WoRMS taxon details

Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768

129566  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:129566)

accepted
Genus
Enponatus [misspelling] (misspelling for Eupomatus, synonym of Hydroides)
Eucarphus Mörch, 1863 (junior synonym)
Eupamotus [misspelling] (misspelling for Eupomatus, synonym of Hydroides)
Eupomatus Philippi, 1844 (subjective synonym)
Glossopsis Bush, 1905 (junior synonym)
Hydroides (Eucarphus) Mörch, 1863 (superseded original subgenus)
Hydroides (Eupomatus) Philippi, 1844 (loss of subgenus rank of subjective synonym)
Olgaharmania Rioja, 1941 (junior synonym)
Polyphragma Quatrefages, 1866 (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides adamaformis Pillai, 2009
Species Hydroides alatalateralis (Jones, 1962)
Species Hydroides albiceps (Grube, 1870)
Species Hydroides amri Sun, Wong, ten Hove, Hutchings, Williamson & Kupriyanova, 2015
Species Hydroides ancorispina Pillai, 1971 [original]
Species Hydroides arnoldi Augener, 1918
Species Hydroides augeneri Zibrowius, 1973
Species Hydroides azorica Zibrowius, 1972 [original]
Species Hydroides bandaensis Zibrowius, 1972
Species Hydroides bannerorum Bailey-Brock, 1991
Species Hydroides basispinosa Straughan, 1967
Species Hydroides bifurcata Pixell, 1913
Species Hydroides bisecta Imajima & ten Hove, 1989
Species Hydroides bispinosa Bush, 1910 [original]
Species Hydroides brachyacantha Rioja, 1941 [original]
Species Hydroides bulbosa ten Hove, 1990
Species Hydroides calopoma Zibrowius, 1973
Species Hydroides capensis Zibrowius, 1972
Species Hydroides chilensis Hartmann-Schröder, 1962
Species Hydroides crucigera Mörch, 1863
Species Hydroides dafnii (Amoureux, Rullier & Fishelson, 1978)
Species Hydroides deleoni Bastida-Zavala & ten Hove, 2003
Species Hydroides dianthus (Verrill, 1873)
Species Hydroides dipoma (Schmarda, 1861)
Species Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863
Species Hydroides dolabrus Tovar-Hernández, Villalobos-Guerrero, Kupriyanova & Sun, 2016 [original]
Species Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883) [nomen protectum]
Species Hydroides elegantula (Bush, 1910)
Species Hydroides exaltata (Marenzeller, 1885)
Species Hydroides externispina Straughan, 1967
Species Hydroides ezoensis Okuda, 1934
Species Hydroides floridana (Bush, 1910)
Species Hydroides furcifera (Grube, 1878)
Species Hydroides fusca Imajima, 1976 [original]
Species Hydroides fusicola Mörch, 1863
Species Hydroides gairacensis Augener, 1934
Species Hydroides glandifera Rioja, 1941
Species Hydroides glasbyi Sun, Wong, ten Hove, Hutchings, Williamson & Kupriyanova, 2015
Species Hydroides gottfriedi Read, ten Hove, Sun & Kupriyanova, 2017
Species Hydroides gracilis (Bush, 1905)
Species Hydroides helmata (Iroso, 1921)
Species Hydroides heterocera (Grube, 1868)
Species Hydroides heterofurcata Pillai, 1971 [original]
Species Hydroides homoceros Pixell, 1913 [original]
Species Hydroides huanghaiensis Sun & Yang, 2000
Species Hydroides humilis (Bush, 1905)
Species Hydroides inermis Monro, 1933
Species Hydroides inornata Pillai, 1960 [original name]
Species Hydroides kimberleyensis Pillai, 2009
Species Hydroides lambecki Bastida-Zavala & ten Hove, 2002
Species Hydroides lirs Kupriyanova, Sun, ten Hove, Wong & Rouse, 2015
Species Hydroides longispinosa Imajima, 1976 [original]
Species Hydroides longistylaris Chen & Wu, 1980
Species Hydroides malleolaspina Straughan, 1967
Species Hydroides microtis Mörch, 1863
Species Hydroides minax (Grube, 1878)
Species Hydroides mongeslopezi Rioja, 1958
Species Hydroides monroi Zibrowius, 1973
Species Hydroides mucronata Rioja, 1958 [original]
Species Hydroides multispinosa Marenzeller, 1885 [original]
Species Hydroides nanhaiensis Wu & Chen, 1981
Species Hydroides nigra Zibrowius, 1971 [original]
Species Hydroides nikae Sun, Wong, Tovar-Hernández, Williamson & Kupriyanova, 2016
Species Hydroides nodosa Straughan, 1967
Species Hydroides norvegica Gunnerus, 1768 [original]
Species Hydroides novaepommeraniae Augener, 1925
Species Hydroides ochotereana Rioja, 1941
Species Hydroides operculata (Treadwell, 1929)
Species Hydroides panamensis Bastida-Zavala & ten Hove, 2003
Species Hydroides parva (Treadwell, 1902)
Species Hydroides perezi Fauvel, 1918 [original]
Species Hydroides plateni (Kinberg, 1867)
Species Hydroides protulicola Benedict, 1887
Species Hydroides pseudexaltata Pillai, 2009
Species Hydroides pseudouncinata Zibrowius, 1968 [original]
Species Hydroides qiui Sun, Wong, ten Hove, Hutchings, Williamson & Kupriyanova, 2015
Species Hydroides ralumiana Augener, 1927
Species Hydroides recta Straughan, 1967
Species Hydroides recurvispina Rioja, 1941
Species Hydroides rhombobula Chen & Wu, 1980
Species Hydroides salazarvallejoi Bastida-Zavala & ten Hove, 2002
Species Hydroides sanctaecrucis Krøyer in Mörch, 1863
Species Hydroides similis (Treadwell, 1929)
Species Hydroides similoides Bastida-Zavala & ten Hove, 2002
Species Hydroides simplidentata Pillai, 2009
Species Hydroides sinensis Zibrowius, 1972
Species Hydroides spongicola Benedict, 1887
Species Hydroides steinitzi Ben-Eliahu, 1972
Species Hydroides stoichadon Zibrowius, 1971
Species Hydroides tambalagamensis Pillai, 1961
Species Hydroides tenhovei Bastida-Zavala & de Leon-Gonzalez, 2002
Species Hydroides trilobula Chen & Wu, 1978
Species Hydroides trivesiculosa Straughan, 1967
Species Hydroides trompi Bastida-Zavala & ten Hove, 2003
Species Hydroides tuberculata Imajima, 1976
Species Hydroides uniformis Imajima & Ten Hove, 1986
Species Hydroides vizagensis Lakshmana Rao, 1969
Species Hydroides xishaensis Chen & Wu, 1978

