WoRMS taxon details

Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801

206284  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:206284)

accepted
Genus
Zoanthus sociatus (Ellis, 1768) (type by monotypy)
Species Zoanthus alderi Gosse, 1860
Species Zoanthus barnardi Carlgren, 1938
Species Zoanthus bertholetti
Species Zoanthus chierchiae Heider, 1895
Species Zoanthus coppingeri Haddon & Shackleton, 1891
Species Zoanthus durbanensis Carlgren, 1938
Species Zoanthus gigantus Reimer & Tsukahara in Reimer, Ono, Iwama, Takishita, Tsukahara & Maruyama, 2006
Species Zoanthus kealakekuaensis Walsh & Bowers, 1971
Species Zoanthus kuroshio Reimer & Ono in Reimer, Ono, Iwama, Takishita, Tsukahara & Maruyama, 2006
Species Zoanthus marshae Carlgren, 1954
Species Zoanthus natalensis Carlgren, 1938
Species Zoanthus pigmentatus Wilsmore, 1909
Species Zoanthus praelongus Carlgren, 1954
Species Zoanthus pulchellus (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860)
Species Zoanthus robustus Carlgren, 1950
Species Zoanthus sansibaricus Carlgren, 1900
Species Zoanthus sinensis Zunan, 1998
Species Zoanthus sociatus (Ellis, 1768)
Species Zoanthus solanderi Le Sueur, 1818
Species Zoanthus stuhlmanni Carlgren
Species Zoanthus vietnamensis Pax & Müller, 1957
Species Zoanthus xishaensis Zunan, 1998

Species Zoanthus americanus Verrill accepted as Epizoanthus incrustatus Düben & Koren, 1847 accepted as Epizoanthus papillosus Johnston, 1842
Species Zoanthus anduzii (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860) accepted as Zoanthus pulchellus (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860)
Species Zoanthus auricula (Lesueur, 1817) accepted as Zoanthus pulchellus (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860)
Species Zoanthus cavernarum Pax & Müller, 1957 accepted as Zoanthus sansibaricus Carlgren, 1900 (synonymy)
Species Zoanthus couchii Johnston in Couch, 1844 accepted as Epizoanthus couchii (Johnston in Couch, 1844) (original representation)
Species Zoanthus cyanoides Pax & Müller, 1957 accepted as Zoanthus sansibaricus Carlgren, 1900 (synonymy)
Species Zoanthus erythrochloros Pax & Müller, 1957 accepted as Zoanthus sansibaricus Carlgren, 1900 (synonymy)
Species Zoanthus flos-marinus Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860 accepted as Zoanthus sociatus (Ellis, 1768)
Species Zoanthus gnophodes Pax & Müller, 1957 accepted as Zoanthus sansibaricus Carlgren, 1900 (synonymy)
Species Zoanthus nobilis Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860 accepted as Zoanthus sociatus (Ellis, 1768)
Species Zoanthus norvegicus Koren & Danielssen, 1877 accepted as Epizoanthus norvegicus (Koren & Danielssen, 1877) (original representation)
Species Zoanthus nymphaeus (Lesueur, 1817) accepted as Zoanthus pulchellus (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860)
Species Zoanthus parasiticus Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860 accepted as Umimayanthus parasiticus (Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860) (original combination)
Species Zoanthus poriticola Pax, 1910 accepted as Zoanthus sociatus (Ellis, 1768)
Species Zoanthus proteus Verrill, 1900 accepted as Zoanthus sociatus (Ellis, 1768)
Species Zoanthus rubricornis Holdsworth, 1861 accepted as Epizoanthus rubricornis (Holdsworth, 1861) (original representation)
Species Zoanthus tuberculatus Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860 accepted as Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828
Species Zoanthus zansibaricus Carlgren, 1900 accepted as Zoanthus sansibaricus Carlgren, 1900

Species Zoanthus vestitus Verrill, 1928 represented as Palythoa vestitus (Verrill, 1928) (changed combination)

