WoRMS taxon details

Cypraeidae Rafinesque, 1815

23022  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:23022)

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  1. Subfamily Cypraeinae Rafinesque, 1815
    1. Tribe Cypraeini Rafinesque, 1815
      1. Genus Akleistostoma J. A. Gardner, 1948 †
      2. Genus Cypraea Linnaeus, 1758
      3. Genus Cypraeorbis Conrad, 1865 †
      4. Genus Loxacypraea Petuch, 2004 †
      5. Genus Muracypraea Woodring, 1957
      6. Genus Pahayokea Petuch, 2003 †
      7. Genus Pseudadusta Petuch, 2003 †
      8. Genus Siphocypraea Heilprin, 1886 †
      9. Genus Calusacypraea Petuch, 1996 † accepted as Siphocypraea Heilprin, 1886 †
      10. Genus Cyprea [sic] accepted as Cypraea Linnaeus, 1758 (unaccepted > misspelling - incorrect subsequent spelling)
      11. Genus Myakkacypraea Petuch, 2003 † accepted as Siphocypraea Heilprin, 1886 †
      12. Genus Okeechobea Petuch, 2003 † accepted as Siphocypraea Heilprin, 1886 †
      13. Genus Pantherinaria Sacco, 1894 accepted as Cypraea Linnaeus, 1758 (junior subjective synonym)
      14. Genus Vulgusella Jousseaume, 1884 accepted as Cypraea Linnaeus, 1758
    2. Tribe Mauritiini Steadman & Cotton, 1946
      1. Genus Leporicypraea Iredale, 1930
      2. Genus Macrocypraea Schilder, 1930
      3. Genus Mauritia Troschel, 1863
      4. Genus Arabica Jousseaume, 1884 accepted as Mauritia Troschel, 1863
      5. Genus Etronsa Jousseaume, 1886 accepted as Mauritia Troschel, 1863 (junior objective synonym of Mauritia)
      6. Genus Maurina Jousseaume, 1884 accepted as Mauritia Troschel, 1863 (junior objective synonym of Mauritia)
      7. Genus Mauxiena Jousseaume, 1884 accepted as Mauritia Troschel, 1863 (junior objective synonym of Mauritia)
  2. Subfamily Cypraeovulinae F. A. Schilder, 1927
    1. Genus Cypraeovula J. E. Gray, 1824
    2. Genus Notadusta F. A. Schilder, 1935
    3. Genus Notocypraea F. A. Schilder, 1927
    4. Genus Notoluponia F. A. Schilder, 1935 †
    5. Genus Ponticypraea Fehse, Lorenz, Hawke & K. Kovács, 2019 †
    6. Genus Crossia Shikama, 1974 accepted as Cypraeovula J. E. Gray, 1824 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
    7. Genus Cypraeova accepted as Cypraeovula J. E. Gray, 1824 (unaccepted > misspelling - incorrect subsequent spelling)
    8. Genus Guttacypraea Iredale, 1935 accepted as Notocypraea F. A. Schilder, 1927
    9. Genus Luponia J. E. Gray, 1837 accepted as Cypraeovula J. E. Gray, 1824 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
    10. Genus Thelxinovum Iredale, 1931 accepted as Notocypraea F. A. Schilder, 1927 (unaccepted > junior homonym)
  3. Subfamily Erosariinae Schilder, 1924
    1. Genus Bouchetaria Castelin & Lorenz, 2024
    2. Genus Conocypraea Oppenheim, 1901 †
    3. Genus Cryptocypraea C. Meyer, 2003
    4. Genus Ipsa Jousseaume, 1884
    5. Genus Maestratia Dolin & Aguerre, 2019 †
    6. Genus Monetaria Troschel, 1863
    7. Genus Naria J. E. Gray, 1837
    8. Genus Nesiocypraea M. Azuma & Kurohara, 1967
    9. Genus Nucleolaria Oyama, 1959
    10. Genus Palaeocypraea F. A. Schilder, 1928 †
    11. Genus Perisserosa Iredale, 1930
    12. Genus Praerosaria Dolin & Lozouet, 2004 †
    13. Genus Propustularia F. A. Schilder, 1927
    14. Genus Staphylaea Jousseaume, 1884
    15. Genus Subepona Dolin & Lozouet, 2004 †
    16. Genus Albacypraea Steadman & Cotton, 1946 accepted as Naria J. E. Gray, 1837
    17. Genus Aricia J. E. Gray, 1837 accepted as Monetaria Troschel, 1863 (unaccepted > junior homonym, of Aricia Savigny, 1822 [Polychaeta])
    18. Genus Brugnonia Jeffreys, 1883 accepted as Naria J. E. Gray, 1837
    19. Genus Cupinota Iredale, 1939 accepted as Purpuradusta F. A. Schilder, 1939 (nomen nudum)
    20. Genus Cypraeacites Schlotheim, 1820 † accepted as Conocypraea Oppenheim, 1901 † (unavailable name under ICZN Art. 20.)
    21. Genus Eopustularia Fehse, 2010 † accepted as Subepona Dolin & Lozouet, 2004 †
    22. Genus Erosaria Troschel, 1863 accepted as Naria J. E. Gray, 1837
    23. Genus Eustaphylaea Steadman & Cotton, 1946 accepted as Staphylaea Jousseaume, 1884
    24. Genus Kurodadusta Shikama, 1971 accepted as Nesiocypraea M. Azuma & Kurohara, 1967
