WoRMS source details

Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
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Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828) (additional source)
Amphiura (Acrocnida) brachiata (Montagu, 1804) accepted as Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu, 1804) (additional source)
Amphiura (Ophiopeltis) securigera (Düben & Koren, 1846) (additional source)
Amphiura chiajei Forbes, 1843 (additional source)
Amphiura filiformis (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Amphiura incana Lyman, 1879 represented as Amphiura (Amphiura) incana Lyman, 1879 (additional source)
Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Antedon bifida (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Antedon petasus (Düben & Koren, 1846) (additional source)
Aslia lefevrei (Barrois, 1882) (additional source)
Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Asterina phylactica Emson & Crump, 1979 (additional source)
Asteronyx loveni Müller & Troschel, 1842 (additional source)
Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) (additional source)
Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Cucumaria frondosa (Gunnerus, 1767) (additional source)
Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus (Retzius, 1783) (additional source)
Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Echinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 (additional source)
Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Echinus acutus var. flemingii Forbes, 1841 accepted as Echinus acutus acutus Lamarck, 1816 represented as Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (basis of record)
Echinus acutus var. mediterraneus Diakonov, 1923 accepted as Echinus acutus acutus Lamarck, 1816 represented as Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (basis of record)
Echinus acutus var. norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Echinus acutus norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus norvegicus (Düben & Koren, 1844) (basis of record)
Echinus elegans Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Gracilechinus elegans (Düben & Koren, 1844) (additional source)
Echinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Echinus tenuispinus Norman, 1868 (additional source)
Ekmania barthii (Troschel, 1846) (additional source)
Gorgonocephalus caputmedusae (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Henricia pertusa (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) (additional source)
Holothuria (Panningothuria) forskali Delle Chiaje, 1823 (additional source)
Labidoplax buskii (McIntosh, 1866) (additional source)
Labidoplax digitata (Montagu, 1815) accepted as Oestergrenia digitata (Montagu, 1815) (additional source)
Labidoplax media Östergren, 1905 (additional source)
Labidoplax thomsoni (Herapath, 1865) accepted as Oestergrenia thomsonii (Herapath, 1865) (additional source)
Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) (additional source)
Leptometra celtica (M'Andrew & Barrett, 1857) (additional source)
Leptopentacta elongata (Düben & Koren, 1846) (additional source)
Leptosynapta bergensis (Östergren, 1905) (additional source)
Leptosynapta cruenta Cherbonnier, 1953 (basis of record)
Leptosynapta decaria (Östergren, 1905) (additional source)
Leptosynapta galliennii (Herapath, 1865) (additional source)
Leptosynapta inhaerens (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Leptosynapta minuta (Becher, 1906) (additional source)
Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) (additional source)
Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 accepted as Luidia sarsii Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 (additional source)
Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Mesothuria (Allantis) intestinalis (Ascanius, 1805) Östergren, 1896 accepted as Mesothuria intestinalis (Ascanius, 1805) (additional source)
Neopentadactyla mixta (Östergren, 1898) Deichmann, 1944 (additional source)
Ocnus brunneus (Forbes in Thompson, 1840) (additional source)
Ocnus lacteus (Forbes & Goodsir, 1839) (additional source)
Ocnus planci (Brandt, 1835) (additional source)
Ophiactis balli (W. Thompson, 1840) (additional source)
Ophiocomina nigra (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) (additional source)
Ophiocten affinis (Lütken, 1858) (additional source)
Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Ophiopsila annulosa (M. Sars, 1859) (additional source)
Ophiopsila aranea Forbes, 1843 (additional source)
Ophiothrix fragilis (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) (additional source)
Ophiothrix luetkeni Wyville Thomson, 1873 (additional source)
Ophiura albida Forbes, 1839 (additional source)
Ophiura ophiura (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Ophiura robusta (Ayres, 1852) (additional source)
Ophiura sarsii Lütken, 1855 (additional source)
Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Paracucumaria hyndmani (Thompson, 1840) accepted as Panningia hyndmani (Thompson, 1840) (additional source)
Pawsonia saxicola (Brady & Robertson, 1871) (additional source)
Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Psammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) (additional source)
Pseudothyone raphanus (Düben & Koren, 1846) (additional source)
Psolus phantapus (Strussenfelt, 1765) (additional source)
Psolus squamatus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Pteraster militaris (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Pteraster pulvillus M. Sars, 1861 (additional source)
Rhabdomolgus ruber Keferstein, 1862 (additional source)
Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) (additional source)
Spatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 (additional source)
Spatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 (additional source)
Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Stichastrella rosea (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817) accepted as Parastichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817) (additional source)
Stichopus tremulus (Gunnerus) accepted as Parastichopus tremulus (Gunnerus, 1767) (additional source)
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) (additional source)
Thyone fusus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Thyone inermis Heller, 1868 (additional source)
Thyone roscovita Hérouard, 1889 (additional source)
Thyonidium drummondii (Thompson, 1840) (additional source)
Thyonidium hyalinum (Forbes, 1841) (additional source)
Adriatic Sea for Asterina phylactica Emson & Crump, 1979 
Arcachon Bay for Labidoplax thomsoni (Herapath, 1865) 
Arctic Ocean for Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 
Arctic Ocean for Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 
Arctic Ocean for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
Arctic Ocean for Mesothuria (Allantis) intestinalis (Ascanius, 1805) Östergren, 1896 
Arctic Ocean for Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) 
Arctic Ocean for Ophiura robusta (Ayres, 1852) 
Arctic Ocean for Ophiura sarsii Lütken, 1855 
Arctic Ocean for Pteraster militaris (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Arctic Ocean for Pteraster pulvillus M. Sars, 1861 
Arctic Ocean for Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) 
Arctic Ocean for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Arctic Ocean for Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Holothuria (Panningothuria) forskali Delle Chiaje, 1823 
Atlantic Coast of France for Labidoplax digitata (Montagu, 1815) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Labidoplax thomsoni (Herapath, 1865) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Neopentadactyla mixta (Östergren, 1898) Deichmann, 1944 
Atlantic Coast of France for Ocnus brunneus (Forbes in Thompson, 1840) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Pawsonia saxicola (Brady & Robertson, 1871) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Thyone roscovita Hérouard, 1889 
Azores for Amphiura chiajei Forbes, 1843 
Azores for Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Antedon bifida (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Azores for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
Azores for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Azores for Ophiocomina nigra (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) 
Azores for Ophiothrix fragilis (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) 
Azores for Ophiothrix luetkeni Wyville Thomson, 1873 
Bay of Biscay for Ophiothrix luetkeni Wyville Thomson, 1873 
Bay of Biscay for Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817) 
Belfast Lough for Labidoplax thomsoni (Herapath, 1865) 
British Isles for Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828) 
British Isles for Amphiura (Acrocnida) brachiata (Montagu, 1804) 
British Isles for Amphiura chiajei Forbes, 1843 
British Isles for Amphiura filiformis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Antedon bifida (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Antedon bifida (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Aslia lefevrei (Barrois, 1882) 
British Isles for Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 
British Isles for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Asteronyx loveni Müller & Troschel, 1842 
British Isles for Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) 
British Isles for Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 
British Isles for Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus (Retzius, 1783) 
British Isles for Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Echinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
British Isles for Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Echinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
British Isles for Labidoplax digitata (Montagu, 1815) 
British Isles for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
British Isles for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri celtica A.M. Clark in Clark & Downey, 1992 
British Isles for Leptometra celtica (M'Andrew & Barrett, 1857) 
British Isles for Leptopentacta elongata (Düben & Koren, 1846) 
British Isles for Leptosynapta bergensis (Östergren, 1905) 
British Isles for Leptosynapta inhaerens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) 
British Isles for Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) 
British Isles for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
British Isles for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Neopentadactyla mixta (Östergren, 1898) Deichmann, 1944 
British Isles for Neopentadactyla mixta (Östergren, 1898) Deichmann, 1944 
British Isles for Ocnus brunneus (Forbes in Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ocnus brunneus (Forbes in Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ocnus brunneus (Forbes in Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ocnus lacteus (Forbes & Goodsir, 1839) 
British Isles for Ophiactis balli (W. Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ophiactis balli (W. Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ophiactis balli (W. Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Ophiocomina nigra (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) 
British Isles for Ophiocomina nigra (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) 
British Isles for Ophiocten affinis (Lütken, 1858) 
British Isles for Ophiopeltis securigera Düben & Koren, 1846 
British Isles for Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) 
British Isles for Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) 
British Isles for Ophiothrix fragilis (Abildgaard in O.F. Müller, 1789) 
British Isles for Ophiothrix luetkeni Wyville Thomson, 1873 
British Isles for Ophiura albida Forbes, 1839 
British Isles for Ophiura ophiura (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Paracucumaria hyndmani (Thompson, 1840) 
British Isles for Pawsonia saxicola (Brady & Robertson, 1871) 
British Isles for Pawsonia saxicola (Brady & Robertson, 1871) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Psammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) 
British Isles for Pseudothyone raphanus (Düben & Koren, 1846) 
British Isles for Pseudothyone raphanus (Düben & Koren, 1846) 
 Authority

(Forbes M.S. in Thompson, 1840) [details]

 Authority

Ayres, 1851 [details]

 Authority

Koren, 1844 [details]

 Authority

M. Sars, 1861 [details]

 Authority

(Gunnerus, 1767) [details]

 Breeding

Hermaphrodite, possibly self-fertilising, viviparous. May-September? [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Autumn. [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Eggs, attached to genital pinnules, hatch to barrel-shaped ciliated larva; settlement stage is pentacrinoid. All ... [details]

 Breeding

Eggs, shed freely, larvae and pentacrinoid as in A. bifida[details]

 Breeding

Planktonic bipinnaria and brachilaria larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Protandrous hermaphrodite; eggs are laid in creviices, but are not brooded. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Simultaneous hermaphrodite. Eggs are laid in masses and are brooded for three weeks under the humped body. May-June. [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer. [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Direct development? Winter [details]

 Breeding

Barrel - shaped, red larvae. Early spring [details]

 Breeding

Large red eggs. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Mature early summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer - autumn [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Early sumer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs; probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Eggs released, larvae not known. Juveniles of the Arctic species G. eucnemis are known to live on, or in, the ... [details]

 Breeding

Lecithotrophic, probaly planktonic larva. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Probably involves planktonic larva [details]

 Breeding

Probably involving planktonic larva [details]

 Breeding

Broods young. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Broods young in spring [details]

 Breeding

Doliolatia larva [details]

 Breeding

Doliolaria larva. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Viviparous, can contain several developing young [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Winter-spring. [details]

 Breeding

Hermaphrodite. Planktonic brachiloraia larva. Spring - summer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs, probable direct development [details]

 Breeding

Can reproduce by fission [details]

 Breeding

Doliolaria larva [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophipluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Mature in summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Spring - Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. April-May [details]

 Breeding

Probably ophiopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Brachiolaria larva. Spring. [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Spring to autumn [details]

 Breeding

Non-feeding barrel-shaped red larva. February - March [details]

 Breeding

Brood young under membrane [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Probably planktonic larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. January to May [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. February to May [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs; non-pelagic development [details]

 Distribution

Intertidal to more than 200 m depth. Common along algae in tidepools and damp places , and under stones in gravel, ... [details]

 Distribution

From the intertidal to about 40 m depth, deeply buried in sand or muddy sand, with some of the arm tips reaching ... [details]

 Distribution

In depths of 50 to more than 200 m, burrowing in sand or muddy sand, all round the British Isles, but rare in the ... [details]

 Distribution

From 5 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand or mud, all round the British Isles, except, possibly, the southeast [details]

 Distribution

At about 10 to 20 m depth, in sand, Galway Bay (Ireland) and Plymouth (southwest England); probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

 Distribution

In depths of 10 to 500 m, on gravel, sand, mud and ocassionally rock; English Channel, Irish Sea, rare off western ... [details]

 Distribution

SW Iceland to the Faroe Islands and Scandinavia (Trondhjemsfjord S along the Norwegian and W Swedish coasts to ... [details]

 Distribution

Low intertidal to about 30 m depth,under stones and in crevices; in the Channel Islands and along the western ... [details]

 Distribution

Lower shore to more than 200 m depth, on rock gravel and sand; very common all round the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From the lower shore to about 125 m depth, on rocky shores, under overhangs, under stones and in rock pools, ... [details]

 Distribution

Occurs in large, deep, high-level rock pools on fairly exposed shores; less common in lower pools and sublittoral. ... [details]

 Distribution

In more than 100 m depth, clinging to sea pens and gorgonians towards the edge of the continental shelf and in some ... [details]

 Distribution

Sublittoral to more than 200 m depth; lives buried in sand or muddy sand, all around the British Isles except for ... [details]

 Distribution

In depths of more than 130 m, on gravel, stones and coral, to the north and west ofo the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, mainly on coarse sand and gravel, all round the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, among rocks, stones and seaweed; northern Scotland, Orkeny, Shetland and ... [details]

 Distribution

Not known at the present from the British Isles but may be expected to arrive in southern England and Ireland. ... [details]

 Distribution

Lower shore and subtidal to 200 m depth, burrowing in sand or muddy sand, all round the British Isles. Apparently ... [details]

 Distribution

From low on shore to 150 m depth, burrowing in coarse sand or fine shell gravel, around western coasts from the ... [details]

 Distribution

Sublittoral to more than 200 m depth, in coarse sand and fine gravel, common all around British Isles [details]

 Distribution

Deeper than 200 m, on stones and gravel. Vars flemingii and norvegicus occur in the western Channel, off western ... [details]

 Distribution

A deep water species, found occasionally between 100 and 200 m near the edge of the continental shelf to the west ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal, but mainly in the sublittoral zone, down to 40 m depth, occasionally deeper, on rocks, stones ... [details]

 Distribution

At the edge of the continental shelf in depths of 130 m to 200 m, to the west of Ireland and around Shetland [details]

 Distribution

Not recorded from British waters, but likely to occur in the North Sea, Shetland and Orkney. Sublittoral to 100 m depth. [details]

 Distribution

In depths of more than 150 m, on rough ground where currents are strong, off northern Scotland, the Orkneys and ... [details]

 Distribution

Juveniles are known to live on, or in, the polyps of alvyonarians (Patent, 1970) [details]

 Distribution

The commonest species of Henricia around the British Isles, occuring from low intertidal to at least 50 m depth, on ... [details]

 Distribution

In depths of 20 to more than 200 m, northern North Sea and possibly Shetland [details]

 Distribution

In depths of more than 100 m in the northern North Sea and near Shetland, possibly extending as far south as Biscay. [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to 50 m depth, typical of the algal zone. British distribution not completely known, but it ... [details]