WoRMS source details

Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
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Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828) (additional source)
Amphiura (Acrocnida) brachiata (Montagu, 1804) accepted as Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu, 1804) (additional source)
Amphiura (Ophiopeltis) securigera (Düben & Koren, 1846) (additional source)
Amphiura chiajei Forbes, 1843 (additional source)
Amphiura filiformis (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Amphiura incana Lyman, 1879 represented as Amphiura (Amphiura) incana Lyman, 1879 (additional source)
Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Antedon bifida (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Antedon petasus (Düben & Koren, 1846) (additional source)
Aslia lefevrei (Barrois, 1882) (additional source)
Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Asterina phylactica Emson & Crump, 1979 (additional source)
Asteronyx loveni Müller & Troschel, 1842 (additional source)
Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) (additional source)
Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Cucumaria frondosa (Gunnerus, 1767) (additional source)
Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus (Retzius, 1783) (additional source)
Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Echinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 (additional source)
Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Echinus acutus var. flemingii Forbes, 1841 accepted as Echinus acutus acutus Lamarck, 1816 represented as Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (basis of record)
Echinus acutus var. mediterraneus Diakonov, 1923 accepted as Echinus acutus acutus Lamarck, 1816 represented as Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (basis of record)
Echinus acutus var. norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Echinus acutus norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus norvegicus (Düben & Koren, 1844) (basis of record)
Echinus elegans Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Gracilechinus elegans (Düben & Koren, 1844) (additional source)
Echinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Echinus tenuispinus Norman, 1868 (additional source)
Ekmania barthii (Troschel, 1846) (additional source)
Gorgonocephalus caputmedusae (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Henricia pertusa (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) (additional source)
Holothuria (Panningothuria) forskali Delle Chiaje, 1823 (additional source)
Labidoplax buskii (McIntosh, 1866) (additional source)
Labidoplax digitata (Montagu, 1815) accepted as Oestergrenia digitata (Montagu, 1815) (additional source)
Labidoplax media Östergren, 1905 (additional source)
Labidoplax thomsoni (Herapath, 1865) accepted as Oestergrenia thomsonii (Herapath, 1865) (additional source)
Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) (additional source)
Leptometra celtica (M'Andrew & Barrett, 1857) (additional source)
Leptopentacta elongata (Düben & Koren, 1846) (additional source)
Leptosynapta bergensis (Östergren, 1905) (additional source)
Leptosynapta cruenta Cherbonnier, 1953 (basis of record)
Leptosynapta decaria (Östergren, 1905) (additional source)
Leptosynapta galliennii (Herapath, 1865) (additional source)
Leptosynapta inhaerens (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Leptosynapta minuta (Becher, 1906) (additional source)
Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) (additional source)
Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 accepted as Luidia sarsii Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 (additional source)
Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Mesothuria (Allantis) intestinalis (Ascanius, 1805) Östergren, 1896 accepted as Mesothuria intestinalis (Ascanius, 1805) (additional source)
Neopentadactyla mixta (Östergren, 1898) Deichmann, 1944 (additional source)
Ocnus brunneus (Forbes in Thompson, 1840) (additional source)
Ocnus lacteus (Forbes & Goodsir, 1839) (additional source)
Ocnus planci (Brandt, 1835) (additional source)
Ophiactis balli (W. Thompson, 1840) (additional source)
Ophiocomina nigra (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) (additional source)
Ophiocten affinis (Lütken, 1858) (additional source)
Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Ophiopsila annulosa (M. Sars, 1859) (additional source)
Ophiopsila aranea Forbes, 1843 (additional source)
Ophiothrix fragilis (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) (additional source)
Ophiothrix luetkeni Wyville Thomson, 1873 (additional source)
Ophiura albida Forbes, 1839 (additional source)
Ophiura ophiura (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Ophiura robusta (Ayres, 1852) (additional source)
Ophiura sarsii Lütken, 1855 (additional source)
Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Paracucumaria hyndmani (Thompson, 1840) accepted as Panningia hyndmani (Thompson, 1840) (additional source)
Pawsonia saxicola (Brady & Robertson, 1871) (additional source)
Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Psammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) (additional source)
Pseudothyone raphanus (Düben & Koren, 1846) (additional source)
Psolus phantapus (Strussenfelt, 1765) (additional source)
Psolus squamatus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Pteraster militaris (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Pteraster pulvillus M. Sars, 1861 (additional source)
Rhabdomolgus ruber Keferstein, 1862 (additional source)
Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) (additional source)
Spatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 (additional source)
Spatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 (additional source)
Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Stichastrella rosea (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817) accepted as Parastichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817) (additional source)
Stichopus tremulus (Gunnerus) accepted as Parastichopus tremulus (Gunnerus, 1767) (additional source)