    25. Genus Nuclearia Jousseaume, 1884 accepted as Nucleolaria Oyama, 1959 (Invalid: junior homonym of Nuclearia Cienkowsky, 1865 [Protozoa]; Nucleolaria is a replacement name)
    26. Genus Ornamentaria M. Schilder & F. A. Schilder, 1937 accepted as Monetaria Troschel, 1863
    27. Genus Paulonaria Iredale, 1930 accepted as Naria J. E. Gray, 1837
    28. Genus Purperosa Iredale, 1935 accepted as Staphylaea Jousseaume, 1884
    29. Genus Ravitrona Iredale, 1930 accepted as Monetaria Troschel, 1863
  4. Subfamily Erroneinae Schilder, 1927
    1. Tribe Bistolidini C. P. Meyer, 2003
      1. Genus Bistolida Cossmann, 1920
      2. Genus Cribrarula Strand, 1929
      3. Genus Ovatipsa Iredale, 1931
      4. Genus Palmadusta Iredale, 1930
      5. Genus Romanekia Dolin & Aguerre, 2019 †
      6. Genus Talostolida F. A. Schilder, 1939
      7. Genus Cribraria Jousseaume, 1884 accepted as Cribrarula Strand, 1929 (Invalid: junior homonym of Cribraria Persoon, 1794 [Mycetozoa]; Cribrarula is a replacement name)
      8. Genus Derstolida Iredale, 1935 accepted as Bistolida Cossmann, 1920 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
      9. Genus Evenaria Iredale, 1930 accepted as Palmadusta Iredale, 1930 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
      10. Genus Floradusta Petuch, 2003 † accepted as Palmadusta Iredale, 1930
      11. Genus Nivigena Iredale, 1930 accepted as Cribrarula Strand, 1929
      12. Genus Stolida Jousseaume, 1884 accepted as Bistolida Cossmann, 1920 (invalid: junior homonym of Stolida Lesson, 1832 [Aves]; Bistolida is a replacement name)
    2. Tribe Erroneini Schilder, 1927
      1. Genus Austrasiatica Lorenz, 1989
      2. Genus Blasicrura Iredale, 1930
      3. Genus Contradusta C. Meyer, 2003
      4. Genus Eclogavena Iredale, 1930
      5. Genus Erronea Troschel, 1863
      6. Genus Ficadusta Habe & Kosuge, 1966
      7. Genus Hiraseadusta Shikama, 1971
      8. Genus Melicerona Iredale, 1930
      9. Genus Palmulacypraea C. Meyer, 2003
      10. Genus Paradusta Lorenz, 2017
      11. Genus Purpuradusta F. A. Schilder, 1939
      12. Genus Ransoniella Dolin & Lozouet, 2005
      13. Genus Adusta Jousseaume, 1884 accepted as Erronea Troschel, 1863 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
      14. Genus Gratiadusta Iredale, 1930 accepted as Erronea Troschel, 1863 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
      15. Genus Ipserronea Iredale, 1935 accepted as Erronea Troschel, 1863 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
      16. Genus Opponaria Iredale, 1939 accepted as Purpuradusta F. A. Schilder, 1939 (nomen nudum)
      17. Genus Palangerosa Iredale, 1930 accepted as Erronea Troschel, 1863 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
      18. Genus Ransonia Dolin & Lozouet, 2004 accepted as Ransoniella Dolin & Lozouet, 2005 (Invalid: junior homonym of Ransonia Blandin, 1979 [Arachnida]; Ransoniella is a replacement name)
      19. Genus Solvadusta Iredale, 1935 accepted as Erronea Troschel, 1863 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  5. Subfamily Gisortiinae F. A. Schilder, 1927 †
    1. Genus Afrocypraea F. A. Schilder, 1932 †
    2. Genus Archicypraea F. A. Schilder, 1926 †
    3. Genus Bernaya Jousseaume, 1884 †
    4. Genus Garviea Dolin & Dockery, 2018 †
    5. Genus Gisortia Jousseaume, 1884 †
    6. Genus Mandolina Jousseaume, 1884 †
    7. Genus Protocypraea Schilder, 1927 †
    8. Genus Vicetia Fabiani, 1905 †
    9. Genus Megalocypraea Schilder, 1927 † accepted as Gisortia Jousseaume, 1884 †
    10. Genus Megalocypraea F. A. Schilder, 1927 † accepted as Gisortia Jousseaume, 1884 †
    11. Genus Pseudogisortia Schilder, 1941 † accepted as Gisortia Jousseaume, 1884 †
  6. Subfamily Luriinae Schilder, 1932
    1. Tribe Austrocypraeini Iredale, 1935
      1. Genus Annepona Iredale, 1935
      2. Genus Arestorides Iredale, 1930
      3. Genus Austrocypraea Cossmann, 1903
      4. Genus Callistocypraea F. A. Schilder, 1927
      5. Genus Chelycypraea F. A. Schilder, 1927
      6. Genus Lyncina Troschel, 1863
      7. Genus Miolyncina F. A. Schilder, 1939
