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Barnes D.K.A.; Bell, J.J. (2002). Coastal sponge communities of the West Indian Ocean: taxonomic affinities, richness and diversity. Afr. J. Ecol. 40: 337-349.
9878
Barnes D.K.A.; Bell, J.J.
2002
Coastal sponge communities of the West Indian Ocean: taxonomic affinities, richness and diversity
Afr. J. Ecol.
40: 337-349
Publication
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
Sponges assemblages were sampled in four coastal study regions (Malindi, Kenya; Quirimba Archipelago, northern Mozambique; Inhaca Island, Southern Mozambique and Anakao, Madagascar) in the west Indian Ocean. Sponge species were counted inmultiple 0.5m2 quadrats at depths of between 0 and 20m at a number of sites within localities within each region. Despite the relatively small areas sampled, sponge samples comprised a total of 130 species and 70 genera of the classes Demospongiae and Calcarea. Sponges are clearly a major taxon in these regions in terms of numbers of species, percentage cover or biomass, although their ecology in the west Indian Ocean is virtually unknown. Nearly half of the genera, e.g. Iotrochota, found were species with a so-called Tethyan distribution. Most of the other genera were cosmopolitan, e.g. Clathria, but some were coldwater (Coelosphaera), Indo-Australian (Ianthella) or circum-African (Crambe). Many of the species encountered in the present study occurred in at least two study regions, many in more and could occupy large areas of substratum. Some of these, e.g. Xestospongia exigua, are commonly found throughout the Indo-west Paci¢c region where they also occupy much space. The endemicity of the shallow water sponge faunas in East Africa (20^25%) seem to be high within the Indo-Pacific realm but are lower than northern Papua New Guinea. The tropical regions (Kenya and Northern Mozambique) were more speciose than subtropical regions (southern Mozambique and Madagascar) but not signi¢cantly more diverse (Shannon H0). Although latitude was not a major in£uence on sponge community patterns, hard substratum assemblages did form a cline from the tropics to Southern Mozambique, linked by Madagascar. Substratum nature (habitat) was most important in in£uencing the suite and number of species present. Sponge assemblages of soft substrata were much more dissimilar, both within and between habitats, than those on hard substrata. There was a predictable variability in species richness between hard substratum habitats: coral reefs being speciose and caves being less so. Our ¢ndings showed that both patterns and in£uences on species richness may be decoupled from those in£uencing diversity. In our data species richness, but not diversity, showed striking regional and bathymetric trends. In addition, sponge species richness mainly split at coral reef vs. non-reef habitats, whilst diversity divided principally into assemblages on hard and soft substrata.We consider this dichotomy of findings between species richness and diversity values to be important, as these are two principal measures used for the interpretation of biodiversity.
Indian Ocean, Western
Spacial and ecological distribution, Zonation, Microdistribution
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Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAdocia atra Pulitzer-Finali, 1993 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Reniera) atra (Pulitzer-Finali, 1993) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAxinella carteri (Dendy, 1889) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStylissa carteri (Dendy, 1889) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBiemna fortis (Topsent, 1897) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCinachyrella voeltzkowi (Lendenfeld, 1897) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCinachyrella arabica (Carter, 1869) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClathria pulcherrima (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEcionemia rotunda Sollas, 1888 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEcionemia acervus Bowerbank, 1864 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGelliodes incrustans Dendy, 1905 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHymeniacidon conulosa (Dendy, 1922) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStylissa conulosa (Dendy, 1922) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorKallypilidion fascigera (Hentschel, 1912) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Reniera) fascigera (Hentschel, 1912) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLaxosuberites arenosus Vacelet & Vasseur, 1971 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLiosina arenosa (Vacelet & Vasseur, 1971) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLissodendoryx arenaria Burton, 1936 represented as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) arenaria Burton, 1936 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParatetilla Dendy, 1905 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyllospongia foliascens (Pallas, 1766) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCarteriospongia foliascens (Pallas, 1766) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyllospongia madagascariensis (Hyatt, 1877) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyllospongia papyracea (Esper, 1794) (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlacospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlakinastrella Schulze, 1880 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlakortis nigra Lévi, 1953 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhizochalina incrustans Barnes & Bell, 2002 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOceanapia incrustata (Dendy, 1922) (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylamma arenosa (Vacelet & Vasseur, 1971) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStylotella aurantium Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1988 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStylissa massa (Carter, 1887) (additional source)
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcanthella Schmidt, 1862 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcanthella klethra Pulitzer-Finali, 1982 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAplysilla sulfurea Schulze, 1878  (inaccurate)
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAstrosclera willeyana Lister, 1900 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAxinella carteri (Dendy, 1889) 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBiemna Gray, 1867 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChondrilla nucula Schmidt, 1862  (inaccurate)
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCiocalypta Bowerbank, 1862 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClathria Schmidt, 1862 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClathria pulcherrima 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClathrina darwinii (Haeckel, 1870) 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCrambe crambe (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiscodermia du Bocage, 1869 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDysidea Johnston, 1842 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinodictyum Ridley, 1881 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEcionemia rotunda Sollas, 1888 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorErylus lendenfeldi Sollas, 1888 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGellius cymiformis (Esper, 1794) 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona Grant, 1841 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Gellius) cymiformis (Esper, 1794) 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHymeniacidon conulosa (Dendy, 1922) 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia Nardo, 1833 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorJaspis Gray, 1867 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorJaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLissodendoryx arenaria Burton, 1936 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMycale imperfecta Baer, 1906 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMycale sulevoidea (Sollas, 1902) 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetrosia Vosmaer, 1885 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetrosia nigricans Lindgren, 1897 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyllospongia dendyi Lendenfeld, 1889 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyllospongia madagascariensis (Hyatt, 1877) 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlacospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorProstylissa foetida (Dendy, 1889) 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhizochalina Schmidt, 1870 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhizochalina incrustans Barnes & Bell, 2002 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpirastrella pachyspira Lévi, 1958 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpirastrella solida Ridley & Dendy, 1886 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpirastrella vagabunda Ridley, 1884 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylamma arenosa (Vacelet & Vasseur, 1971) 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTethya seychellensis (Wright, 1881) 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorToxochalina Ridley, 1884 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorUlosa rubra Vacelet & Vasseur, 1971 
Anakao for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorXestospongia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) 
Cosmopolitan (World Oceans) for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMycale Gray, 1867 
East African Coral Coast for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlakortis nigra Lévi, 1953 
East African Coral Coast for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlakortis nigra Lévi, 1953 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAplysilla sulfurea Schulze, 1878  (inaccurate)
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAstrosclera willeyana Lister, 1900 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCallyspongia confoederata (sensu Ridley, 1884) 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCarteriospongia foliascens (Pallas, 1766) 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCiocalypta Bowerbank, 1862 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClathria pulcherrima 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClathrina darwinii (Haeckel, 1870) 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCrambe crambe (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDysidea Johnston, 1842 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEcionemia rotunda Sollas, 1888 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGelliodes incrustans Dendy, 1905 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona Grant, 1841 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHymeniacidon conulosa (Dendy, 1922) 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia ramosa (Keller, 1889) 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorJaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLendenfeldia dendyi (Lendenfeld, 1889) 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetrosia Vosmaer, 1885 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetrosia nigricans Lindgren, 1897 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyllospongia madagascariensis (Hyatt, 1877) 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlacospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhizochalina incrustans Barnes & Bell, 2002 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTethya seychellensis (Wright, 1881) 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorToxochalina Ridley, 1884 
Inhaca Island for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorXestospongia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAaptos Gray, 1867 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcanthella Schmidt, 1862 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcanthella klethra Pulitzer-Finali, 1982 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAdocia atra Pulitzer-Finali, 1993 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAxinella carteri (Dendy, 1889) 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAxinyssa topsenti Lendenfeld, 1897 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBiemna Gray, 1867 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBiemna fortis (Topsent, 1897) 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCallyspongia Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCallyspongia confoederata (sensu Ridley, 1884) 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCinachyrella voeltzkowi (Lendenfeld, 1897) 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCiocalypta Bowerbank, 1862 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClathria Schmidt, 1862 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClathria frondifera (Bowerbank, 1875) 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClathrina Gray, 1867 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClathrina darwinii (Haeckel, 1870) 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCrambe acuata (Lévi, 1958) 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCrambe crambe (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDysidea Johnston, 1842 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinodictyum Ridley, 1881 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGelliodes incrustans Dendy, 1905 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia crustosa Bösraug, 1913 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona Grant, 1841 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHymeniacidon conulosa (Dendy, 1922) 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIanthella basta (Pallas, 1766)  (inaccurate)
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIotrochota Ridley, 1884 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia Nardo, 1833 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia ramosa (Keller, 1889) 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorJaspis Gray, 1867 
Malindi for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorJaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862)  (inaccurate)