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HABs taxon details

Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède & Lachmann) Diesing, 1866

110041  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:110041)

accepted
Species
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Not documented
Harmful effect Strains from New Zeland are yessotoxin producer (Rhodes et al. 2006). Strains from the Adriatic also produce yessotoxins...  
Harmful effect Strains from New Zeland are yessotoxin producer (Rhodes et al. 2006). Strains from the Adriatic also produce yessotoxins (Riccardi et al. 2009).  [details]

Identification G. spinifera is a widely cited species, but whose characteristics have never been well defined. The only essay in this...  
Identification G. spinifera is a widely cited species, but whose characteristics have never been well defined. The only essay in this sense is that of Kofoid (1911a), who left us an excellent study but not based on material from the original region. On the other hand there is some doubt as to whether all that he classifies as G. spinifera is the same species. In an attempt to give a more solid basis for a future more exact delimitation of the type species of the genus (and hence the genus itself) I have analyzed material from Norway that corresponds well to the original drawing, albeit slightly larger (according to Claparede &. Lachmann L would be about 40; according to Kofoid from 24 to 50). In truth, the dimensions of my specimens agree well with those of Ostenfeld who assigns to this species a length of 40 to SW and Trd. from 32 to 44. In the plankton samples examined, these typical specimens are accompanied by other larger ones, of somewhat different shape and spines (usually with more than two spines) that correspond well to G. digitale, and also by some smaller ones, with several small spines, more rounded neck, very little prominent neck, etc., which I think are of a different species. I have not analyzed either one or the other since my attempt has not been to study variations and relationships but to establish well the characters of typical specimens of G. spinifera. Those studied show fairly constant characteristics that immediately individualize them in these samples. Its spines are always two, strong and relatively long. The tabulation does not show significant variations. The material used comes from two samples from Drobak, Norway.  [details]
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2024). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède & Lachmann) Diesing, 1866. Accessed through: Lundholm, N.; Churro, C.; Escalera, L.; Fraga, S.; Hoppenrath, M.; Iwataki, M.; Larsen, J.; Mertens, K.; Moestrup, Ø.; Murray, S.; Tillmann, U.; Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards) IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae at: https://www.marinespecies.org/hab/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=110041 on 2024-04-14
Lundholm, N.; Churro, C.; Escalera, L.; Fraga, S.; Hoppenrath, M.; Iwataki, M.; Larsen, J.; Mertens, K.; Moestrup, Ø.; Murray, S.; Tillmann, U.; Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae. Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède & Lachmann) Diesing, 1866. Accessed at: https://www.marinespecies.org/hab/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=110041 on 2024-04-14
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2006-07-27 06:59:07Z
changed
Camba Reu, Cibran
2010-01-15 07:09:15Z
changed
2015-06-26 12:00:51Z
changed

context source (Deepsea) Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), available online at http://www.iobis.org/ [details]   

context source (Schelde) Maris, T.; Beauchard, O.; Van Damme, S.; Van den Bergh, E.; Wijnhoven, S.; Meire, P. (2013). Referentiematrices en Ecotoopoppervlaktes Annex bij de Evaluatiemethodiek Schelde-estuarium Studie naar “Ecotoopoppervlaktes en intactness index”. <em>Monitor Taskforce Publication Series, 2013-01. NIOZ: Yerseke.</em> 35 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

context source (Bermuda) Wall, D.; Dale, B. (1970). Living hystrichosphaerid dinoflagellate spores from Bermuda and Puerto Rico. Micropaleontology., 16(1): 47-58 [details]   

basis of record Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world's oceans. <em>Acta Bot. Croat.</em> 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Steidinger, K. A., M. A. Faust, and D. U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 131–154 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College [details]   

additional source Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2023). AlgaeBase. <em>World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.</em> searched on YYYY-MM-DD., available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). , available online at http://www.itis.gov [details]   