      8. Genus Raybaudia Lorenz, 2017
      9. Genus Trona Jousseaume, 1884
      10. Genus Arestoides accepted as Arestorides Iredale, 1930 (misspelling)
      11. Genus Basterotia Jousseaume, 1884 † accepted as Trona Jousseaume, 1884 (invalid: junior homonym of Basterotia Hörnes, 1859 [Bivalvia]; Cavicypraea is a replacement name)
      12. Genus Cavicypraea Cossmann, 1896 † accepted as Trona Jousseaume, 1884 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
      13. Genus Mystaponda Iredale, 1930 accepted as Lyncina Troschel, 1863 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
      14. Genus Peribolus Blainville, 1824 accepted as Trona Jousseaume, 1884 (Invalid: nomen oblitum)
      15. Genus Ponda Jousseaume, 1884 accepted as Lyncina Troschel, 1863 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
    2. Tribe Luriini Schilder, 1932
      1. Genus Fossacypraea Schilder, 1939 †
      2. Genus Jousseaumea Sacco, 1894 †
      3. Genus Luria Jousseaume, 1884
      4. Genus Talparia Troschel, 1863
      5. Genus Basilitrona Iredale, 1930 accepted as Luria Jousseaume, 1884
      6. Genus Jousseaumia Sacco, 1894 † accepted as Jousseaumea Sacco, 1894 † (unaccepted > misspelling - incorrect original spelling)
      7. Genus Tessellata Jousseaume, 1884 accepted as Luria Jousseaume, 1884
  7. Subfamily Pustulariinae Gill, 1871
    1. Genus Pustularia Swainson, 1840
    2. Tribe Cypraeovulini Schilder, 1927 accepted as Cypraeovulinae F. A. Schilder, 1927
    3. Genus Epona H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 accepted as Pustularia Swainson, 1840
    4. Tribe Pustulariini Gill, 1871 accepted as Pustulariinae Gill, 1871
  8. Subfamily Umbiliinae Schilder, 1932
    1. Genus Gigantocypraea F. A. Schilder, 1927 †
    2. Genus Umbilia Jousseaume, 1884
    3. Genus Palliocypraea Cossmann, 1906 † accepted as Umbilia Jousseaume, 1884
    4. Genus Rhynchocypraea Cossmann, 1898 † accepted as Umbilia Jousseaume, 1884
  9. Subfamily Zoilinae Iredale, 1935
    1. Genus Barycypraea F. A. Schilder, 1927
    2. Genus Zoila Jousseaume, 1884
    3. Genus Afrozoila Fehse, 2016 accepted as Barycypraea F. A. Schilder, 1927
  10. Subfamily Zonariinae F. A. Schilder, 1932
    1. Tribe Pseudozonariini López-Soriano, 2006
      1. Genus Neobernaya Schilder, 1927
      2. Genus Pseudozonaria F. A. Schilder, 1927
      3. Genus Plaziatia Dolin & Lozouet, 2004 accepted as Pseudozonaria F. A. Schilder, 1927 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
    2. Tribe Zonariini Schilder, 1932
      1. Genus Proadusta Sacco, 1894 †
      2. Genus Prozonarina F. A. Schilder, 1941 †
      3. Genus Schilderina Dolin & Aguerre, 2020
      4. Genus Zonaria Jousseaume, 1884
      5. Genus Zonarina Sacco, 1894 †
      6. Genus Schilderia Tomlin, 1930 (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  11. Subfamily Adustinae Cotton & Steadman, 1946 accepted as Erroneinae Schilder, 1927 (synonym)
  12. Subfamily Archicypraeinae F. A. Schilder, 1927 † accepted as Gisortiinae F. A. Schilder, 1927 †
  13. Subfamily Bernayinae Schilder, 1927 † accepted as Gisortiinae F. A. Schilder, 1927 †
  14. Subfamily Mandolininae Schilder, 1932 † accepted as Gisortiinae F. A. Schilder, 1927 †
  15. Subfamily Mauritiinae Steadman & Cotton, 1946 accepted as Mauritiini Steadman & Cotton, 1946 (original rank)
  16. Genus Protopirula Rennie, 1930 † accepted as Cypraea Linnaeus, 1758 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  17. Genus Sinusigera A. d'Orbigny, 1853 (uncertain > nomen dubium, name established for a larval shell)
marine
recent + fossil
Rafinesque, C. S. (1815). Analyse de la nature ou Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés. <em>[Book].</em> 1-224, (self-published) Palermo., available online at http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k98061z.r=rafinesque.langEN [details]  OpenAccess publication 
MolluscaBase eds. (2024). MolluscaBase. Cypraeidae Rafinesque, 1815. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=23022 on 2024-05-20
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
db_admin
2009-03-28 21:19:53Z
changed
2012-11-24 01:20:16Z
changed