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) (additional source)
Thyone fusus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Thyone inermis Heller, 1868 (additional source)
Thyone roscovita Hérouard, 1889 (additional source)
Thyonidium drummondii (Thompson, 1840) (additional source)
Thyonidium hyalinum (Forbes, 1841) (additional source)
Adriatic Sea for Asterina phylactica Emson & Crump, 1979 
Arcachon Bay for Labidoplax thomsoni (Herapath, 1865) 
Arctic Ocean for Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 
Arctic Ocean for Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 
Arctic Ocean for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
Arctic Ocean for Mesothuria (Allantis) intestinalis (Ascanius, 1805) Östergren, 1896 
Arctic Ocean for Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) 
Arctic Ocean for Ophiura robusta (Ayres, 1852) 
Arctic Ocean for Ophiura sarsii Lütken, 1855 
Arctic Ocean for Pteraster militaris (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Arctic Ocean for Pteraster pulvillus M. Sars, 1861 
Arctic Ocean for Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) 
Arctic Ocean for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Arctic Ocean for Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Holothuria (Panningothuria) forskali Delle Chiaje, 1823 
Atlantic Coast of France for Labidoplax digitata (Montagu, 1815) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Labidoplax thomsoni (Herapath, 1865) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Neopentadactyla mixta (Östergren, 1898) Deichmann, 1944 
Atlantic Coast of France for Ocnus brunneus (Forbes in Thompson, 1840) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Pawsonia saxicola (Brady & Robertson, 1871) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Thyone roscovita Hérouard, 1889 
Azores for Amphiura chiajei Forbes, 1843 
Azores for Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Antedon bifida (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Azores for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
Azores for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Azores for Ophiocomina nigra (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) 
Azores for Ophiothrix fragilis (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) 
Azores for Ophiothrix luetkeni Wyville Thomson, 1873 
Bay of Biscay for Ophiothrix luetkeni Wyville Thomson, 1873 
Bay of Biscay for Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817) 
Belfast Lough for Labidoplax thomsoni (Herapath, 1865) 
British Isles for Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828) 
British Isles for Amphiura (Acrocnida) brachiata (Montagu, 1804) 
British Isles for Amphiura chiajei Forbes, 1843 
British Isles for Amphiura filiformis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Antedon bifida (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Antedon bifida (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Aslia lefevrei (Barrois, 1882) 
British Isles for Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 
British Isles for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Asteronyx loveni Müller & Troschel, 1842 
British Isles for Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) 
British Isles for Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 
British Isles for Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus (Retzius, 1783) 
British Isles for Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Echinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
British Isles for Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Echinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
British Isles for Labidoplax digitata (Montagu, 1815) 
British Isles for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
British Isles for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri celtica A.M. Clark in Clark & Downey, 1992 
British Isles for Leptometra celtica (M'Andrew & Barrett, 1857) 
British Isles for Leptopentacta elongata (Düben & Koren, 1846) 
British Isles for Leptosynapta bergensis (Östergren, 1905) 
British Isles for Leptosynapta inhaerens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) 
British Isles for Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) 
British Isles for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
British Isles for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Neopentadactyla mixta (Östergren, 1898) Deichmann, 1944 
British Isles for Neopentadactyla mixta (Östergren, 1898) Deichmann, 1944 
British Isles for Ocnus brunneus (Forbes in Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ocnus brunneus (Forbes in Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ocnus brunneus (Forbes in Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ocnus lacteus (Forbes & Goodsir, 1839) 
British Isles for Ophiactis balli (W. Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ophiactis balli (W. Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ophiactis balli (W. Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ophiocomina nigra (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) 
British Isles for Ophiocomina nigra (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) 
British Isles for Ophiocten affinis (Lütken, 1858) 
British Isles for Ophiopeltis securigera Düben & Koren, 1846 
British Isles for Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) 
British Isles for Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) 
British Isles for Ophiothrix fragilis (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) 
British Isles for Ophiothrix luetkeni Wyville Thomson, 1873 
British Isles for Ophiura albida Forbes, 1839 
British Isles for Ophiura ophiura (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Paracucumaria hyndmani (Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Pawsonia saxicola (Brady & Robertson, 1871) 
British Isles for Pawsonia saxicola (Brady & Robertson, 1871) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Psammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) 
British Isles for Pseudothyone raphanus (Düben & Koren, 1846) 
British Isles for Pseudothyone raphanus (Düben & Koren, 1846) 
 Authority

(Forbes M.S. in Thompson, 1840) [details]

 Authority

(Gunnerus, 1767) [details]

 Authority

Ayres, 1851 [details]

 Authority

Koren, 1844 [details]

 Authority

M. Sars, 1861 [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Barrel - shaped, red larvae. Early spring [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer. [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Winter-spring. [details]

 Breeding

Brachiolaria larva. Spring. [details]

 Breeding

Brood young under membrane [details]

 Breeding

Broods young in spring [details]

 Breeding

Broods young. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Can reproduce by fission [details]

 Breeding

Direct development? Winter [details]

 Breeding

Doliolaria larva [details]

 Breeding

Doliolaria larva. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Doliolatia larva [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer - autumn [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Early sumer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Spring to autumn [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. January to May [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. February to May [details]

 Breeding

Eggs released, larvae not known. Juveniles of the Arctic species G. eucnemis are known to live on, or in, the ... [details]

 Breeding

Eggs, attached to genital pinnules, hatch to barrel-shaped ciliated larva; settlement stage is pentacrinoid. All ... [details]

 Breeding

Eggs, shed freely, larvae and pentacrinoid as in A. bifida[details]

 Breeding

Hermaphrodite, possibly self-fertilising, viviparous. May-September? [details]

 Breeding

Hermaphrodite. Planktonic brachiloraia larva. Spring - summer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs, probable direct development [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs; non-pelagic development [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs; probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Large red eggs. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Lecithotrophic, probaly planktonic larva. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Mature early summer [details]

 Breeding

Mature in summer [details]

 Breeding

Non-feeding barrel-shaped red larva. February - March [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Spring - Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. April-May [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Autumn. [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophipluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Planktonic bipinnaria and brachilaria larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Probably involves planktonic larva [details]

 Breeding

Probably involving planktonic larva [details]

 Breeding

Probably ophiopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Probably planktonic larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Protandrous hermaphrodite; eggs are laid in creviices, but are not brooded. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Simultaneous hermaphrodite. Eggs are laid in masses and are brooded for three weeks under the humped body. May-June. [details]

 Breeding

Viviparous, can contain several developing young [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs. Spring [details]

 Distribution

20 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand and fine gravel, Irish Sea, Clyde and North Sea [details]

 Distribution

20 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand and fine gravel, Irish Sea, Clyde and North Sea [details]

 Distribution

4 to 20 m depth, in coarse sand, near Helgoland in the southern North Sea (Menker, 1970). The type specimen was ... [details]

 Distribution

40 to 70 m, in muddy sand, northern North Sea; reported from the Isle of Man, 2 m depth [details]

 Distribution

A deep water species, found occasionally between 100 and 200 m near the edge of the continental shelf to the west ... [details]

 Distribution

At 10 m in fine glutinous black mud in Strangford Lough, Nnorthern Ireland, also found in mud and shell gravel at ... [details]

 Distribution

At 20 to 30 m depth, crevice-living; apparently rare, found near Plymouth (Devon), Galway (Ireland) and Les ... [details]

 Distribution

At about 10 to 20 m depth, in sand, Galway Bay (Ireland) and Plymouth (southwest England); probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

 Distribution

At about 20 m depth in muddy sand or fine gravel; Isle of Man, Galway, probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

 Distribution

At about 50 m depth, on sand, apparently rather rare in the Western English Channel, reported from the Isle of Man ... [details]

 Distribution

At depths of 10 to more than 20 m, in soft sediments with shell gravel, all round the Britsh Isles, except perhaps ... [details]

 Distribution

At depths of more than 100 m, on sand and gravel, off northern and western coasts of the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

At more than 150 m depth, on mud or muddy sand, near the edge of the continental shelf, off western Ireland [details]

 Distribution

At the edge of the continental shelf in depths of 130 m to 200 m, to the west of Ireland and around Shetland [details]

 Distribution

Common on the lower shore and sublittoral region of the northern coast of British Isles and down to at least 100 m ... [details]

 Distribution

Deeper than 200 m, on stones and gravel. Vars flemingii and norvegicus occur in the western Channel, off western ... [details]

 Distribution

Epifaunal on soft sediments in Carlingford Lough, Irish east coast; otherwise uncertain because of confusion with ... [details]

 Distribution

Found at about 30 m depth, burrowing in sand, near Plymouth and in werstern Ireland, probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

 Distribution

Found in 115 - 120 m depth near the Shetlands and off western Ireland [details]

 Distribution

From 10 to more than 200 m depth, buried in sand or muddy san, around the wstern coats of the British Isles, from ... [details]

 Distribution

From 5 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand or mud, all round the British Isles, except, possibly, the southeast [details]

 Distribution

From 50 to more than 200 m depth, on mud, off western Ireland and western Scotland, including the Minch and the Clyde [details]

 Distribution

From about 10 to more than 200 m depth, common on sand, muddy sand and fine gravel, all round the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to nearly 200 m depth, on rock and gravel, on west and southwest coasts of the British Isles, ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to about 50 m depth, on rocks or stones, with a preference for vertical faces; common around ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, mainly on coarse sand and gravel, all round the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, among rocks, stones and seaweed; northern Scotland, Orkeny, Shetland and ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to 50 m depth, typical of the algal zone. British distribution not completely known, but it ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, on shell or gravel grounds, S. pallidus tends to live within the ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal, down to more than 200 m depth, on rocky and stony shores and offshore rough grounds, Scotland, ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal, but mainly in the sublittoral zone, down to 40 m depth, occasionally deeper, on rocks, stones ... [details]