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Traits taxon details

Plumarella Gray, 1870

177839  (



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  1. Species Plumarella aculeata Cairns & Bayer, 2004
  2. Species Plumarella acuminata Kinoshita, 1908
  3. Species Plumarella adhaerans Nutting, 1912
  4. Species Plumarella alba Kinoshita, 1908
  5. Species Plumarella aleutiana Cairns, 2011
  6. Species Plumarella alternata (Nutting, 1912)
  7. Species Plumarella aurea (Deichmann, 1936)
  8. Species Plumarella bayeri (Zapata-Guardiola & Lopez-González, 2010)
  9. Species Plumarella circumoperculum Cairns, 2010
  10. Species Plumarella cordilla Cairns, 2016
  11. Species Plumarella delicata (Kinoshita, 1907)
  12. Species Plumarella delicatissima Wright & Studer, 1889
  13. Species Plumarella dentata Thomson & Russell, 1909
  14. Species Plumarella dichotoma Cairns & Bayer, 2004
  15. Species Plumarella dofleini Kükenthal & Gorzawsky, 1908
  16. Species Plumarella echinata Cairns, 2011
  17. Species Plumarella flabellata Versluys, 1906
  18. Species Plumarella gracilis Kinoshita, 1908
  19. Species Plumarella hapala Cairns, 2011
  20. Species Plumarella laevis Thomson & Mackinnon, 1911
  21. Species Plumarella lata Kükenthal & Gorzawsky, 1908
  22. Species Plumarella laxiramosa Cairns & Bayer, 2004
  23. Species Plumarella longispina Kinoshita, 1908
  24. Species Plumarella nuttingi Cairns, 2011
  25. Species Plumarella pellucida Cairns & Bayer, 2004
  26. Species Plumarella penna (Lamarck, 1815)
  27. Species Plumarella pourtalesii (Verrill, 1883)
  28. Species Plumarella profunda Cairns, 2011
  29. Species Plumarella recta (Nutting, 1912)
  30. Species Plumarella rigida Kükenthal & Gorzawsky, 1908
  31. Species Plumarella robusta Cairns, 2011
  32. Species Plumarella spicata Nutting, 1912
  33. Species Plumarella spinosa Kinoshita, 1907
  34. Species Plumarella superba (Nutting, 1912)
  35. Species Plumarella australis Briggs, 1915 (uncertain > unassessed, original combination)
  36. Species Plumarella spinosa Kükenthal & Gorzawsky, 1908 (uncertain > unassessed)
Gray, J. E. (1870). Catalogue of Lithophytes or stony corals in the collection of the British Museum. pp. 1-51., available online at
page(s): 36 [details]   
McFadden, C.S.; Cordeiro, R.; Williams, G.; van Ofwegen, L. (2023). World List of Octocorallia. Plumarella Gray, 1870. Accessed through: Marine Species Traits editorial board (2023) Marine Species Traits at: on 2023-12-04
Marine Species Traits editorial board (2023). Marine Species Traits. Plumarella Gray, 1870. Accessed at: on 2023-12-04
2005-07-27 08:37:00Z
2009-07-17 06:36:15Z
2010-09-17 06:17:46Z
2023-03-13 08:15:42Z

original description Gray, J. E. (1870). Catalogue of Lithophytes or stony corals in the collection of the British Museum. pp. 1-51., available online at
page(s): 36 [details]   

basis of record Watling, L.; Auster, P. (2005). Distribution of deep-water Alcyonacea off the Northeast Coast of the United States. In: Freiwald, A., R.J. Murray, editors. Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems. <em>Proceedings of the Second Deep-Sea Coral Symposium.</em> 279-296. [details]   

additional source Bayer, F. M. (1996). The Antarctic genus Callozostron and its relationship to Primnoella (Octocorallia: Gorgonacea: Primnoidae). <em>Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington.</em> 109(1): 150-203., available online at
page(s): 163 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Cairns, S.D. & F.M. Bayer. (2009). A generic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the Primnoidae (Cnidaria:Octocorallia). <em>Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington DC (USA).</em> 629:1-79. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Cairns, S.D., L. Gershwin, F.J. Brook, P. Pugh, E.W. Dawson, O.V.; Ocaña, W. Vervoort, G. Williams, J.E. Watson, D.M. Opresko, P. Schuchert, P.M. Hine, D.P. Gordon, H.I. Campbell, A.J. Wright, J.A.Sánchez & D.G. Fautin. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. <em>in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia.</em> pp. 59-101., available online at [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Kükenthal, W. (1924). Coelenterata: Gorgonaria. in: Das Tierreich (Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen). 47. 478 pp.
page(s): 255 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Bayer, F.M. (1961). The shallow-water Octocorallia of the West Indian region. A manual for marine biologists. <em>Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and Other Caribbean Islands.</em> 12:1-373, pls. 1-23., available online at
page(s): 293, 348 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Bayer, F. M. (1982). Some new and old species of the primnoid genus Callogorgia Gray, with a revalidation of the related genus Fanellia Gray (Coelenterata: Anthozoa). <em>Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington.</em> 95(1): 116–160.
page(s): 117 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Bayer, F. M. (1988). Mirostenella articulata, a remarkable new genus and species of Primnoid Octocoral (Gorgonacea) with uncalcified axial nodes. <em>Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington.</em> 101(2): 251-256.
page(s): 254 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Horvath, E. A. (2019). A review of gorgonian coral species (Cnidaria, Octocorallia, Alcyonacea) held in the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History research collection: focus on species from Scleraxonia, Holaxonia, Calcaxonia – Part III: Suborder Holaxonia continued, and suborder Calcaxonia. <em>ZooKeys.</em> 860: 183-306., available online at [details]   

additional source Hickson, S. J. (1930). On the classification of the Alcyonaria. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, XIV, 229-252
page(s): 250 [details]   

additional source Belcik, F. P. (1977). A distribution study of the Octocorallia of Oregon. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 24(1-3): 49-52
page(s): 51 [details]   

additional source Grigg, R. W. & F.M. Bayer. (1976). Present knowledge of the systematics and zoogeography of the order Gorgonacea in Hawaii. <em>Pacific Science.</em> 30(2): 167-175.
page(s): 170 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 
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