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original description Rafinesque, C. S. (1815). Analyse de la nature ou Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés. <em>[Book].</em> 1-224, (self-published) Palermo., available online at http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k98061z.r=rafinesque.langEN [details]  OpenAccess publication 

context source (PeRMS) Ramírez, R.; Paredes, C.; Arenas, J. (2003). Moluscos del Perú. <em>Revista de Biologia Tropical.</em> 51(supplement 3): 225-284. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

basis of record Bouchet, P. & Rocroi, J.-P. (2005). Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. <em>Malacologia.</em> 47 (1-2): 1-397. [20 July]., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25127200 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Burgess, C.M. (1970). The Living Cowries. AS Barnes and Co, Ltd. Cranbury, New Jersey. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Lorenz F. (2002) New worldwide cowries. Descriptions of new taxa and revisions of selected groups of living Cypraeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). <i>Schriften zur Malakozoologie aus dem Haus der Natur-Cismar</i> 20: 1-292, pls 1-40. [details]   

additional source Lorenz F. & Hubert A. (2000) A guide to worldwide cowries. Edition 2. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. 584 pp. [details]   

additional source Meyer, C. (2003). Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the Tropics. <em>Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.</em> 79: 401-459. [details]   

additional source Schilder, M. & Schilder, F. A. (1971). A catalogue of living and fossil cowries. A taxonomy and bibliography of Triviacea and Cypraeacea (Gastropoda Prosobranchia. <em>Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Mémoires, Deuxième Series.</em> 85: 1-246. [details]   

additional source Burgess C.M. (1985). <i>Cowries of the world</i>. Cape Town: Gordon Verhoef, Seacomber Publications. xiv + 289 pp.  [details]   

additional source Moretzsohn, F. (2014). Cypraeidae: How well-inventoried is the best-known seashell family?. <em>American Malacological Bulletin.</em> 32(2): 278-289., available online at https://doi.org/10.4003/006.032.0219
page(s): 278-289 [details]   

additional source Lorenz, F. (2017). Cowries. A guide to the gastropod family Cypraeidae. <em>Volume 1, Biology and systematics. Harxheim: ConchBooks.</em> 644 pp. [details]   

additional source Helfer, J. R. (1946). The classification of Cypraeidae. <em>The Nautilus.</em> 60(2): 49-53., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8523730 [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
From editor or global species database
Classification Alternative views on the classification of Cypraeidae range from uniting most of the species in the genus Cypraea (e.g. Ranson, 1967) to splitting in several subfamilies and dozens of genera (e.g. Schilder & Schilder, 1938 and subsequent papers) for less than 250 extant species). There is no doubt that the family has an old evolutionary history, dating back to the Jurassic, so that existing species are likely to show enough divergence so as to support some taxonomic splitting.
The classification of Lorenz (2002) largely coincides with that of Meyer (2003) based on molecular data, so that it was the basis for the classification in subfamilies in Bouchet & Rocroi (2005).
Subfamilies are here listed as alternate representation and the genera are direct child taxa of the family Cypraeidae.  [details]
    Definitions

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LanguageName 
English cowries  [details]
German PorzellanschneckenKaurischnecken  [details]
Japanese タカラガイ科  [details]