WoRMS taxon details

Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767)

103732  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:103732)

accepted
Species
Ascidia canina Mueller, 1776 (original combination)
Ascidia corrugata Mueller, 1776 (original combination)
Ascidia membranosa Renier, 1807 (original combination)
Ascidia ocellata Agassiz, 1850 (original combination)
Ascidia pulchella Alder, 1863 (original combination)
Ascidia tenella Stimpson, 1852 (original combination)
Ascidia virens Fabricius, 1779 (original combination)
Ascidia virescens Pennant, 1812 (original combination)
Tethyum sociabile Gunnerus, 1765 (original combination)
marine, fresh, terrestrial
(ofAscidia intestinalis Linnaeus, 1767) Linnaeus C. (1767). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Ed. 12. 1., Regnum Animale. 1 & 2. Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii. Holmiae [Stockholm], Laurentii Salvii. pp. 1-532 [1766] pp. 533-1327 [1767]., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/83650#5 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

Linnaeus C. (1767). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Ed. 12. 1., Regnum Animale. 1 & 2. Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii. Holmiae [Stockholm], Laurentii Salvii. pp. 1-532 [1766] pp. 533-1327 [1767]., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/83650#5 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
Distribution semi-cosmopolitan  
Distribution semi-cosmopolitan [details]

Distribution Arctic to Rhode Island  
Distribution Arctic to Rhode Island [details]

Taxonomy Order: Enterogona, Suborder: Phlebobrachia, according to Trott (2004).  
Taxonomy Order: Enterogona, Suborder: Phlebobrachia, according to Trott (2004). [details]
Shenkar, N.; Gittenberger, A.; Lambert, G.; Rius, M.; Moreira Da Rocha, R.; Swalla, B.J.; Turon, X. (2018). Ascidiacea World Database. Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=103732 on 2018-09-23
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2007-12-05 12:32:01Z
checked
2010-10-12 17:40:44Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description  (ofAscidia canina Mueller, 1776) Müller, O. F. (1776). Zoologiae Danicae prodromus: seu Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae indigenarum characteres, nomina, et synonyma imprimis popularium. Hafniae, Typiis Hallageriis. 1-274., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/47550 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (ofAscidia intestinalis Linnaeus, 1767) Linnaeus C. (1767). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Ed. 12. 1., Regnum Animale. 1 & 2. Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii. Holmiae [Stockholm], Laurentii Salvii. pp. 1-532 [1766] pp. 533-1327 [1767]., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/83650#5 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (ofAscidia ocellata Agassiz, 1850) Agassiz, L. (1850). On the embryology of Ascidia and the characteristis of new species from the shores of Massachusetts. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 2: 157-159. [details]   

original description  (ofAscidia pulchella Alder, 1863) Alder, J. (1863). Observations on the British Tunicata with descriptions of several new species. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser.3. 11: 153-173. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (ofAscidia tenella Stimpson, 1852) Stimpson, W. (1852). Several new ascidians from the coast of the United States. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 4: 228-232. [details]   

original description  (ofTethyum sociabile Gunnerus, 1765) Gunnerus, J. E. (1765). Søe-Pungen, (Tethyum Sociabile,) fuldstændig beskreven. Skr. Selsk. Trondhjem. 3: 81-102. [details]   

original description  (ofAscidia membranosa Renier, 1807) Renier, S. A. (1807). Tavola per servire alla classificazione e connoscenza degli animale. Padua. 8: tables. [details]   

original description  (ofAscidia virescens Pennant, 1812) Pennant, Thomas. (1812). British Zoology. A new edition in four volumes. vol IV. Class V. Crustacea. Class VI. Vermes. Wilkie & Robinson. London. xvi+379 pp. 95 pls., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34933712 [details]   

original description  (ofAscidia diaphanea Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) Quoy J.R.C. & Gaimard J.P. (1832-1835). Voyage de découvertes de l'"Astrolabe" exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826-1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Zoologie. Paris: Tastu. 1: I-L 1-264; 2(1): 1-321 [1832]; 2(2): 321-686 [1833]; 3(1): 1-366 [1834]; 3(2): 367-954 [1835]; Atlas (Mollusques): pls 1-93 [1833]. , available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/2132 [details]   

original description  (ofAscidia corrugata Mueller, 1776) Müller, O. F. (1776). Zoologiae Danicae prodromus: seu Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae indigenarum characteres, nomina, et synonyma imprimis popularium. Hafniae, Typiis Hallageriis. 1-274., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/47550 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (ofAscidia virens Fabricius, 1779) Fabricius, J. C. (1779). Reise nach Norwegen mit Bemerkungen aus der Naturhistorie und Oekonomie. Hamburg. Carl Ernst Bohn. 388pp. [details]   

original description  (ofAscidia viridiscens Brugière, 1792) Bruguière J.G. (1789-1792). Bruguière J.G. (1789-1792). Encyclopédie méthodique ou par ordre de matières. Histoire naturelle des vers, volume 1. Pancoucke, Paris. Pp. 1-344 [June 1789]; 345-758 [13 Feb. 1792; dates after Evenhuis, 2003, Zootaxa, 166: 37; Zootaxa, 207]. , available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/8638 [details]   

original description Linnaeus C. (1767). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Ed. 12. 1., Regnum Animale. 1 & 2. Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii. Holmiae [Stockholm], Laurentii Salvii. pp. 1-532 [1766] pp. 533-1327 [1767]., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/83650#5 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

basis of record Monniot, C. (2001). Ascidiacea & Sorberacea. In: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels. 50: pp. 352-355. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Gosner, K. L. (1971). Guide to identification of marine and estuarine invertebrates: Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 693 p. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Linkletter, L. E. (1977). A checklist of marine fauna and flora of the Bay of Fundy. Huntsman Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews, N.B. 68: p. [details]   

additional source Meinkoth, N.A. 1981. Field guide to North American seashore creatures. The Audubon Society. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. 799 p. [details]   

additional source Thomas, M.L.H. (ed.). 1983. Marine and coastal systems of the Quoddy Region, New Brunswick. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64. 306 p. [details]   

additional source Millar, R. H. (1962). Further descriptions of South African ascidians. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 46(7): 113-221. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp., available online at http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/145561.pdf [details]   

additional source Van Name, W. G. (1945). The North and South American ascidians. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 84: 1-476., available online at http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/handle/2246/1186 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Kott, P.; Bradford-Grieve, J.; Esnal, G.; Murdoch, R.C. (2009). Phylum Tunicata: sea squirts, salps, appendicularians, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 409-430. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Rocha, R. M.; Bonnet, N. Y. K. (2009). Ascídias (Tunicata, Ascidiacea) introduzidas no Arquipélago de Alcatrazes, São Paulo. Iheringia, Sér. Zool. 99(1):27-35. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Liu J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. China Science Press. 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Dyntaxa. (2013). Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013]., available online at http://www.dyntaxa.se [details]   

additional source Gosner, K. L. (1978). A field guide to the Atlantic seashore. Boston : Houghton Mifflin. 329p. [details]   

additional source Trott, T. J. (2004). Cobscook Bay inventory: a historical checklist of marine invertebrates spanning 162 years. Northeastern Naturalist. 11, 261-324., available online at http://www.gulfofmaine.org/kb/files/9793/TROTT-Cobscook%20List.pdf [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Lutaenko, K.A.; Furota, T.; Nakayama; S.; Shin, K.; Xu, J. (2013). Atlas of Marine Invasive Species in the NOWPAP Region. Beijing: NOWPAP DINRAC (Northwest Pacific Action Plan, Data and Information Network Regional Center). 189 pp. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Brunetti, R.; Gissi, C.; Pennati, R.; Caicci, F.; Gasparini, F.; Manni, L. (2015). Morphological evidence that the molecularly determined Ciona intestinalis type A and type B are different species: Ciona robusta and Ciona intestinalis. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 53(3): 186-193., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/jzs.12101 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). , available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/urmo/ [details]   

additional source Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). , available online at http://www.itis.gov [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS), available online at http://invasions.si.edu/nemesis [details]   

context source (HKRMS) Lam KKY. (2003). Epibenthic community development on an experimental pulverised ful ash (PFA) artifical reef. In: Morton B, editor. Asian Marine Biology 18.Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. pp 71-90. [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
 

From editor or global species database
Genetic nomenclature abbreviation Ciinte [details]

From regional or thematic species database
Introduced species abundance in Canadian part of the Bay of Fundy (Marine Region) : Common to dominant [details]

Introduced species abundance in Canada (Nation) : Common to dominant [details]

Introduced species abundance in Canadian part of the North Atlantic Ocean (Marine Region) : Rare to common [details]

Introduced species abundance in Canada (Nation) : Monoculture [details]

Introduced species impact in Canada (Nation) : Loss of aquaculture/commercial/recreational harvest or gain [details]

Introduced species impact in Canada (Nation) : Water abstraction or nuisance fouling [details]

Introduced species impact in Spanish part of the Balearic Sea (Marine Region) : Loss of aquaculture/commercial/recreational harvest or gain [details]

Introduced species impact in Japan (Nation) : Loss of aquaculture/commercial/recreational harvest or gain [details]

Introduced species impact in United States part of the North Pacific Ocean (Marine Region) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Introduced species impact in South Africa (Nation) : Loss of aquaculture/commercial/recreational harvest or gain [details]

Introduced species impact in Chile (Nation) : Loss of aquaculture/commercial/recreational harvest or gain [details]

Introduced species remark In Australia (Nation) : This paper does not represent a new record but establishes the invasiveness of the species at this location. [details]

Introduced species remark In Spanish part of the Balearic Sea (Marine Region) : Fouling of cultured shellfish has been reported in the Ebro Delta, Spain (Perrera et al. 1990, cited by da Rocha et al. 2009). [details]

Introduced species remark In Chile (Nation) : Fouling of cultured shellfish by C. intestinalis has been reported in Chile (Castilla et al. 2005). [details]

Introduced species remark In United States part of the North Pacific Ocean (Marine Region) : Studies in San Francisco Bay, CA have found that it can strongly compete with other native and introduced fouling organisms (Blum et al. 2007). Diversity within fouling communities was negatively correlated with C. intestinalis abundance and experimental removal of C. intestinalis resulted in increased diversity (Blum et al. 2007). [details]

Introduced species remark In Japan (Nation) : Fouling of cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas) has been reported in Hiroshima Bay (Arakawa et al. 1990, cited by da Rocha et al. 2009). [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Chile (Nation) : Ships: general
It commonly fouls ships and docks and was likely transported around the globe by shipping.  [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Canadian part of the North Atlantic Ocean (Marine Region) : Little Bay is located within Mortier Bay, an area of high vessel traffic and the possible introduction source of C. intestinalis. [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Sea of Japan (IHO Sea Area) : Ships: general
It commonly fouls ships and docks and was likely transported around the globe by shipping.  [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Peruvian part of the South Pacific Ocean : Ships: general
It commonly fouls ships and docks and was likely transported around the globe by shipping.  [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Australian part of the Tasman Sea (Marine Region- : Ships: general
It commonly fouls ships and docks and was likely transported around the globe by shipping.  [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Canada (Nation) : Fisheries: accidental with deliberate translocations of fish or shellfish [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Spanish part of the Balearic Sea (Marine Region) : Ships: general
It commonly fouls ships and docks and was likely transported around the globe by shipping.  [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Australia (Nation) : Ships: accidental as attached or free-living fouling organisms
Limited planktonic dispersal and extensive distance between the Burin Peninsula population and other Atlantic Canadian populations of this species suggests vessel traffic was the likely transmission vector. [details]

From other sources
Diet plankton feeder [details]

Distribution semi-cosmopolitan [details]

Distribution Arctic to Rhode Island [details]

Habitat bathyal of the Gulf and estuary [details]

Reproduction hermaphroditic; eggs shed and fertilized in the water [details]

Taxonomy Order: Enterogona, Suborder: Phlebobrachia, according to Trott (2004). [details]
 

LanguageName 
Dutch doorschijnende zakpijp  [details]
English yellow sea squirtsea vase  [details]
French cioneascidie jaune  [details]
German Schlauch-Seescheidegelbe Seescheide  [details]
Japanese カタユウレイボヤ  [details]
Modern Greek (1453-) Λευκόφουσκα  [details]
Norwegian Bokmål grønnsekkdyr  [details]
Norwegian Nynorsk grønsekkdyr  [details]