Species Hydroides affinis (Marion, 1875) (taxon inquirendum)
Species Hydroides diplochone (Grube, 1878) (taxon inquirendum, disused and of uncertain characters)
Species Hydroides euplaeana (Delle Chiaje, 1822 [1828?]) (taxon inquirendum, taxon inquirendum)
Species Hydroides hexagona (Bosc, 1802) (taxon inquirendum, indeterminable from description, but likely a Hydroides)
Species Hydroides pectinata (Philippi, 1844) (taxon inquirendum)
Species Hydroides uncinata (Phillipi, 1844) (taxon inquirendum, unidentifiable as insufficiently defined by its original description)

Species Hydroides groenlandica Mörch, 1863 (nomen dubium)
Species Hydroides prisca Pillai, 1971 (nomen dubium, named for a developmental operculum morph)

Species Hydroides homocerus [auct. misspelling (gender suffix)] represented as Hydroides homoceros Pixell, 1913 [original] (incorrect subsequent spelling for gender invariant original name)

Subgenus Hydroides (Eucarphus) Mörch, 1863 accepted as Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (superseded original subgenus)
  » Species Hydroides (Eucarphus) benzoni Mörch, 1863 accepted as Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863 (subjective synonym)
  » Species Hydroides (Eucarphus) crucigera Mörch, 1863 [original] accepted as Hydroides crucigera Mörch, 1863 (superseded original rank as subgenus)
  » Species Hydroides (Eucarphus) cumingii Mörch, 1863 accepted as Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863 (subjective synonym)
  » Species Hydroides (Eucarphus) dirampha Mörch, 1863 [original] accepted as Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863 (superseded original combination)
  » Species Hydroides (Eucarphus) infundibulum (Delle Chiaje, 1822) accepted as Vermiliopsis labiata (O. G. Costa, 1861) (subjective synonym)
  » Species Hydroides (Eucarphus) microtis Mörch, 1863 accepted as Hydroides microtis Mörch, 1863 (superseded original combination)
  » Species Hydroides (Eucarphus) sanctaecrucis Krøyer in Mörch, 1863 accepted as Hydroides sanctaecrucis Krøyer in Mörch, 1863 (superseded original rank (disused subgenus))
Subgenus Hydroides (Eupomatus) Philippi, 1844 accepted as Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (loss of subgenus rank of subjective synonym)
  » Species Hydroides (Eupomatus) blumenbachii Mörch, 1863 accepted as Eupomatus blumenbachii (Mörch, 1863) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Hydroides (Eupomatus) dianthoides Augener, 1922 [original] accepted as Hydroides sanctaecrucis Krøyer in Mörch, 1863 (subjective synonym)
  » Species Hydroides (Eupomatus) dunkeri Mörch, 1863 [original] accepted as Hydroides gairacensis Augener, 1934 (nomen oblitum senior subjective synonym)
  » Species Hydroides (Eupomatus) fusicola Mörch, 1863 [original] accepted as Hydroides fusicola Mörch, 1863 (superseded original rank (Eupomatus disused))
  » Species Hydroides (Eupomatus) gairacensis Augener, 1934 [original] accepted as Hydroides gairacensis Augener, 1934 (superseded original rank)
  » Species Hydroides (Eupomatus) novaepommeraniae Augener, 1925 accepted as Hydroides novaepommeraniae Augener, 1925 (superseded original combination)
  » Species Hydroides (Eupomatus) ralumianus Augener, 1927 [original name] accepted as Hydroides ralumiana Augener, 1927 (superseded original combination)
Species Hydroides abbreviata Krøyer [in] Mörch, 1863 [original name] accepted as Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883) [nomen protectum] (nomen oblitum as senior subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides azoricus Zibrowius, 1972 accepted as Hydroides azorica Zibrowius, 1972 [original] (incorrect subsequent spelling (gender agreement))
Species Hydroides basispinosus Straughan, 1967 [original] accepted as Hydroides basispinosa Straughan, 1967 (subjective synonym, incorrect gender suffix)
Species Hydroides benzoni Mörch, 1863 accepted as Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863 (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides bifida Imajima, 1982 accepted as Hydroides furcifera (Grube, 1878) (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides bifidus Imajima, 1982 [original] accepted as Hydroides furcifera (Grube, 1878) (subjective synonym, incorrect gender suffix)
Species Hydroides bifurcatus Pixell, 1913 accepted as Hydroides bifurcata Pixell, 1913 (incorrect original spelling, non-gender agreement )
Species Hydroides bisectus Imajima & ten Hove, 1989 accepted as Hydroides bisecta Imajima & ten Hove, 1989 (incorrect original spelling, non-gender agreement )
Species Hydroides bispinosus Bush, 1910 accepted as Hydroides bispinosa Bush, 1910 [original] (incorrect subsequent spelling (gender agreement))
Species Hydroides brachyacanthus Rioja, 1941 accepted as Hydroides brachyacantha Rioja, 1941 [original] (incorrect subsequent spelling (gender agreement))
Species Hydroides bulbosus ten Hove, 1990 [original] accepted as Hydroides bulbosa ten Hove, 1990 (incorrect original spelling for gender agreement)
Species Hydroides californicus Treadwell, 1929 [original] accepted as Hydroides crucigera Mörch, 1863 (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides centrospina Wu & Chen, 1981 accepted as Hydroides longispinosa Imajima, 1976 [original] (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides cruciger Mörch, 1863 accepted as Hydroides crucigera Mörch, 1863 (incorrect subsequent spelling (gender agreement))
Species Hydroides cumingii (Mörch, 1863) accepted as Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863 (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides decorus (Treadwell, 1931) accepted as Hydroides floridana (Bush, 1910) (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides dianthoides Augener, 1922 accepted as Hydroides sanctaecrucis Krøyer in Mörch, 1863 (superseded subsequent rank of subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides diramphus Mörch, 1863 accepted as Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863 (incorrect subsequent spelling (gender agreement))
Species Hydroides dunkeri Mörch, 1863 accepted as Hydroides gairacensis Augener, 1934 (rank variant of nomen oblitum)
Species Hydroides elegantulus (Bush, 1910) accepted as Hydroides elegantula (Bush, 1910) (incorrect subsequent spelling for gender agreement)
Species Hydroides esoensis [auct.] accepted as Hydroides ezoensis Okuda, 1934 (misspelling of ezoensis)
Species Hydroides exaltatus (Marenzeller, 1885) accepted as Hydroides exaltata (Marenzeller, 1885) (incorrect subsequent spelling (gender agreement))
Species Hydroides externispinosa [auct. lapsus] accepted as Hydroides externispina Straughan, 1967 (misspelling of 'externispina')
Species Hydroides glandiferum Rioja, 1941 [original] accepted as Hydroides glandifera Rioja, 1941 (incorrect original spelling for gender agreement)
Species Hydroides gradata Straughan, 1967 [original] accepted as Hydroides basispinosa Straughan, 1967 (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides gradatus Straughan, 1967 accepted as Hydroides basispinosa Straughan, 1967 (incorrect subsequent spelling (gender agreement) of subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides grubei Pillai, 1965 accepted as Hydroides novaepommeraniae Augener, 1925 (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides heterocercus [auct. lapsus] accepted as Hydroides heterocera (Grube, 1868) (misspelling of 'heterocerus')
Species Hydroides heteroceros [auct. lapsus] accepted as Hydroides heterocera (Grube, 1868) (misspelling of 'heterocerus')
Species Hydroides heterocerus (Grube, 1868) accepted as Hydroides heterocera (Grube, 1868) (mandatory gender agreement of suffix)
Species Hydroides incrustans Monro, 1938 accepted as Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883) [nomen protectum] (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides inoranta [auct. misspelling for H. inornata] accepted as Hydroides inornata Pillai, 1960 [original name] (usage of H. inornata misspelled as 'inoranta')
Species Hydroides intereans (Chamberlin, 1919) accepted as Hydroides gracilis (Bush, 1905) (superseded subsequent combination of subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides lunulifera (Claparède, 1870) accepted as Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863 (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides malleophorus Rioja, 1942 accepted as Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863 (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides monoceros (Gravier, 1906) accepted as Hydroides minax (Grube, 1878) (subsequent combination of subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides multicristata [auct. misspelling] accepted as Hydroides multispinosa Marenzeller, 1885 [original] (lapsus for H. multispinosa)
Species Hydroides multispinosus Marenzeller, 1885 accepted as Hydroides multispinosa Marenzeller, 1885 [original] (incorrect subsequent spelling (gender agreement))
Species Hydroides nervegica [auct. lapsus] accepted as Hydroides norvegica Gunnerus, 1768 [original] (misspelling of norvegica)
Species Hydroides niger Zibrowius, 1971 accepted as Hydroides nigra Zibrowius, 1971 [original] (incorrect subsequent spelling for gender agreement)
Species Hydroides norvegicus Gunnerus, 1768 accepted as Hydroides norvegica Gunnerus, 1768 [original] (non gender agreement)
Species Hydroides ochoterena [auct. misspelling] accepted as Hydroides ochotereana Rioja, 1941 (incorrect subsequent spelling)
Species Hydroides okudai Pillai, 1972 accepted as Hydroides fusicola Mörch, 1863 (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides operculatus (Treadwell, 1929) accepted as Hydroides operculata (Treadwell, 1929) (incorrect subsequent spelling (gender agreement))
Species Hydroides pacificus Hartman, 1969 accepted as Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883) [nomen protectum] (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides parvus (Treadwell, 1902) accepted as Hydroides parva (Treadwell, 1902) (incorrect subsequent spelling (gender agreement))
Species Hydroides piranga (Grube, 1872) accepted as Salmacina piranga (Grube, 1872) (erroneous generic attribution)
Species Hydroides priscus Pillai, 1971 accepted as Hydroides prisca Pillai, 1971 (incorrect subsequent spelling for gender agreement of indeterminable name)
Species Hydroides pseudexaltatus Pillai, 2009 [original] accepted as Hydroides pseudexaltata Pillai, 2009 (incorrect original spelling for gender agreement)
Species Hydroides pseudouncinatus [auct. misspelling (gender suffix)] accepted as Hydroides pseudouncinata Zibrowius, 1968 [original] (incorrect subsequent spelling for gender agreement)
Species Hydroides rhombobulus Chen & Wu, 1980 accepted as Hydroides rhombobula Chen & Wu, 1980 (incorrect original spelling for gender agreement)
Species Hydroides rostrata Iroso, 1921 [original] accepted as Hydroides floridana (Bush, 1910) (objective synonym of H. floridana)
Species Hydroides rostrata Pillai, 1971 [original] accepted as Hydroides gottfriedi Read, ten Hove, Sun & Kupriyanova, 2017 (replaced junior primary homonym)
Species Hydroides sanctaecrusis [auct. lapsus] accepted as Hydroides sanctaecrucis Krøyer in Mörch, 1863 (misspelling)
Species Hydroides serratus (Bush, 1910) accepted as Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863 (superseded subsequent combination of subjective synonym, usage with incorrect gender suffix)
Species Hydroides simplidentatus Pillai, 2009 accepted as Hydroides simplidentata Pillai, 2009 (incorrect original spelling for gender agreement)
Species Hydroides spiculitubus Pillai, 2009 accepted as Hydroides tambalagamensis Pillai, 1961 (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides spinalateralis Straughan, 1967 accepted as Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883) [nomen protectum] (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides spinosus (Pixell, 1913) accepted as Hydroides dipoma (Schmarda, 1861) (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides spinoza [auct. misspelling for 'spinosa'] accepted as Hydroides dipoma (Schmarda, 1861) (lapsus for H. spinosa in Kirkegaard)
Species Hydroides spiratubus Pillai, 2009 accepted as Hydroides albiceps (Grube, 1870) (subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides tambalgamensis [auct. misspelling] accepted as Hydroides tambalagamensis Pillai, 1961
Species Hydroides trihamulatus Pillai, 2009 accepted as Hydroides malleolaspina Straughan, 1967 (types not designated, name unavailable; moreover subjective synonym)
Species Hydroides trilobulus Chen & Wu, 1978 [original] accepted as Hydroides trilobula Chen & Wu, 1978 (incorrect original spelling for gender agreement)
Species Hydroides trivesiculosus Straughan, 1967 [original] accepted as Hydroides trivesiculosa Straughan, 1967 (incorrect original spelling for gender agreement)
Species Hydroides tuberculatus Imajima, 1976 accepted as Hydroides tuberculata Imajima, 1976 (incorrect subsequent spelling for gender agreement)
Species Hydroides uncinatus (Philippi, 1844) accepted as Hydroides uncinata (Phillipi, 1844) (incorrect subsequent spelling for gender agreement of indeterminable name)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent only
Gunnerus, Johan Ernst. (1768). Om Nogle Norske Coraller. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter. 4: 38-73., available online at http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/dms/load/img/?PPN=PPN481641912_0004&IDDOC=273812
page(s): 52 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
Note Type species: Hydroides norvegica Gunnerus,...  
From editor or global species database
Type species Type species: Hydroides norvegica Gunnerus, 1768 in Fauchald (1977). [details]
Etymology Moen (2006) states: "The name Hydra, and the later Hydroides, seem to refer to the many-headed aquatic snake that was slain...  
Etymology Moen (2006) states: "The name Hydra, and the later Hydroides, seem to refer to the many-headed aquatic snake that was slain by Hercules in Greek mythology. But more specifically, it refers to the resemblance to the cnidarian genus described by Linnæus in 1758". Elsewhere, Stearn 1983:266) in his "Botanical Latin" explains that '-oides' endings were commonly used before and during Linnæus's era to indicate a resemblance to a genus already known, although Linnaeus himself disliked the practice as an easy option, and his disciples at times used '-oides' names as provisional. [details]

Nomenclature The genus Hydroides is feminine. This is because Gunnerus clearly treated it as feminine when he used the feminine...  
Nomenclature The genus Hydroides is feminine. This is because Gunnerus clearly treated it as feminine when he used the feminine 'norvegica' as epithet instead of the masculine 'norvegicus'. The AnimalBase record [has link to the digitized work] extracted from the original states this explicitly.

For a long period, the ICZN, from at least the 2nd Edition (1964: Art. 30a(ii), required (via the examples) that genus names ending in -oides are to be treated as masculine. In the ICZN 3rd Edition (1985: Art. 30b) the text was the same (the examples text stated that these genus names were 'substantivated adjectives'). Despite this requirement, mostly taxonomists working on Hydroides during this period treated it as feminine.

A modification with a major effect on Hydroides names occurred in 1999 with the publication of a new Code edition. In the ICZN 4th Edition (1999: Art. 30.1.4.4) a qualifying clause was added that had the effect of reverting the gender of Hydroides to its original feminine status. The wording in full is "A compound genus-group name ending in the suffix -ites, -oides, -ides, -odes, or -istes is to be treated as masculine unless its author, when establishing the name, stated that it had another gender or treated it as such by combining it with an adjectival species-group name in another gender form." Consequently the history is that for about 35 years species names in Hydroides were required to have masculine endings according to the Code, and now for the last 15 years they are required to have feminine endings again. In practice taxonomists' only widely adopted the masculine form around 1992 (fide Moen, 2006:121). As stated this became incorrect from 1999. The change in the Code was part of changes intended "to simplify the identification of gender in genus-group names" (ICZN, 1999:XXVI). However, in a large genus such as Hydroides many changes may result, and each name requires re-evaluation. [details]

Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2018). World Polychaeta database. Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=129566 on 2018-04-20
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2007-03-12 12:43:33Z
checked
2008-03-26 11:36:43Z
changed
2015-08-05 23:02:39Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Gunnerus, Johan Ernst. (1768). Om Nogle Norske Coraller. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter. 4: 38-73., available online at http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/dms/load/img/?PPN=PPN481641912_0004&IDDOC=273812
page(s): 52 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (ofSchizocraspedon Bush, 1905) Bush, K.J. (1905). Tubicolous annelids of the tribes Sabellides and Serpulides from the Pacific Ocean. Harriman Alaska Expedition. 12: 169-346, plates XXI-XLIV., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/item/71821#page/189/mode/1up
page(s): 225, 287 [details]   

original description  (ofHydroides (Eucarphus) Mörch, 1863) Mörch, O. A. L. (1863). Revisio critica Serpulidarum. Et Bidrag til Rørormenes Naturhistorie. Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift. København, Ser. 3, 1: 347-470, pl. 11 [also issued as a separate, 1–124, pl. 11]., available online at http://www.archive.org/details/naturhistoriskti01copeuoft
page(s): 378; note: as a subgenus for six Hydroides, beginning with H. (E.) crucigera [details]   

original description  (ofEupomatus Philippi, 1844) Philippi, A. (1844). Einige Bemerkungen über die Gattung Serpula, nebst Aufzählung der von mir im Mittelmeer mit dem Thier beobachteten Arten. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin. 10(1): 186-198, plate 6., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/13704089
page(s): 195 [details]   

original description  (ofOlgaharmania Rioja, 1941) Rioja, Enrique 1941. Estudios Anelidologicos. II. Observaciones acerca de varias especies del genero Hydroides Gunnerus (sensu Fauvel) de las costas Mexicanas del Pacifico. Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Mexico, 12(1): 161-175.
page(s): 733; note: for Hydroides glandiferum [details]   

original description  (ofPolyphragma Quatrefages, 1866) Quatrefages, Armand de. (1866 [imprint date 1865]). Histoire naturelle des Annelés marins et d'eau douce. Annélides et Géphyriens. Volume 2.. Première partie. 1-336. Deuxième Partie. 337-794. Explication des planches p.1-24. planches 1-20. Librarie Encyclopédique de Roret. Paris., available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=M_xNAAAAcAAJ
page(s): 507; note: Not a genus, but used as a subgenus or subgrouping of Serpula, for the species Eupomatus uncinatus, Serpula vermicularis, and Serpula mulleri [details]   

taxonomy source Read, Geoffrey B.; Ten Hove, Harry A.; Sun, Yanan; Kupriyanova, Elena K. (2017). Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Annelida, Serpulidae) is feminine: a nomenclatural checklist of updated names. ZooKeys. 642: 1-52., available online at http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10443
note: checklist, etymology, type localities [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Hove, Harry A. ten.; Kupriyanova, Elena K. (2009). Taxonomy of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta): The state of affairs. Zootaxa. 2036: 1-126., available online at http://www.mapress.com/j/zt/issue/view/2173
page(s): 52 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Glasby, C.J.; Read, G.B.; Lee, K.E.; Blakemore, R.J.; Fraser, P.M.; Pinder, A.M.; Erséus, C.; Moser, W.E.; Burreson, E.M.; Govedich, F.R.; Davies, R.W.; Dawson, E.W. (2009). Phylum Annelida: bristleworms, earthworms, leeches, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 312-358. [details]   

additional source Moen, Toril Loennechen. (2006). A translation of Bishop Gunnerus’ description of the species Hydroides norvegicus [sic] with comments on his Serpula triqvetra. Scientia Marina. 70 (Supplement 3):115-123., available online at http://www.icm.csic.es/scimar/index.php/secId/7/IdArt/167/
note: history of the genus name [details]   

additional source Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms, definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: Los Angeles, CA (USA), Science Series. 28:1-188., available online at http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/123110.pdf [details]   

additional source Bellan, Gerard. (2001). Polychaeta, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels. 50: pp. 214-231. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Bastida-Zavala, Jose Rolando and ten Hove, Harry A. 2002. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic Region. Beaufortia, 52(9): 103-178. [details]   

additional source Bastida-Zavala, Jose Rolando and ten Hove, Harry A. 2003. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Eastern Pacific Region and Hawaii. Beaufortia, 53(4): 67-110. [details]   

identification resource Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A.; Hutchings, Pat A.; Williamson, Jane E.; Kupriyanova, Elena. (2015). Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia. Zootaxa. 4009(1): 1-99., available online at https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4009.1.1 [details]   

identification resource Sun, Ruiping; Yang, Dejian. (2014). Annelida Polychaeta III Sabellida. Fauna Sinica Invertebrata. 54: 1-493., available online at http://www.hceis.com/home/book_view.aspx?id=12616&ISBN=9787030419217&EnName=Fauna+Sinica+Invertebrata++Vol.54+Annelida+Polychaeta+III++Sabellida
page(s): 452; note: Key in English to 32 species of Hydroides occurring in Chinese waters [details]   

basis of record  (ofHydroides (Eupomatus) Philippi, 1844) Fauchald, K. (2007). World Register of Polychaeta. , available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/polychaeta [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofCodonytes [sensu Quatrefages, 1866, non delle Chiaje, 1828]) ten Hove, H.A. & Ben-Eliahu, M. Nechama. (2005). On the identity of Hydroides priscus Pillai, 1971 - Taxonomic confusion due to ontogeny in some serpulid genera (Annelida: Polychaeta: Serpulidae). Senckenbergiana biologica. 85(2):127-145.
page(s): 132 [details]   

basis of record  (ofCodonytes [sensu Quatrefages, 1866, non delle Chiaje, 1828]) Quatrefages, Armand de. (1866 [imprint date 1865]). Histoire naturelle des Annelés marins et d'eau douce. Annélides et Géphyriens. Volume 2.. Première partie. 1-336. Deuxième Partie. 337-794. Explication des planches p.1-24. planches 1-20. Librarie Encyclopédique de Roret. Paris., available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=M_xNAAAAcAAJ
page(s): 493 [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofCodonytes [sensu Quatrefages, 1866, non delle Chiaje, 1828]) Zibrowius, Helmut 1972. Mise au point sur les espèces Méditeranéennes de Serpulidae (Annelida Polychaeta) décrites par Stefano delle Chiaje (1822-1829, 1841-1844) et Oronzio Gabriele Costa (1861). Tethys 4(1): 113-126. [details]   

status source  (ofEucarphus Mörch, 1863) Bastida-Zavala, Jose Rolando and ten Hove, Harry A. 2002. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic Region. Beaufortia, 52(9): 103-178. [details]   

basis of record  (ofEucarphus Mörch, 1863) Mörch, O. A. L. (1863). Revisio critica Serpulidarum. Et Bidrag til Rørormenes Naturhistorie. Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift. København, Ser. 3, 1: 347-470, pl. 11 [also issued as a separate, 1–124, pl. 11]., available online at http://www.archive.org/details/naturhistoriskti01copeuoft
page(s): 378; note: introduced as a subgenus of Hydroides [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofEucarphus Mörch, 1863) Pixell, Helen L. M. (1913). Polychaeta of the Indian Ocean, together with some species from the Cape Verde Islands. The Serpulidae, with a classification of the genera Hydroides and Eupomatus. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. (Series 2) 16: 69-92., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25257250
note: regarded Eucarphus as a junior synonym of Hydroides [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofProtohydroides Uchida, 1978) Hove, Harry A. ten 1984. Towards a phylogeny in serpulids (Annelida; Polychaeta), in P.A. Hutchings ed., Proceedings of the First International Polychaete Conference, Sydney, Australia, 1983: Sydney, The Linnean Society of New South Wales, p. 181-196. [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofSchizocraspedon Bush, 1905) Bastida-Zavala, Jose Rolando and ten Hove, Harry A. 2002. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic Region. Beaufortia, 52(9): 103-178. [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofEupomatus Philippi, 1844) Pillai, T. Gottfried 1972. A review and revision of the systematics of the genera Hydroides and Eupomatus together with an account of their phylogeny and zoogeography. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological Sciences) 10(1): 7-31.
page(s): 29; note: decided the lack of lateral spines which characterized Eupomatus is of species-level significance only within Hydroides [details]   

status source  (ofOlgaharmania Rioja, 1941) Bastida-Zavala, Jose Rolando and ten Hove, Harry A. 2003. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Eastern Pacific Region and Hawaii. Beaufortia, 53(4): 67-110.
page(s): 89; note: no synonymy statement but treat type species as a Hydroides  [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofHydroides (Eucarphus) Mörch, 1863) Pixell, Helen L. M. (1913). Polychaeta of the Indian Ocean, together with some species from the Cape Verde Islands. The Serpulidae, with a classification of the genera Hydroides and Eupomatus. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. (Series 2) 16: 69-92., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25257250
note: Eucarphus treated as a junior synonym of Hydroides [details]  OpenAccess publication 

basis of record  (ofEnponatus [misspelling]) Wade, Bruce. (1921). The fossil annelid genus Hamulus Morton, an operculate Serpula. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 59(2359): 41-46., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/7562823
page(s): 42; note: in text misspelling of no significance as 'Euponatus' for Eupomatus [details]  OpenAccess publication 

basis of record  (ofEupamotus [misspelling]) Hedgpeth, J.W., 1950. Annotated list of certain marine Invertebrates found on Texas jetties. In: H.L. Whitten, H.F. Rosene & J.W. Hedgpeth, The invertebrate fauna of Texas coast jetties; a preliminary survey Publs Inst. mar. Sci. Univ. Tex. 1 2: 72-87.
note: as Eupamotus dianthus, a careless checklist genus misspelling of no significance [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofGlossopsis Bush, 1905) Bastida-Zavala, Jose Rolando and ten Hove, Harry A. 2002. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic Region. Beaufortia, 52(9): 103-178. [details]   

new combination reference  (ofGlossopsis Bush, 1905) Bush, K.J. (1905). Tubicolous annelids of the tribes Sabellides and Serpulides from the Pacific Ocean. Harriman Alaska Expedition. 12: 169-346, plates XXI-XLIV., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/item/71821#page/189/mode/1up [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofGlossopsis Bush, 1905) Pixell, Helen L. M. (1913). Polychaeta of the Indian Ocean, together with some species from the Cape Verde Islands. The Serpulidae, with a classification of the genera Hydroides and Eupomatus. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. (Series 2) 16: 69-92., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25257250 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

new combination reference  (ofProtohydroides Uchida, 1978) Uchida, Hiro'omi 1978. Serpulid tube worms (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) from Japan with the systematic review of the group. Bulletin of the Marine Park Research Stations, 2(1/2): 1-98. [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofPolyphragma Quatrefages, 1866) Bastida-Zavala, Jose Rolando and ten Hove, Harry A. 2002. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic Region. Beaufortia, 52(9): 103-178. [details]   

additional source  (ofProtohydroides Uchida, 1978) Bastida-Zavala, Jose Rolando and ten Hove, Harry A. 2002. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic Region. Beaufortia, 52(9): 103-178.
page(s): 105 [details]   
From editor or global species database
Etymology Moen (2006) states: "The name Hydra, and the later Hydroides, seem to refer to the many-headed aquatic snake that was slain by Hercules in Greek mythology. But more specifically, it refers to the resemblance to the cnidarian genus described by Linnæus in 1758". Elsewhere, Stearn 1983:266) in his "Botanical Latin" explains that '-oides' endings were commonly used before and during Linnæus's era to indicate a resemblance to a genus already known, although Linnaeus himself disliked the practice as an easy option, and his disciples at times used '-oides' names as provisional. [details]

Grammatical gender Feminine fide Gunnerus (1768) and 1999 ICZN Code, Art. 30.1.4.4) [details]

Nomenclature The genus Hydroides is feminine. This is because Gunnerus clearly treated it as feminine when he used the feminine 'norvegica' as epithet instead of the masculine 'norvegicus'. The AnimalBase record [has link to the digitized work] extracted from the original states this explicitly.

For a long period, the ICZN, from at least the 2nd Edition (1964: Art. 30a(ii), required (via the examples) that genus names ending in -oides are to be treated as masculine. In the ICZN 3rd Edition (1985: Art. 30b) the text was the same (the examples text stated that these genus names were 'substantivated adjectives'). Despite this requirement, mostly taxonomists working on Hydroides during this period treated it as feminine.

A modification with a major effect on Hydroides names occurred in 1999 with the publication of a new Code edition. In the ICZN 4th Edition (1999: Art. 30.1.4.4) a qualifying clause was added that had the effect of reverting the gender of Hydroides to its original feminine status. The wording in full is "A compound genus-group name ending in the suffix -ites, -oides, -ides, -odes, or -istes is to be treated as masculine unless its author, when establishing the name, stated that it had another gender or treated it as such by combining it with an adjectival species-group name in another gender form." Consequently the history is that for about 35 years species names in Hydroides were required to have masculine endings according to the Code, and now for the last 15 years they are required to have feminine endings again. In practice taxonomists' only widely adopted the masculine form around 1992 (fide Moen, 2006:121). As stated this became incorrect from 1999. The change in the Code was part of changes intended "to simplify the identification of gender in genus-group names" (ICZN, 1999:XXVI). However, in a large genus such as Hydroides many changes may result, and each name requires re-evaluation. [details]


Type species Type species: Hydroides norvegica Gunnerus, 1768 in Fauchald (1977). [details]