Subgenus Zoanthus (Acrozoanthus) (uncertain > unassessed)
  » Species Zoanthus (Acrozoanthus) australiae Saville-Kent (uncertain > unassessed)
Subgenus Zoanthus (Corticanthus) (uncertain > unassessed)
Subgenus Zoanthus (Monanthus) (uncertain > unassessed)
Subgenus Zoanthus (Palythoa) (uncertain > unassessed)
Subgenus Zoanthus (Rhyzanthus) (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus anguicoma Norman, 1869 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus anneae Carlgren, 1937 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus arcticus M. Sars (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus arenaceus Delle Chiaje, 1841 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus atroviridis Stuckey, 1914 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus australiae Saville-Kent (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus axinellae (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus brighti Carlgren, 1938 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus cabindaensis F. Pax, 1952 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus caespitosus Pax, 1912 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus calypso F. Pax & I. Müller, 1956 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus capensis Carlgren, 1938 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus cnidosus (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus confertus Verrill, 1928 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus danae (Le Conte, 1852) (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Zoanthus depressus Carlgren, 1951 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus dichros F. Pax & I. Müller, 1956 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus dubia Le Sueur, 1818 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Zoanthus dubius Le Sueur, 1818 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Zoanthus ebenfalls Erdmann (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus ellisii Lamouroux, 1821 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Zoanthus epistrephtus (F. Pax & I. Müller, 1956) (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus erythrochlora Pax & Müller, 1957 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, Reimer et al. 2004)
Species Zoanthus eyrei Carlgren, 1938 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus fraseri Carlgren, 1937 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus funafutiensis Whitelegge, 1899 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus glaucus W. Koch, 1886 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus heterohyla (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus hypsicarenus F. Pax & I. Müller, 1956 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus incrustatus Düb. & Kor. (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus incultus Andres (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus jukesii Haddon & Shackleton, 1891 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus lawrencei Carlgren, 1938 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus lobatus D.-Ch. (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus macgillivrayi Haddon & Shackleton, 1891 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus mantoni (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, may be synonymous with Z. coppingeri)
Species Zoanthus marshi Carlgren, 1954 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus mertensii Brandt, 1835 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Zoanthus monohyla (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus nitidus Verrill, 1928 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus pacificus Walsh & Bowers, 1971 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, may be synonymous with Z. coppingeri or Z. sansibaricus)
Species Zoanthus papillosus (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus parvus Carlgren, 1938 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus perii Audoin (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus racemosus Carlgren, 1938 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus ransoni F. Pax & I. Müller, 1956 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus rapanuiensis Carlgren, 1922 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus sanctaehelenae Carlgren, 1941 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus sandvicensis Wilsmore, 1909 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus savignyi Andres, 1883 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Zoanthus schultzei Pax, 1920 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus shackletoni Haddon & Duerden, 1896 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus similis Wilsmore, 1909 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus socialis Cuv. (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus sociata Le Sueur, 1818 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, homonym)
Species Zoanthus sociatus Le Sueur, 1818 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, homonym)
Species Zoanthus somaliae Pax & Müller, 1957 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus stephensoni (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus sulcatus Gosse, 1860 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus tamatavensis Pax, 1909 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus thalassanthus Lesson (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus thomensis W. Koch, 1886 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus tubicola F. Pax, 1952 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus valdiviae Carlgren, 1923 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus viridis (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus wilsmorei (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Zoanthus zanzibaricus Carlgren, 1900 (uncertain > unassessed)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Jones, D. A. (1986). A Field Guide to the Sea Shores of Kuwait and the Arabian Gulf. <em>Universty of Kuwait.</em> 192 pp.
page(s): 49 [details]   
Reimer, J.; Sinniger, F. (2022). World List of Zoantharia. Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=206284 on 2022-11-27
Date
action
by
2004-06-06 22:00:00Z
created
2006-09-05 10:37:23Z
changed
2010-01-02 22:01:31Z
checked
2011-10-04 13:36:00Z
changed
2019-09-13 14:37:42Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Jones, D. A. (1986). A Field Guide to the Sea Shores of Kuwait and the Arabian Gulf. <em>Universty of Kuwait.</em> 192 pp.
page(s): 49 [details]   

additional source Hertwig, R. (1888). Report on the Actiniaria dredged by HMS 'Challenger' during the years 1873-1876. Supplement. <em>Reports on the scientific results of the voyage of HMS Challenger during the years 1873-76.</em> XXVI, pt. LXXIII: 4–56. London, Edinburgh & Dublin., available online at https://archive.org/details/reportonactiniar00hert/page/16
page(s): 34, 35, 36, 40, 47, 52 [details]   

additional source Gray, J.E. (1858). On the <i>Dysidea papillosa</i> of Dr. Johnston. <em>Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.</em> 26: 531-532.
page(s): 532 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Thomson, J.A.; Henderson, W.D. (1906). The marine fauna of Zanzibar and British East Africa, from collections made by Cyril Crossland, M.A., B.Sc., F.Z.S., in the years 1901 and 1902 -- Alcyonaria. <em>Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.</em> 1906, 393-442, plates 26-31., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/32051773
page(s): 778, 781, 783, 785, 786 [details]   

additional source Milne Edwards H,. (1857). Histoire naturelle des coralliaires, ou polypes proprement dits. 1. <em>Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.</em> 326 pp., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12045211
page(s): 299 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Reimer JD, Ono S, Fujiwara Y, Takishita K, Tsukahara J. (2004). Reconsidering Zoanthus spp. diversity: molecular evidence of conspecificity within four previously presumed species. <em>Zoological Science.</em> 21: 517–525.
page(s): 517-518 [details]   

additional source Fenner, D. P. (2005). Corals of Hawai'i. A Field Guide to the Hard, Black, and Soft Corals of Hawai'i and the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, Including Midway. <em>Mutual Publishing, Ltd., Honolulu.</em> 144 pp.
page(s): 27, 91 [details]   

additional source McMurrich J.P. (1898). Report on the Actiniaria collected by the Bahama Expedition of the State University of Iowa, 1893. <em>Bulletin from the laboratories of natural history of the State University of Iowa.</em> v. 4, no. 3, p. 225-249.
page(s): 244 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1889). A contribution to the actinology of the Bermudas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 41: 102-126
page(s): 117 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. et al. (2000). Semper’s (zoanthid) larvae: pelagic life, parentage and other problems. Hydrobiologia, 440: 191-198
page(s): 2, 5 [details]   

additional source Kaplan, E. H. (1982). A Field Guide to Coral Reefs: Caribbean and Florida. <em>Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.</em> pp 289.
page(s): 25-28, 33 [details]   

additional source Fossa, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1998). The Modern Coral Reef Aquarium. <em>Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag, Bornheim, Germany.</em> volume 2, pp 479.
page(s): 271, 272, 273, 275, 276, 283 [details]   

additional source Andres, A. (1883). Le Attinie (Monografia). Coi Tipi der Salviucci. Roma., volume 1 (Bibliografia, introduzione e specigrafia), pp. 460.
page(s): 305, 306, 311, 323, 335 [details]   

additional source Verrill, A. E. (1868-1870). Review of the corals and polyps of the west coast of America. <em>Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences.</em> 1, 6, 377-558.
page(s): 495 [details]   

additional source Verrill, A. E. (1868). Synopsis of the polyps and corals of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore C. Ringgold and Capt. John Rodgers, U.S.N., from 1853 to 1856. Collected by Dr. Wm. Stimpson, Naturalist to the Expedition. Part IV. Actiniaria [First part]. Communications of the Essex Institute, 5(3): 315-330 [reprint 1-16]
page(s): 316 [2] [details]   

additional source Hoover, J. P. (1998). Hawaii's Sea Creatures. Mutual Publishing. Honolulu., edition 1st, pp. 366.
page(s): 45 [details]   

additional source Gore, M. A. (1984). Factors affecting the feeding behaviour of a coral reef fish, Chaetodon capistratus. Bulletin of Marine Science, 35(2): 211-220
page(s): 221, 224 [details]   

additional source James, N. P.; Stearn, C. W.; Harrison, R. S. (1977). Field Guidebook to Modern and Pleistocene Reef Carbonates, Barbados, W.I.. Third International Symposium on Coral Reefs Committee. Miami., edition 1st, pp. 30.
page(s): 22 [details]   

additional source Beneden, É. (1890). Les Anthozoaires pélagiques recueillis par M. le professeur Hensen dans son expédition du Plankton. Communication préliminaire. I. - Une larve voisine de la larve de Semper. Archives de Biologie, 10, 485-521
page(s): 517, 518 [details]   

additional source Lang, J. C.; Wicklund, R. I.; Dill, R. F. (1988). Depth- and habitat-related bleaching of zooxanthellate reef organisms near Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. volume 3, pp. 269-274
page(s): 273 [details]   

additional source Maragos, J. E.; Siciliano, D.; Gulko, D.; VanRavenswaay, D.; Potts, D. C.; Aeby, G. (2004). Nihoa Island coral data compiled from Townsend Cromwell 2000, and Rapture 2000 and 2002 sites [Table 1]. Unpublished. [details]   

additional source Fautin, D. G.; Bucklin, A. (1988). Anthozoan dominated benthic environments. volume 3, pp. 231-236
page(s): 234 [details]   

additional source Hertwig, R. (1882). Die Actinien der Challenger Expedition. Gustav Fischer. Jena., pp. 119.
page(s): 99-103, 108, 116, Pl. XIV. Fig. 1-4 [details]   

additional source Hertwig, R. (1882). Report on the Actiniaria dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76 (Zoology), 6(1): 1-136
page(s): 111-116, 121, 130 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1889). The Actiniaria of the Bahama Islands, W.I. Journal of Morphology, 3(1): 1-80
page(s): 61-62, 65 [details]   

additional source Shenoy, S.; Sankolli, K. N. (1973). Metamorphosis of two species of genus Polyonyx Stimpson - P. hendersoni Southwell and P. Loimicola Sankolli (Anomura, Porcellanidae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 15, 2, 710-727
page(s): 710 [details]   

