, A. (1972). Nouvel apport d'Octocoralliares de Madagascar et des iles avoisinantes. <em>Tethys.</em> Suppl. 3: 11-68., available online at
page(s): 62 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Tixier-Durivault, A. (1966). Octocoralliaires de Madagascar et des iles avoisinantes. <em>Faune de Madagascar.</em> 21: 1-456., available online at
page(s): 366-367 [details]   

additional source May, W. (1899). Beitrage zur Systematik und Chorologie der Alcyonaceen. <em>Jenaische Zeitschrift fur Naturwissenschaft.</em> 33: 1-180.
page(s): 82-84 [details]   

additional source Verseveldt, J. (1965). Report on the Octocorallia (Stolonifera and Alcyonacea) of the Israel south Red Sea expedition 1962, with notes on other collections from the Red Sea. <em>Sea Fish Research Station Haifa, Bulletin.</em> 40: 28-48, plate 1.
page(s): 46-47 [details]   

additional source Roxas, H.A. (1933). Philippine Alcyonaria. The families Cornulariidae and Xeniidae. <em>The Philippine Journal of Science.</em> 50: 49-110.
page(s): 88-89 [details]   

additional source Kükenthal, W. (1902). Versuch einer Revision der Alcyonarien. I. Die Familie der Xeniiden. <em>Zoologische Jahrbucher Jena.</em> 15: 635-662.
page(s): 650-651 [details]   

additional source Schenk, A. (1896). Clavulariiden, Xeniiden und Alcyoniiden von Ternate. <em>Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft.</em> 23(1): 41-80, plates 2-4., available online at
page(s): 57 [details]   

additional source Gravier, C. (1908). Recherches sur quelques Alcyonaires du Golfe de Tadjourah. <em>Archives de Zoologie Experimentale et Generale, Series IV.</em> 8: 179-226, plates 5-11., available online at
page(s): 206-207 [details]   

additional source Gohar, H.A.F. (1940). Studies on the Xeniidae of the Red Sea: their ecology, physiology, taxonomy and phylogeny. <em>Publications of the Marine Biological Station, Ghardaqa (Red Sea).</em> 2: 25-118, plates 1-7.
page(s): 93-95 [details]   

additional source Hickson, S.J. (1931). The alcyonarian family Xeniidae, with a revision of the genera and species. <em>Great Barrier Reef Expedition 1928-1929, Scientific Reports.</em> 4(5): 137-185., available online at
page(s): 156-157 [details]   

additional source Ashworth, J.H. (1900). Report on the Xeniidae collected by Dr. Willey. <em>Zoological results based on material from New Britain, New Guinea, Loyalty Islands and elsewhere, collected during the years 1895, 1896, and 1897.</em> 4: 509-530, plates 52-53., available online at
page(s): 513-516 [details]   

additional source Thomson, J.A.; McQueen, J.M. (1908). Reports on the marine biology of the Sudanese Red Sea. VIII. The Alcyonarians. <em>Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology.</em> 31(204): 48-75, plates 5-8., available online at
page(s): 50-51 [details]   

additional source Thomson, J.A.; Mackinnon, D.L. (1910). Alcyonarians collected on the Percy Sladen Trust expedition by Mr. J. Stanley. Part II. The Stolonifera, Alcyonacea, Pseudaxonia, and Stelechotokea. <em>Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology, ser. 2.</em> 13(2): 165-211, plates 6-14., available online at
page(s): 172 [details]   

additional source Broch, H. (1939). Some South African shallow water octactinians. <em>Kungl. Fysiografiska Sallkapets. i Lund Forhandlingar.</em> 9(6): 48-79.
page(s): 49-51 [details]   

additional source Thomson, J.A.; Dean, L.M.I. (1931). The Alcyonacea of the Siboga expedition with an addendum to the Gorgonacea. <em>Siboga Expeditie.</em> XIIId: 1-227, plates 1-28.
page(s): 26-27 [details]   

additional source Kükenthal, W. (1904). Uber einige Korallentiere des Roten Meeres. <em>Denkschriften der Medicinisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft zu Jena.</em> 11(1): 31-58, plates 4-5., available online at
page(s): 34 [details]   

additional source Bourne, G.C. (1895). On the structure and affinities of Heliopora coerulea, Pallas. With some observations on the structure of Xenia and Heteroxenia. <em>Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B.</em> 186: 455-483, plates 10-13., available online at
page(s): 475 [details]   