additional source Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

additional source Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Martin, J. L.; LeGresley, M. M. ; Strain, P. M. (2001). Phytoplankton monitoring in the Western Isles region of the Bay of Fundy during 1997-98. <em>Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2349.</em> 4: 1-85. [details]   

additional source Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source Liu, J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. <em>China Science Press.</em> 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Lakkis, S. (2011). Le phytoplancton marin du Liban (Méditerranée orientale): biologie, biodiversité, biogéographie. Aracne: Roma. ISBN 978-88-548-4243-4. 293 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Abé, T.H. (1927). Report of the biological survey of Mutsu Bay. 3. Notes on the protozoan fauna of Mutsu Bay. I. Peridiniales. <em>Science Reports of the Tohoku Imperial University, Series 4.</em> 2: 383-438. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Chang, F.H.; Charleston, W.A.G.; McKenna, P.B.; Clowes, C.D.; Wilson, G.J.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Myzozoa: dinoflagellates, perkinsids, ellobiopsids, sporozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 175-216. [details]   

additional source Steidinger, K.A.; Tangen, K. (1997). Dinoflagellates. pp. 387-584. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.) (1997). Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780126930184500057 [details]   

additional source Kofoid, C.A. (1911). Dinoflagellata of the San Diego Region. IV. The genus Gonyaulax, with notes on its skeletal morphology and a discussion of its generic and specific characters. <em>University of California publications. Zoology.</em> 8: 187-300. (look up in IMIS[details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Balech, E. (1977). Cuatro especies de Gonyaulax sensu lato, y consideraciones sobre el género (Dinoflagellata). <em>Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" (Hidrobiología).</em> 5(6): 115-136, 3 pl. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Campbell, P.H. (1973). Studies on brackish water phytoplankton. UNC.SG.73.07. pp. 1-406. Chapel Hill: Sea Grant Publications, University of North Carolina. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

toxicology source Rhodes, L., McNabb, P., Salas, M., Briggs, L., Beuzenberg, V. & Gladstone, M. 2006. Yessotoxin production by <i>Gonyaulax spinifera</i>. Harmful Algae 5:148-55. [details]   

ecology source Mitra, A.; Caron, D. A.; Faure, E.; Flynn, K. J.; Leles, S. G.; Hansen, P. J.; McManus, G. B.; Not, F.; Do Rosario Gomes, H.; Santoferrara, L. F.; Stoecker, D. K.; Tillmann, U. (2023). The Mixoplankton Database (MDB): Diversity of photo‐phago‐trophic plankton in form, function, and distribution across the global ocean. <em>Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology.</em> 70(4)., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12972 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

ecology source Jeong, H.; Park, J.; Nho, J.; Park, M.; Ha, J.; Seong, K.; Jeng, C.; Seong, C.; Lee, K.; Yih, W. (2005). Feeding by red-tide dinoflagellates on the cyanobacterium Synechococcus. <em>Aquatic Microbial Ecology.</em> 41: 131-143., available online at https://doi.org/10.3354/ame041131 [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
From regional or thematic species database
Description Relatively small, with strongly excavated cingulum, very descending and with a very pronounced overhang. In the epitheca neck and shoulders well marked. In the antapical region two well-developed spines, more or less winged. The angle formed by the longitudinal axis and the line that joins the two ends of the cingulum is 20-24°. The dorsoventral flattening is very small (Dv approximately 3-4 less than the Trd.). Epitheca truncated conical, irregular. Seen from the front, right flank slightly concave in the posterior half; left almost straight, sometimes somewhat sigmoid. About halfway up or a little in front there is a sharp inflection on both sides, thus forming a well-marked pair of shoulders; then the edges straighten out rather abruptly forming a fairly well demarcated and relatively elevated neck, subcylindrical to truncated-conical. Plate 1' narrow, especially in about front half; maximum width at the junction of the two halves, where there is a very visible angle projected to the left; small concave anterior edge to join Po. Large pores or poroids are seen throughout this plate; usually two in the front half, four or five in the back; in the latter there is always a more or less narrow border (indications of poroids are rarely observed) to the left. The 2' is wide. It outlines the left side of the epitheca and extends quite a bit in the dorsal region. More or less pentagonal, its anterior margin is very strongly notched and reinforced, where it embraces the entire left and dorsal part of Po; sometimes it emits a kind of hook or spur towards 3'. The 3' is small and forms a kind of fringe or slightly sculpted collar that overlaps the 1a and projects somewhat downwards ventrally, to end in a short central notch that delimits, with the previous one of 2a, a characteristic ventral pore. The ventral part of this plate usually has some poroids. Fairly regular elliptic po, large but weak, with a pearly reinforcement along the entire margin. Across the center of this plaque is a line, apparently a faint fold. Of the two intercalary plates, the first, large and pentagonal, is dorso-right and is separated from Po by the narrow strip formed by 3'. The 2a has some resemblance to 1', to whose right margin it joins, but it is shorter and also a little wider, but since it has a strong projected angle, at mid-height, outwards, that is, towards the right in this case. The anterior end has a notch bordered by a protruding rim; this notch completes a pore well visible on close examination in the ventral region of the base of the neck, to the right of the sagittal plane. 6'' triangular with reinforced and very concave internal edge; the anterior vertex somewhat passes the anterior border of the cingulum. Plate 1''' tall, narrow but quite conspicuous, usually with an irregular row of 5-6 large poroids. P irregular broad J-shaped; on its inner edge there is a short almost vertical anterior portion which is followed by a long and wide reinforced concavity that connects with S.p.; along the entire inner edge runs a narrow hyaline fin. The antapical plate is quite wide laterally, but not dorsoventrally. It bears the two strong spines that are somewhat variable: they can have a central axis bordered by fins or a more or less areolauo reinforcement. They are little divergent and always well developed. Cingulum deeply dug, finless, tapering 2.5-3, usually just over 2.5. Its six plates are sculpted with two rows of poroids, rarely three and, in this case, the two marginal ones of smaller elements. The overhang is equivalent to 2-2.5 cingulum heights. The sulcus, quite broadened from the right posterior border of the cingulum, is made up of 7 plates. The S.a. it is tall, quite narrow. It begins at the front with an almost square portion, with alveoli (usually two rows, anterior and posterior), followed by another portion whose right edge is convex; the left, almost straight, stops at mid-height interrupted by a short perpendicular ridge that sometime [details]

Harmful effect Strains from New Zeland are yessotoxin producer (Rhodes et al. 2006). Strains from the Adriatic also produce yessotoxins (Riccardi et al. 2009).  [details]

Identification G. spinifera is a widely cited species, but whose characteristics have never been well defined. The only essay in this sense is that of Kofoid (1911a), who left us an excellent study but not based on material from the original region. On the other hand there is some doubt as to whether all that he classifies as G. spinifera is the same species. In an attempt to give a more solid basis for a future more exact delimitation of the type species of the genus (and hence the genus itself) I have analyzed material from Norway that corresponds well to the original drawing, albeit slightly larger (according to Claparede &. Lachmann L would be about 40; according to Kofoid from 24 to 50). In truth, the dimensions of my specimens agree well with those of Ostenfeld who assigns to this species a length of 40 to SW and Trd. from 32 to 44. In the plankton samples examined, these typical specimens are accompanied by other larger ones, of somewhat different shape and spines (usually with more than two spines) that correspond well to G. digitale, and also by some smaller ones, with several small spines, more rounded neck, very little prominent neck, etc., which I think are of a different species. I have not analyzed either one or the other since my attempt has not been to study variations and relationships but to establish well the characters of typical specimens of G. spinifera. Those studied show fairly constant characteristics that immediately individualize them in these samples. Its spines are always two, strong and relatively long. The tabulation does not show significant variations. The material used comes from two samples from Drobak, Norway.  [details]

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