additional source Scheltema, R. S. (1989). The eastern Pacific as a barrier to the dispersal of planktonic larvae of benthic invertebrates. Proceedings of the Twenty-first European Marine Biology Symposium, 435-445
page(s): 442 [details]   

additional source Karlson, R. H. (1983). Disturbance and monopolization of a spatial resource by Zoanthus sociatus (Coelenterata, Anthozoa). Bulletin of Marine Science, 33(1): 118-131
page(s): 120 [details]   

additional source Karlson, R. H. (1988). Size-dependent growth in two zoanthid species: a contrast in clonal strategies. Ecology, 69(4): 1219-1232
page(s): 1222 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1987). Ordre des Zoanthaires. Masson. Paris., pp. 783-810
page(s): 785, 787, 791, 792, 795, 797, 798, 799, 802, 805, 806 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Contribution à l'étude écologique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. Marine Biology, 13, 127-136
page(s): 130, 131 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1976). Sur trois zoanthaires nouveaux pour Tuléar, Madagascar. Beaufortia, 25(320): 33-47
page(s): 33, 37, 45 [details]   

additional source Menon, K. R. (1926). On the adults of Zoanthella and Zoanthina. Records of the Indian Museum (A Journal of Indian Zoology), 28, 61-64
page(s): 62, 63 [details]   

additional source Menon, K. R. (1902). Notes on Semper's larvae. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Biological Sciences, 11, 407-417
page(s): 413 [details]   

additional source Muirhead, A. M.; Ryland, J. S. (1984). Order Zoanthidea. Australian Coral Reef Society. Brisbane., edition 2nd, pp. 29-33
page(s): 29, 30, 33 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1891). Contributions on the morphology of the Actinozoa. III. The phylogeny of the Actinozoa. Journal of Morphology, 5, 125-164
page(s): 143 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Mueller, I. (1957). Zoantharien des zoologischen museums in Genua. Annali del Museu Civico di Storia Naturali 'Giacomo Doria', 69, 19-30
page(s): 20 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1934). Anthozoa (Teil I. Allgemeines, Ceriantharia, Antipatharia, Zoantharia, Madreporaria). Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostee, 26, 39-53
page(s): 40, 47, 48 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Mueller, I. (1956). Zoanthaires de la Mer Rouge. Recueillis par le vaisseau d'exploration "Calypso" en 1952. Annales de l'Institute Oceanographique, 32, 3-17
page(s): 3 [details]   

additional source Soong, K.; Shiau, Y. S.; Chen, C. P. (1999). Morphological and life history divergence of the zoanthid, Sphenopus marsupialis off the Taiwanese coast. Zoological Studies, 38(3): 333-343
page(s): 339 [details]   

additional source Scheltema, R. S. (1971). The dispersal of the larvae of shoal-water benthic invertebrate species over long distances by ocean currents. Proceedings of the Fourth European Marine Biology Symposium, 7-28
page(s): 13 [details]   

additional source Tischbierek, H. (1930). Zoanthiden auf Wurmröhren. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 91, 91-95
page(s): 93-95 [details]   

additional source Seifert, R. (1928). Die Nesselkapseln der Zoantharien und ihre differentialdiagnostische Bedeutung. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, 55, 419-500
page(s): 419, 421, 424, 428, 429, 430, 431, 435-457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 467 [details]   

additional source Sauer Machado, K. R. S.; Chapman, A. R. O.; Coutinho, R. (1996). Consumer species have limited and variable roles in community organization on a tropical intertidal shore. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 134, 73-83
page(s): 73-83 [details]   

additional source Southwell, T. (1906). Corrections and Additions. Part V.- Add the following list of Actiniaria identified by Mr. T. Southwell. W. A. Herdman (eds.). Royal Society. London, chapter correction, volume V, pp. 451-452
page(s): 451 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S.; Wigley, R. A.; Muirhead, A. M. (1984). Ecology and colonial dynamics of some Pacific reef flat Didemnidae (Ascidiacea). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 80, 261-282
page(s): 270 [details]   

additional source Gleibs, S.; Mebs, D.; Werding, B. (1995). Studies on the origin and distribution of palytoxin in a Caribbean coral reef. Toxicon, 33(11): 1531-1537
page(s): 1531, 1533, 1536 [details]   

additional source Nielsen, C. (1984). Notes on a Zoanthina-larva (Cnidaria) from Phuket, Thailand. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening (Copenhagen), 145, 53-60
page(s): 53 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. (1997). Reproduction in Zoanthidea (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 31(1-3): 177-188
page(s): 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184, 185 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. (1981). Reefs of southwest Viti Levu and their tourism potential. Proceedings of the Fourth International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 293-298
page(s): 296 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S.; Muirhead, A. M. (1983). Fringing reefs in southwest Viti Levu, with special reference to Zoanthidea. Bulletin of Marine Science, 33(3): 783-784
page(s): 783 [details]   