additional source Dullo, W.; Gektidis, M.; Golubic, S.; Heiss, G. A.; Kampmann, H.; Kiene, W.; Kroll, D. K.; Kuhrau, M. L.; Radtke, G.; Reijmer, J. G.; Reinicke, G. B.; Schlichter, D.; Schuhmacher, H.; Vogel, K. (1995). Factors controlling Holocene reef growth: an interdisciplinary approach. Facies, 32, 145-188
page(s): 164, 165, 168 [details]   

additional source Reinicke, G. B.; Schuhmacher, H. (1996). Significance of different traits of soft-coral assemblages (Octocorallia, Alcyoniina) in benthic reef communities of the Red Sea. Göttinger Arbeiten zur Geologie Paläontologie, Sb2, 77-84
page(s): 80, 82 [details]   

additional source Kruger, A.; Schleyer, M. H.; Benayahu, Y. (1998). Reproduction in Anthelia glauca (Octocorallia: Xeniidae). I. Gametogenesis and larval brooding. Marine Biology, 131, 423-432
page(s): 423, 429, 430, 431 [details]   

additional source Gohar, H. A. F. (1940). The development of some Xeniidae (Alcyonaria) (with some ecological aspects). Publications of the Marine Biological Station Al Ghardaqa (Red Sea), 3, 27-78, plates I-V
page(s): 56, 64 [details]   

additional source Benayahu, Y.; Yosief, T.; Schleyer, M. H. (2002). Soft corals (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea) of the southern Red Sea. Israel Journal of Zoology, 48, 273-283
page(s): 279 [details]   

additional source Ben-David-Zaslow, R.; Henning, G.; Hofmann, D. K.; Benayahu, Y. (1999). Reproduction in the Red Sea soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens: seasonality and long-term record (1991 to 1997). Marine Biology, 133, 553-559
page(s): 553 [details]   

additional source Benayahu, Y.; Loya, Y. (1986). Sexual reproduction of a soft coral: synchronous and brief annual spawning of Sarcophyton glaucum (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833). Biological Bulletin, 170, 32-42
page(s): 40 [details]   

additional source Hwang, S. J.; Song, J. I. (2007). Reproductive biology and larval development of the temperate soft coral Dendronephthya gigantea (Alcyonacea: Nephtheidae). Marine Biology, 152, 273-284
page(s): 274, 282 [details]   

additional source Benayahu, Y.; Berner, T.; Achituv, Y. (1989). Development of planulae within a mesogleal coat in the soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens. Marine Biology, 100, 203-210
page(s): 209 [details]   

additional source Benayahu, Y.; Achituv, Y.; Berner, T. (1988). Embryogenesis and acquisition of algal symbionts by planulae of Xenia umbellata (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea). Marine Biology, 100, 93-101
page(s): 93, 95, 100 [details]   

additional source Benayahu, Y.; Schleyer, M. H. (1998). Reproduction in Anthelia glauca (Octocorallia: Xeniidae). II. Transmission of algal symbionts during planular brooding. Marine Biology, 131, 433-442
page(s): 433, 434, 437, 439 [details]   

additional source Imahara, Y. (1996). Previously recorded octocorals from Japan and adjacent seas. Precious Corals and Octocoral Research, 4-mei, 17-44
page(s): 27 [details]   

additional source Benayahu, Y. (1991). Reproduction and developmental pathways of Red Sea Xeniidae (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea). Hydrobiologia, 216/217, 125-130
page(s): 125, 126, 127, 129 [details]   

additional source Cordes, E. E.; Nybakken, J. W.; VanDykhuizen, G. (2001). Reproduction and growth of Anthomastus ritteri (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Monterey Bay, California, USA. Marine Biology, 138, 491-501
page(s): 497 [details]   

additional source Reinicke, G. B. (1997). Different modes of adaptation to light conditions in Red Sea Xeniidae reflected by their depth distribution patterns (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea). Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, 393-402
page(s): 396, 398, 400 [details]   

redescription Halász, A.; McFadden, C.S.; Toonen, R.; Benayahu, Y. (2019). Re-description of type material of Xenia Lamarck, 1816 (Octocorallia: Xeniidae). <em>Zootaxa.</em> 4652(2): 201-239.
page(s): 227-231 [details]   
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality