WoRMS source details

Clark, A.M. & Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp.
6324
Clark, A.M. & Courtman-Stock, J.
1976
The echinoderms of southern Africa
Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp
Publication
This is a key to the Echinoderms of South Africa (except the Holothurians). The area is limited to Capricorn (South-east) and to Walvis bay (South-west). After all the surveys done by H.L. Clark (1923) and Mortensen (1933a, of the Asterozoa), only a small number of new taxa have been discovered. The number of species included is ca. 280.
South Africa
Bathyal, Continental slope
Fauna and Flora, Faunistic inventories, Checklists, Catalogues
Faunistic guides, Identification guides
Systematics, Taxonomy
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Allostichaster capensis (Perrier, 1875) (additional source)
Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828) (additional source)
Amphipholis strata Mortensen, 1933 (basis of record)
Amphiura (Amphiura) atlantica Ljungman, 1867 (basis of record)
Amphiura incana Lyman, 1879 represented as Amphiura (Amphiura) incana Lyman, 1879 (additional source)
Amphiura linearis Mortensen, 1933 represented as Amphiura (Amphiura) linearis Mortensen, 1933 (basis of record)
Amphiura uncinata Koehler, 1904 represented as Amphiura (Amphiura) uncinata Koehler, 1904 (basis of record)
Annametra occidentalis (AH Clark, 1915) (additional source)
Anseropoda Nardo, 1834 (additional source)
Anseropoda grandis Mortensen, 1933 (additional source)
Anseropoda habracantha H.L. Clark, 1923 (basis of record)
Anseropoda novemradiata (Bell, 1905) (basis of record)
Antedon magnicirra Bell, 1905 accepted as Crotalometra magnicirra (Bell, 1905) (source of synonymy)
Antedon sclateri Bell, 1905 accepted as Glyptometra sclateri (Bell, 1905) (source of synonymy)
Aspidodiadema africanum Mortensen, 1939 (basis of record)
Asteracanthion africanus Müller & Troschel, 1842 accepted as Marthasterias africana (Müller & Troschel, 1842) (source of synonymy)
Asterias capensis Perrier, 1875 accepted as Allostichaster capensis (Perrier, 1875) (source of synonymy)
Asterias euryale Retzius, 1783 accepted as Astrocladus euryale (Retzius, 1783) (source of synonymy)
Asterias exigua Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Patiriella exigua (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Parvulastra exigua (Lamarck, 1816) (source of synonymy)
Asterias mammillata Audouin, 1826 accepted as Pentaceraster mammillatus (Audouin, 1826) (source of synonymy)
Asterias savignyi Audouin, 1826 accepted as Luidia savignyi (Audouin, 1826) (source of synonymy)
Asterias schmideliana Bruzelius, 1805 accepted as Culcita schmideliana (Bruzelius, 1805) (source of synonymy)
Asterina exigua (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Patiriella exigua (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Parvulastra exigua (Lamarck, 1816) (source of synonymy)
Asteroceras spinigerum Mortensen, 1933 accepted as Astroceras spinigerum Mortensen, 1933 (basis of record)
Asteronyx loveni Müller & Troschel, 1842 (basis of record)
Asteroschema capensis Mortensen, 1925 accepted as Asteromorpha capensis (Mortensen, 1925) (basis of record)
Asterostegus tuberculatus Mortensen, 1933 (basis of record)
Astroboa nigra Döderlein, 1911 accepted as Astroboa nuda (Lyman, 1874) (source of synonymy)
Astroboa nuda (Lyman, 1874) (additional source)
Astrocladus africanus Mortensen, 1933 (basis of record)
Astrocladus euryale (Retzius, 1783) (additional source)
Astrocladus hirtus Mortensen, 1933 (basis of record)
Astroconus capensis Mortensen, 1933 accepted as Astrodendrum capensis (Mortensen, 1933) accepted as Astrodendrum capense (Mortensen, 1933) (basis of record)
Astropecten pontoporeus Sladen, 1883 accepted as Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) (basis of record)
Astropecten pontoporeus Sladen, 1883 accepted as Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) (source of synonymy)
Astrophyton nudum Lyman, 1874 accepted as Astroboa nuda (Lyman, 1874) (source of synonymy)
Astropyga radiata (Leske, 1778) (additional source)
Astrothorax papillata (H.L. Clark, 1923) accepted as Astrothorax waitei (Benham, 1909) (basis of record)
Astrothorax waitei (Benham, 1909) (basis of record)
Austrofromia schultzei (Döderlein, 1910) accepted as Fromia schultzei Döderlein, 1910 (source of synonymy)
Austrofromia schultzei (Döderlein, 1910) accepted as Fromia schultzei Döderlein, 1910 (basis of record)
Benthopecten pedicifer (Sladen, 1889) (additional source)
Brisaster capensis (Studer, 1880) (basis of record)
Brisinga cricophora Sladen, 1889 (additional source)
Caenopedina capensis H.L. Clark, 1923 (basis of record)
Calliaster baccatus Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Carpopeltis maillardii (Montagne & Millardet) Chiang, 1970 (basis of record)
Catopygus loveni Studer, 1880 accepted as Tropholampas loveni (Studer, 1880) (source of synonymy)
Ceramaster trispinosus H.L. Clark, 1923 (basis of record)
Chaetodiadema africanum H.L. Clark, 1925 (basis of record)
Chondraster elattosis H.L. Clark, 1923 (additional source)
Cidaris radiata Leske, 1778 accepted as Astropyga radiata (Leske, 1778) (source of synonymy)
Cidaris toreumatica Klein, 1734 accepted as Temnopleurus toreumaticus (Leske, 1778) (source of synonymy)
Cidarites pistillaris Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Prionocidaris pistillaris (Lamarck, 1816) (source of synonymy)
Cladaster macrobrachius H.L. Clark, 1923 (basis of record)
Clypeaster eurychorius H.L. Clark, 1925 (basis of record)
Coelopleurus floridianus A. Agassiz, 1872 accepted as Coelopleurus floridanus A. Agassiz, 1872 (basis of record)
Coelopleurus interruptus Döderlein, 1910 (basis of record)
Coelopleurus maillardi (Michelin, 1862) (basis of record)
Comatella africana Gislén, 1938 accepted as Comatulidae incertae sedis africana (Gislén, 1938) (basis of record)
Cominia occidentalis AH Clark, 1915 accepted as Annametra occidentalis (AH Clark, 1915) (source of synonymy)
Coronaster volsellatus (Sladen, 1889) (additional source)
Cosmasterias felipes (Sladen, 1889) (additional source)
Crossaster penicillatus Sladen, 1889 (additional source)
Crotalometra magnicirra (Bell, 1905) (additional source)
Cryptopelta aster (Lyman, 1879) (additional source)
Culcita schmideliana (Bruzelius, 1805) (additional source)
Decametra durbanensis AM Clark, 1951 (basis of record)
Dermechinus horridus (A. Agassiz, 1879) (additional source)
Dictenophiura anoidea H.L. Clark, 1923 accepted as Ophiura (Dictenophiura) anoidea H.L. Clark, 1923 (basis of record)
Diplopteraster multipes (M. Sars, 1866) (additional source)
Echinaster ornatus Perrier, 1869 accepted as Henricia ornata (Perrier, 1869) (source of synonymy)
Echinocardium Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Echinocardium capense Mortensen, 1907 (basis of record)
Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Echinocyamus elegans Mazzetti, 1893 (basis of record)
Echinolampas crassa (Bell, 1880) (basis of record)
Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) (additional source)
Echinostrephus molaris (Blainville, 1825) (additional source)
Echinothrix calamaris (Pallas, 1774) (additional source)
Echinothrix desori (L. Agassiz in L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846) accepted as Echinothrix calamaris (Pallas, 1774) (source of synonymy)
Echinus calamaris Pallas, 1774 accepted as Echinothrix calamaris (Pallas, 1774) (source of synonymy)
Echinus gilchristi Bell, 1904 (basis of record)
Echinus gratilla Linnaeus, 1758 accepted as Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Echinus hirsuta Döderlein, 1905 accepted as Echinus gilchristi Bell, 1904 (source of synonymy)
Echinus horridus A. Agassiz, 1879 accepted as Dermechinus horridus (A. Agassiz, 1879) (source of synonymy)
Echinus lacunosus Linnaeus, 1758 accepted as Schizaster lacunosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Echinus mathaei Blainville, 1825 accepted as Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) (source of synonymy)
Echinus molaris Blainville, 1825 accepted as Echinostrephus molaris (Blainville, 1825) (source of synonymy)
Echinus pileolus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Toxopneustes pileolus (Lamarck, 1816) (source of synonymy)
Echinus variolaris Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Stomopneustes variolaris (Lamarck, 1816) (source of synonymy)
Ellipsechinus lukunter (Linnaeus, 1758) accepted as Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Embryometra mortenseni Gislén, 1938 (basis of record)
Eudiocrinus Carpenter, 1882 (additional source)
Eudiocrinus varians Carpenter, 1882 accepted as Pentametrocrinus varians (Carpenter, 1882) (basis of record)
Eudiocrinus varians Carpenter, 1882 accepted as Pentametrocrinus varians (Carpenter, 1882) (source of synonymy)
Eurypatagus parvituberculatus (H.L. Clark, 1924) (additional source)
Eustolasterias stenactis H.L. Clark, 1926 accepted as Sclerasterias stenactis (H.L. Clark, 1926) accepted as Sclerasterias mazophora (Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891) (source of synonymy)
Gislenometra perplexa AH Clark, 1947 (basis of record)
Agulhas Bank for Coelopleurus interruptus Döderlein, 1910 
Agulhas Bank for Ophiochasma nitida Hertz, 1927 
Agulhas Bank for Ophioscolex dentatus Lyman, 1878 
Agulhas Bank for Ophiothamnus remotus Lyman, 1878 
Agulhas Bank for Pseudarchaster brachyactis H.L. Clark, 1923 
Agulhas Bank for Salenia phoinissa A. Agassiz & H.L. Clark, 1908 
Algoa Bay for Spoladaster brachyactis (H.L. Clark, 1923) 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Exclusive Economic Zone for Ophiomyxa bengalensis Koehler, 1897 
Australian Exclusive Economic Zone for Echinus variolaris Lamarck, 1816 
Baie de l'Observatoire for Pteraster affinis Smith, 1876 
Cape Natal for Anseropoda novemradiata (Bell, 1905) 
Cape of Good Hope for Brisaster capensis (Studer, 1880) 
Cape of Good Hope for Henricia ornata (Perrier, 1869) 
Cape of Good Hope for Pteraster capensis Gray, 1847 
Cape of Good Hope for Tropholampas loveni (Studer, 1880) 
Cape Point for Amphipholis strata Mortensen, 1933 
Cape Point for Caenopedina capensis H.L. Clark, 1923 
Cape Point for Ceramaster patagonicus euryplax H.L. Clark, 1923 
Cape Point for Cladaster macrobrachius H.L. Clark, 1923 
Cape Point for Hymenaster lamprus H.L. Clark, 1923 
Cape Seal for Echinus gilchristi Bell, 1904 
Cape Town for Dipsacaster sladeni capensis A.M. Clark, 1952 
Cape Town for Embryometra mortenseni Gislén, 1938 
Cargados Carajos for Oligometra serripinna occidentalis AH Clark, 1911 
Durban for Amphiura linearis Mortensen, 1933 
Durban for Asteroceras spinigerum Mortensen, 1933 
Durban for Asterostegus tuberculatus Mortensen, 1933 
Durban for Chaetodiadema africanum H.L. Clark, 1925 
Durban for Clypeaster eurychorius H.L. Clark, 1925 
Durban for Comatella africana Gislén, 1938 
Durban for Decametra durbanensis AM Clark, 1951 
Durban for Eurypatagus parvituberculatus (H.L. Clark, 1924) 
Durban for Kionocidaris striata Mortensen, 1932 
Durban for Ophiacantha scutigera Mortensen, 1933 
Durban for Ophiomitrella hamata Mortensen, 1933 
Durban for Ophioscolex inermis Mortensen, 1933 
Durban for Ophiura costata tumida Mortensen, 1933 
Durban for Sclerasterias stenactis (H.L. Clark, 1926) 
Durban for Stegnobrisinga splendens H.L. Clark, 1926 
East London for Anseropoda habracantha H.L. Clark, 1923 
East London for Antedon sclateri Bell, 1905 
East London for Aspidodiadema africanum Mortensen, 1939 
East London for Gislenometra perplexa AH Clark, 1947 
East London for Glyptometra sclateri (Bell, 1905) 
East London for Ophiomyxa tenuispina Mortensen, 1933 
East London for Ophioplinthaca sexradia Mortensen, 1933 
East London for Stereocidaris excavata Mortensen, 1932 
East Timorian Exclusive Economic Zone for Ophiocircus inutilis Koehler, 1904 
Eastern Cape, Province of the for Ophiacantha nerthepsila H.L. Clark, 1923 
False Bay (South Africa) for Calliaster baccatus Sladen, 1889 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Annametra occidentalis (AH Clark, 1915) 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Brissopsis lyrifera capensis Mortensen, 1907 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Cosmasterias felipes (Sladen, 1889) 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Dictenophiura anoidea H.L. Clark, 1923 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Henricia retecta A.M. Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Mediaster capensis capensis H.L. Clark, 1923 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Ophiura affinis simulans (Mortensen, 1936) 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Patiria formosa (Mortensen, 1933) 
Gulf of Aden for Tropiometra magnifica AH Clark, 1936 
Java Sea for Amphiura uncinata Koehler, 1904 
Kaap Infante  for Chondraster elattosis H.L. Clark, 1923 
Kenya for Sperosoma biseriatum Döderlein, 1901 
Kenyan Exclusive Economic Zone for Sperosoma biseriatum Döderlein, 1901 
Kepulauan Paternoster for Ophiogymna fulgens (Koehler, 1905) 
Kerguelen Islands for Luidiaster hirsutus Studer, 1884 
Kermadec Islands for Orechinus monolini (A. Agassiz, 1879) 
Knysna for Lamprechinus nitidus Döderlein, 1905 
Knysna for Polyechinus agulhensis (Döderlein, 1905) 
Knysna for Stereocidaris capensis Döderlein, 1901 
KwaZulu-Natal for Astroconus capensis Mortensen, 1933 
Lambert's Bay for Anseropoda grandis Mortensen, 1933 
Madagascar for Astrophiura permira Sladen, 1879 
Mauritius for Coscinasterias calamaria (Gray, 1840) 
Mauritius for Diadema savignyi (Audouin, 1809) 
Mauritius for Dichrometra afra AH Clark, 1912 
Mauritius for Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) 
Mauritius for Eucidaris metularia (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mauritius for Macrophiothrix longipeda (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mauritius for Ophiocoma scolopendrina (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mauritius for Prionocidaris pistillaris (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mauritius for Toxopneustes pileolus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Morgan for Mithrodia gigas Mortensen, 1935 
Moroccan Exclusive Economic Zone for Henricia abyssalis (Perrier, 1894) 
Mozambique for Acanthaster planci (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Mozambique for Amphilycus scripta (Koehler, 1904) 
Mozambique for Amphiophiura trifolium Hertz, 1927 
Mozambique for Amphioplus (Lymanella) integer (Ljungman, 1867) 
Mozambique for Amphiura (Amphiura) capensis Ljungman, 1867  (doubtful)
Mozambique for Amphiura candida Ljungman, 1867 
Mozambique for Amphiura inhacensis J.B. Balinsky, 1957 
Mozambique for Archaster angulatus Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Mozambique for Asterodiscides elegans (Gray, 1847) 
Mozambique for Astroboa nuda (Lyman, 1874) 
Mozambique for Astropecten antares Döderlein, 1926 
Mozambique for Astropecten granulatus natalensis John, 1948  (inaccurate)
Mozambique for Astropecten hemprichi Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Mozambique for Astropecten polyacanthus phragmorus Fisher, 1913 
Mozambique for Astropyga radiata (Leske, 1778) 
Mozambique for Coelopleurus maillardi (Michelin, 1862) 
Mozambique for Comanthus parvicirrus (Müller, 1841) 
Unknown type, geounit Azores, identified as Ophiocten latens Koehler, 1906
Unknown type, geounit Canary Islands, identified as Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Wyville Thomson, 1877)
Unknown type, geounit Cape Agulhas, identified as Ophiura irrorata (Lyman, 1878)
Unknown type, geounit Cape Point, identified as Plutonaster proteus H.L. Clark, 1923
Unknown type, geounit Cape Point, identified as Hymenaster gennaeus H.L. Clark, 1923
Holotype, geounit Cape Verde, identified as Sphaeriodiscus bourgeti (Perrier, 1885)
Unknown type, geounit Crozet Islands, identified as Urechinus naresianus A. Agassiz, 1879
Unknown type, geounit False Bay (South Africa), identified as Luidia africana Sladen, 1889
Unknown type, geounit False Bay (South Africa), identified as Pseudarchaster tessellatus Sladen, 1889
Unknown type, geounit Gulf of Oman, identified as Pourtalesia alcocki Koehler, 1914
Unknown type, geounit Morocco, identified as Monachocrinus perrieri (Koehler & Vaney, 1910)
Unknown type, geounit Norway, identified as Ophiactis nidarosiensis Mortensen, 1920
Unknown type, geounit Simon's Bay, identified as Amphiura incana Lyman, 1879
Unknown type, geounit South Norway, identified as Diplopteraster multipes (M. Sars, 1866)
Holotype BM 1890.5.7.1007, geounit Philippines, identified as Coronaster volsellatus (Sladen, 1889)
Syntype SMNH Type-3287, geounit Kattegat, identified as Asteronyx loveni Müller & Troschel, 1842
 Biology

Sexually dimrophic species, epizoic on cake urchins Echinodiscus bisperforatus and E. auritus [details]

 Description

Description: disc scales with scattered pointed spinelets; single thick oral papilla, no infradental papilla; ... [details]

 Description

Clark & Courtman-Stock record the species as observed from South Africa, without further details. [details]

 Description

South african Atlantic species [details]

 Distribution

General distribution: temperate, discontinuous (Pacific and Atlantic Oceans), depth range 62-2963 m. (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: South Africa, not known more precisely. [details]

 Distribution

From the Philippines in Lyman (1874). [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: also atlantic coast of S Africa (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Distribution

Also reported from Morocco and Ivory coast (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in East Indies, Philippine and South Pacific Is. (Clark & Rowe, 1971); Australia (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Gilbert Islands (Clark, 1954). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Saipan (Clark, 1954). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Maldives, Andamans, Lesser Sunda Island and southern Japan in depths from about 400-2800 m. ... [details]

 Distribution

Tropical Indo-Pacific in Kalk (1958). [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: occurs ao on the Atlantic Coast of South Africa (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976 [554]) [details]

 Ecology

benthic, continental shelf, continental slope. General distribution: temperate, South Africa, west Pacific Ocean, ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, inshore, continental shelf, deposit feeder. General distribution: temperate, discontinuous (west ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental shelf, continental slope, abyssal. General distribution: temperate, circumglobal ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental slope. Depth range 318-2300 m. (Rowe & Gates, 1995). Also previously recorded in ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental slope. General distribution: temperate, discontinuous, South Africa, New Zealand, ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa.Type locality: off East London, South Africa, 375m (Rowe & ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: Red Sea, in Lyman (1865) (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Holotype

Holotype in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA) No. 2278; paratypes in ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype South African Museum, Cape Town (South Africa) A.6445. Type locality: NW of Lion's Head, Cape Town, South ... [details]

 Remark

Type species: Tristan da Cunha, 200 m. (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Remark

Types species: Spatangus pusillus Leske, 1778 (=Echinus cordatus Pennant, 1777) by subsequent designation (Rowe & ... [details]

 Remark

Type data: status and whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: Unknown (Britain) (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Type data: syntypes whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: unknown (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Original combination [details]

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Original combination [details]

 Remark

Type specie of the genus Keraiophorus Michelin, 1862 (=Coelopleurus L. Agassiz, 1840 (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Syntypes undetermied. Type locality: Norway in Clark & Courtman-Stock (1976), but unknown in Rowe & Gates (1995). [details]

 Remark

Syntypes ?Zoologisches Museum, Göttingen (Germany) (3 specimens).Type locality: Amboina, Indonesia (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

 Remark

Syntypes Natural History Museum, London (England) 1882.12.23.444. Type locality: japan (35°11'N 139°28'E) (Rowe & ... [details]

 Remark

Type species: Ophiogymna elegans Ljungman, 1866 by monotypy (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Lectotype Museum fürNnaturkunde an der Universität Humbolt zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany) 5429, paralectotype Museum ... [details]

 Remark

Lectotype Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands, paralectotypes Universitait van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, ... [details]

 Remark

Type species: Ophiacantha vipellis Lyman, 1883 by original designation (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Syntypes (probable) Natural History Museum, London (england). Type locality: off the coast of Ireland (Rowe & ... [details]

 Remark

Type specie of the genus Cryptopelta H.L. Clark, 1909 (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Syntypes (7 specimens) ?Universitait van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Type locality: east of Sailus Besar, ... [details]

 Remark

Also recorded from 'Coin Peros' by Bell (1909) - locality can't be traced. Described by Müller & Troschel ... [details]

 Remark

Type species: Cidaris cretosa Mantell, 1829 (=Cidaris sceptrifera Mantell, 1822) by subsequent designation in ... [details]

 Spelling

Tropriometra in Kalk (1958). [details]

 Status

Lyman (1882) intended this to be a synonym of Ophioderma tonagan Lütken, 1872, but assigned his own name to it as ... [details]

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 Synonymy

Treated as synonym of Astrothorax papillata (H.L. Clark, 1923) in Clark & Courtman-Stock (1976). [details]

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Original combination for Henricia reticulata; H. reticulata is junior homonym of H. reticulata of Hayashi, 1940. [details]

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H. retecta preoccupied by Hayashi 1940 [details]

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A forma of M. gacialis [details]

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 Synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 Synonymy

In Lyman (1874): Ophiothrix longipeda is a synonym of Ophiothrix propinqua Lyman. But Ophiothrix propinqua is a ... [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 Synonymy

Original description [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination and rank [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]