additional source den Hartog, J. C. (1997). The sea anemone fauna of Indonesian coral reefs. Periplus Editions. Republic of Singapore., chapter Box 8.2, volume 7, pp. 351-370
page(s): 363 [details]   

additional source Andres, A. (1877). On a new genus and species of Zoanthina malacodermata (Panceria spongiosa, sp. n.). Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 17, 221-226
page(s): 225 [details]   

additional source Ates, R. M. L. (1995). Colonial anemones - Zoanthiniaria. A review for the seriously interested marine aquarist. Aquarium Frontiers, Spring 1995, 10-13
page(s): 10-13 [details]   

additional source Blank, R. J. (1987). Evolutionary differentiation in gymnodinioid zooxanthellae. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 503, 530-533
page(s): 530-531 [details]   

additional source Carlos, A. A.; Baillie, B. K.; Kawachi, M.; Maruyama, T. (1999). Phylogenetic position of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) isolates from tridacnids (Bivalvia), cardiids (Bivalvia), a sponge (Porifera), a soft coral (Anthozoa), and a free-living strain. Journal of Phycology, 35, 1054-1062
page(s): 1055, 1057, 1058, 1059 [details]   

additional source Duerden, J. E. (1896). Zoanthidæ at Port Henderson. Journal of the Institute of Jamaica, 2(3): 285-287
page(s): 285-287 [details]   

additional source Erdmann, A. (1885). Ueber einige neue Zoantheen. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft, 19, 430-488
page(s): 438-449 [details]   

additional source Fischer, P. (1875). On the Actiniæ of the oceanic coasts of France. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 15(4): 373-376
page(s): 374 [details]   

additional source Fosså, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1995). Korallenriff-Aquarium, 4. Nesseltiere in Korallenriff und für das Korallenriff-Aquarium. Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag. Bornheim, Germany., edition 1st, volume 4, pp. 447.
page(s): 257, 259, 260, 261, 266, 269 [details]   

additional source Frische, J. (1991). Flächenwüchsige Aquarienpfleglinge. Das Aquarium, 261, 33-37
page(s): 31, 32 [details]   

additional source Duerden, J. E. (1898). The geographical distribution of the Actiniaria of Jamaica. Natural Science, 12(72): 100-105
page(s): 103 [details]   

additional source Maragos, J. E.; VanRavenswaay, D.; Potts, D. C.; Siciliano, D.; Aeby, G.; Kenyon, J.; Gulko, D. (2004). Necker Island coral data compiled from Rapture and Townsend Cromwell 2000 and 2002, and Sette 2003 surveys [Table 4]. UNPUBLISHED, Unpublished
page(s): 1 [details]   

additional source Maragos, J. E.; VanRavenswaay, D.; Gulko, D. (2004). French Frigate Shoals coral data compiled from Townsend Cromwell 2000-2, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Rapture 2000 and 2002, and 2003 Sette surveys [Table 1]. UNPUBLISHED, Unpublished
page(s): 1 [details]   

additional source Maragos, J. E.; Siciliano, D.; VanRavenswaay, D.; Aeby, G.; Kenyon, J.; Gulko, D.; Potts, D. C. (2004). Maro reef coral data compiled from Townsend Cromwell 2000 and 2002, American Islander 2001, Rapture 2000 and 2002, and Sette 2003 surveys [Table 9]. UNPUBLISHED, Unpublished
page(s): 1 [details]   

additional source Maragos, J. E.; VanRavenswaay, D.; Aeby, G.; Gulko, D.; Kenyon, J.; Siciliano, D.; Potts, D. C. (2004). Kure Atoll coral data compiled from Rapture and Townsend Cromwell 2000 and 2002, and Sette 2003 surveys [Table 15]. UNPUBLISHED, Unpublished
page(s): 1 [details]   

additional source Castro, C. B.; Echeverría, C. A.; Pires, D. de Oliveira; Mascarenhas, B. J. de A.; Freitas, S. G. (1995). Distribuição de Cnidaria e echinodermata no infralitoral de costões rochosos de arraial do cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia (Rio de Janeiro), 55(3): 471-480
page(s): 471-472, 476-479 [details]   

additional source Morton, J. E. (1974). The coral reefs of the British Solomon Islands: a comparative study of their composition and ecology. Proceedings of the Second International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 31-53
page(s): 35, 47, 48, 50 [details]   

additional source Acosta, A.; Sammarco, P. W.; Duarte, L. F. (2001). Asexual reproduction in a zoanthid by fragmentation: the role of exogenous factors. Bulletin of Marine Science, 68(3): 363-381
page(s): 375-376 [details]   

additional source Müller, G. (1883). Zur Morphologie der Scheidewände bei einigen Palythoa und Zoanthus. Marburg., pp. 44.
page(s): 35-36 [details]   

additional source Babcock, R. C.; Ryland, J. S. (1990). Larval development of a tropical zoanthid (Protopalythoa sp.). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 17, 3, 229-236
page(s): 236 [details]   

additional source DeFelice, R.; Minton, D.; Godwin, L. S. (2002). Records of Shallow-Water Marine Invertebrates from French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, with a Note on Noningenous Species: Report to U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Bishop Museum. Honolulu, Hawaii., pp. 78.
page(s): 26, 52 [details]   

additional source Ono, S.; Reimer, J. D.; Tsukahara, J. (2003). Long-term changes of Zoanthus spp. in the infra-littoral zone at Taisho Lava Field, Sakurajima, Kagoshima, Japan. Galaxea, 5, 21-31
page(s): 21-30 [details]   

additional source Ono, S.; Reimer, J. D.; Tsukahara, J. (2005). Reproduction of Zoanthus sansibaricus in the infra-littoral zone at Taisho Lava Field, Sakurajima, Kagoshima, Japan. Zoological Science, 22, 247-255
page(s): 247, 254 [details]   

additional source Reimer, J. D.; Takishita, K.; Maruyama, T. (2006). Molecular identification of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) from Palythoa spp. (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in Japan. Coral Reefs, 25, 521-527
page(s): 522, 524 [details]   

additional source Brugler, M. R.; France, S. C. (2007). The complete mitochondrial genome of the black coral Chrysopathes formosa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia) supports classification of antipatharians within the subclass Hexacorallia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 42, 776-788
page(s): 778, 781, 783, 785, 786 [details]   

additional source Reimer, J. D.; Ono, S.; Furushima, Y.; Tsukahara, J. (2007). Seasonal changes in morphological condition of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) in Zoanthus sansibaricus (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in southern Japan. South Pacific Sudies, 27(2): 1-23
page(s): 3, 15 [details]   

additional source Medina, M.; Collins, A. G.; Takaoka, T. L.; Kuehl, J. V.; Boore, J. L. (2006). Naked corals: skeleton loss in Scleractinia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(24): 9096-9100
page(s): 9097, 9098 [details]   

additional source Gasparini, J. L.; Floeter, S. R.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Sazima, I. (2005). Marine ornamental trade in Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14, 2883-2899
page(s): 2896 [details]   

additional source Tazioli, S.; Bo, M.; Boyer, M.; Rotinsulu, H.; Bavestrello, G. (2007). Ecological observations of some common antipatharian corals in the marine park of Bunaken (North Sulawesi, Indonesia). Zoological Studies, 46(2): 227-241
page(s): 236, 237 [details]   

additional source Hoffmann, K.; Hermanns-Clausen, M.; Buhl, C.; Büchler, M. W.; Schemmer, P.; Mebs, D.; Kauferstein, S. (2008). A case of palytoxin poisoning due to contact with zoanthid corals through a skin injury. Toxicon, 51, 1535-1537
page(s): 1535 [details]   

additional source Hirose, M.; Obuchi, M.; Hirose, E.; Reimer, J. D. (2011). Timing of spawning and early development of Palythoa tuberculosa (Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) in Okinawa, Japan. Biological Bulletin, 220(23-31): 23-31
page(s): 25 [details]   

additional source Wright, E. P. (1866). Coelenterata. Albert C.L.G. Günther (eds.). John Van Voorst. London, volume 2, pp. 768-784
page(s): 783 [details]   

additional source Ocaña, O.; Brito, A. (2004). A review of Gerardiidae (Anthozoa: Zoantharia) from the Macronesian Islands and the Mediterranean Sea with the description of a new species. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias, 15(3-4): 159-189
page(s): 160 [details]   

additional source Amaral, F. D.; Ramos, C. A. C.; Leão, Z. M. A. N.; Kikuchi, R. K. P.; Lima, K. K. M.; Longo, L.; Cordeiro, R. T. S.; Lira, S. M. A.; Vasconcelos, S. L. (2009). Checklist and morphometry of benthic cnidarians from the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 50, 277-290
page(s): 283 [details]   

additional source Dunn, D. F. (1982). Cnidaria. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York and other cities., volume 1, pp. 669-706
page(s): 704 [details]   

additional source Henríquez H., Y. A.; Palacios C., M. E. (2008). Distribución de antozoo Stichodactyla helianthus en un arrecife franjeante de Isla Larga, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. FARAUTE Ciencias y Tecnología, 3(1): 5-16
page(s): 5, 13 [details]   

additional source Andres, A. (1883). Le Attinie. Atti dell' Accademia de Lincei, 14, 3, Memorie, 211-673
page(s): 543 [details]   

additional source Chun, C. (1902-1903). Aus den Tiefen des Weltmeeres. Schilderungen von der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. Mit 6 Chromolithographien, 8 Heliogravüren, 32 als Tafeln gedruckten Vollbildern, 3 Karten und 482 Abbiludingen im Text. Zweite umgearbeitete und stark vermehrte Auflage. <em>Jena, G. Fischer.</em> ix + 592 pp., 46 pls., 3 maps., available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.14876
page(s): 160 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Neave, Sheffield Airey. (1939-1996). Nomenclator Zoologicus vol. 1-10 Online. [developed by uBio, hosted online at MBLWHOI Library]., available online at http://ubio.org/NomenclatorZoologicus/ [details]   

additional source Colin, P.L.; Arneson, C. (1995). Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. A fieldGuide to the Marine Invertebrates Occurring on Tropical Pacific Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangroves. <em>Coral Reef Press: Irvine, USA.</em> 1-296.
page(s): 122, 126-127 [details]   

additional source Whiteaves J.F. (1872). Notes on a deep-sea dredging-expedition round the Island of Anticosti, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (Ser. 4) 10, pp. 341-354.
page(s): 345 [details]   

additional source Hyman, L.H., 1940. The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York and London : i-xii, 1-726.
page(s): 625 [details]   

additional source Gravely, F.H., 1941. Shells and other animal remains found on the Madras beach. I. Groups other than snails, etc. (Mollusca Gastropoda). Bull. Madras Govt Mus., n. ser., nat. Hist. 5 1: 1-112.
page(s): 16 [details]   

additional source Lenhoff, H.M., 1974. On the mechanism of action and evolution of receptors associated with feeding and digestion. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 211-243.
page(s): 217 [details]   

additional source Muscatine, L., 1974. Endosymbiosis of cnidarians and algae. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 359-395.
page(s): 377, 388 [details]   

additional source Reed, S.A., 1971. Some common Coelenterates in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. In: H.M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine & L.V. Davis, eds, Experimental Coelenterate Biology : 37-51.
page(s): 47, 48, 49 [details]   

additional source Reimer, A.A., 1971. Observations on the relationships between several species of tropical zoanthids (Zoanthidea, Coelenterata) and their zooxanthellae. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 7 : 207-214.
page(s): 207, 208, 211-212, 213, 214 [details]   

additional source Trench, R.K. & R.J. Blank. (1987). Symbiodinium microadriaticum Freudenthal, S. goreauii sp. nov., S. kawagutii sp. nov. and S. pilosum sp. nov.: gymnodinioid dinoflagellate symbionts of marine invertebrates. <em>J. Phycol.</em> 23: 469-481.
page(s): 472, 477 [details]   

additional source Chun, C. (1900). Aus den Tiefen des Weltmeeres Schilderungen von der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. vi + 549 pp., 46 pls, 2 maps Jena (G. Fischer)., available online at http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/ebind/mfn/chun-2005-51569/XML/index.xml?part=page&page=448&resolution=high
page(s): 146, 148 [details]   

additional source Gosse, P.H., 1860. Actinologia Britannica. A history of the British sea-anemones and corals. London: Van Voorst : pp. i-xl, 1-362.
page(s): 295, 296 [details]   

additional source Brattström, H. (1980). Rocky-shore zonation in the Santa Marta area, Colombia. <em>Sarsia.</em> 65: 163-226.
page(s): 175, 176, 183, 184, 185, 190, 199, 204, 208, 210, 215 [details]   

additional source Cubit, John and Williams, Suelynn 1983. The invertebrates of Galeta Reef (Caribbean Panama): a species list and bibliography. Atoll Research Bulletin 269: 1-45.
page(s): 9 [details]   

additional source Stephenson, William, Endean, R. and Bennett, Isobel 1958. An ecological survey of the marine fauna of Low Isles, Queensland. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 9(2): 261-318.
page(s): 267, 284, 286, 288, 290, 299, 300 [details]   

additional source Robertson, A.L., J. Lancaster, L.R. Belyea & A.G. Hildrew. (1997). Hydraulic habitat and the assemblage structure of stream benthic microcrustacea. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16(3):562-575.
page(s): 246-247 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Reimer, Ono, Iwama, Takishita, Tsukahara & Maruyama. 2006. Morphological and molecular revision of Zoanthus (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) from southwestern Japan with description of two new species. Zoological Science    Volume: 23    Issue: 3    Pages: 261-275
page(s): 261, 262 [details]   

additional source Itô, T. & Grygier, M.J. 1990. Description and complete larval development of a new species of Baccalaureus (Crustacea: Ascothoracida) parasitic in a zoanthid from Tanabe Bay, Honshu, Japan. Zoological Science 7 (3): 485-515.
page(s): 485, 498 [details]   

additional source Van Beneden, E. (1897). Les Anthozoaires de la Plankton-Expedition = Die Anthozoen der Plankton-Expedition. Ergebnisse der in dem Atlantischen Ocean von Mitte Juli bis Anfang November 1889 ausgeführten Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung, II. K.e.. Lipsius & Tischer: Kiel. 222 + XVIII plates pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 161, 162, 163 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1937). Ceriantharia and Zoantharia. <em>Scientific Reports of the Great Barrier Reef Expedition 1928-29.</em> 5(5): 177-207.
page(s): 183, 184 [details]   

additional source Heilprin, A. (1888). Contributions to the Natural History of the Bermuda Islands. <em>Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.</em> 40: 302-328., available online at http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4061282.pdf
page(s): 309 [details]   

additional source Verrill, A.E. (1864). Revision of the *Polypi* of the eastern coast of the United States. <em>Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History.</em> 1: 1-45., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/43823403
page(s): 34 [details]   

additional source Cuvier, G. 1863. The Animal Kingdom Arranged According to its Organization. Henry G. Bohn, London.
page(s): 672 [details]   

additional source Cairns, S.D.; Gershwin, L.; Brook, F.J.; Pugh, P.; Dawson, E.W.; Ocaña O.V.; Vervoort, W.; Williams, G.; Watson, J.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Schuchert, P.; Hine, P.M.; Gordon, D.P.; Campbell, H.J.; Wright, A.J.; Sánchez, J.A.; Fautin, D.G. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. <em>in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia.</em> pp. 59-101., available online at https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/8431 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Carlgren, O. (1923). Ceriantharia und Zoantharia der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. <em>Deutsche Tiefsee-Expedition 1898-1899.</em> 19(7): 243-337.
page(s): 255 [details]   

additional source Alcock A., 1893. On some Actiniaria from the Indian seas. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. vol 62, part 2, N 3: 151-153
page(s): 152 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1900). Ostafrikanische Actinien. Gesammelt von Herrn Dr. F. Stuhlmann 1888 und 1889. <em>Mittheilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum.</em> 17: 21-144.
page(s): 120 [details]   

additional source Sinniger, F.; Reimer, J.D.; Pawlowski, J. (2010). The Parazoanthidae (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) DNA taxonomy: description of two new genera. Marine Biodiversity, 40(1), 57-70.
page(s): 59 [details]   

additional source Haddon, A. and Shackleton, A. (1891). A revision of the British actiniæ. Part II.: The Zoantheæ. <i>Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society</i>. 4 (12): 609-672.
page(s): 623, 629 [details]   

additional source Holdsworth, E.W.H. (1858). On Zoanthus couchii, Johnston. <i>Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London</i>. Part XXVI:557-560.
page(s): 557, 558, 559, 560 [details]   

additional source Andres, A. (1884). Le attinie. Volume primo, contente bibliografia, introduzione e specigrafia. , available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/81386
page(s): 335 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Etude systématique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. <em>Tethys.</em> Supplement 3, pp. 69-156.
page(s): 69, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 130, 142, 147 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Sinniger, F.; Montoya-Burgos, J. I.; Chevaldonné, P.; Pawlowski, J. (2005). Phylogeny of the order Zoantharia (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) based on the mitochondrial ribosomal genes. <em>Marine Biology.</em> 147(5): 1121-1128., available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-005-0016-3
page(s): 1122, 1124, 1125, 1126 [details]   

additional source Verrill AE. (1869). Synopsis of the polyps and corals of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore C. Ringgold and Capt. John Rodgers, U.S.N., from 1853 to 1856. Collected by Dr. Wm. Stimpson, Naturalist to the Expedition. <em>Communications of the Essex Institute, Salem.</em> 6 (1): 51-104, pls. 1-2., available online at https://doi.org/10.1086/270634
page(s): 102 [68] [details]   

additional source Klunzinger, C. B. (1877). Die Korallthiere des Rothen Meeres. 1: Die Alcyonarien und Malacodermen. <em>Gutmann'schen Buchhandlung. Berlin.</em> pp. 98., available online at https://books.google.com/books/about/Die_Korallenthiere_des_rothen_Meeres.html?id=MxJXkgAACAAJ
page(s): 62-63 [details]   

additional source Walsh, G. E.; Bowers, R. L. (1971). A review of Hawaiian zoanthids with descriptions of three new species. <em>Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.</em> 50(2): 161-180., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1971.tb00757.x
page(s): 172 [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality