WoRMS taxon details

Epizoanthus Gray, 1867

100790  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:100790)

accepted
Genus
Mardoell Danielssen, 1890 · unaccepted (Junior subjective synonym)
Sidisia Gray, 1858 · unaccepted (nomen oblitum - see Opinion 1689, ICZN)

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  1. Species Epizoanthus abyssorum Verrill, 1885
  2. Species Epizoanthus ameilictus Pax, 1952
  3. Species Epizoanthus amerimnus Pax, 1952
  4. Species Epizoanthus angolensis Pax, 1952
  5. Species Epizoanthus arcticus Danielssen, 1890
  6. Species Epizoanthus arenaceus (Delle Chiaje, 1841)
  7. Species Epizoanthus armatus Carlgren, 1923
  8. Species Epizoanthus auronitens Pax & Muller, 1956
  9. Species Epizoanthus australis Kise, Montenegro, Ekins, Moritaki & Reimer, 2019
  10. Species Epizoanthus balanorum (Lwowsky, 1913)
  11. Species Epizoanthus barlesi Carlgren, 1945
  12. Species Epizoanthus beerenislandicus Carlgren, 1913
  13. Species Epizoanthus beriber Kise & Reimer, 2016
  14. Species Epizoanthus bursiformis Pei, 1998
  15. Species Epizoanthus cancrisocius Martens, 1876
  16. Species Epizoanthus carcinophilus Carlgren, 1923
  17. Species Epizoanthus chuni Carlgren, 1923
  18. Species Epizoanthus couchii (Johnston in Couch, 1844)
  19. Species Epizoanthus crassus Verrill, 1869
  20. Species Epizoanthus danielsseni Carlgren, 1913
  21. Species Epizoanthus denudatus Pax, 1957
  22. Species Epizoanthus dysgnostus Pax, 1951
  23. Species Epizoanthus egeriae Haddon & Duerden, 1896
  24. Species Epizoanthus ellisii Pax, 1957
  25. Species Epizoanthus elongatus Verrill, 1869
  26. Species Epizoanthus erdmanni (Danielssen, 1890)
  27. Species Epizoanthus eupaguri Haddon & Shackleton, 1891
  28. Species Epizoanthus fatuus (Schultze, 1860)
  29. Species Epizoanthus fiordicus Sinniger & Haussermann, 2009
  30. Species Epizoanthus frenzeli Pax, 1937
  31. Species Epizoanthus gabrieli Carlgren, 1951
  32. Species Epizoanthus giveni Philipp & Fautin, 2009
  33. Species Epizoanthus glacialis Danielssen, 1890
  34. Species Epizoanthus gorgonus Kise, Montenegro, Ekins, Moritaki & Reimer, 2019
  35. Species Epizoanthus haliclystus Pax, 1951
  36. Species Epizoanthus haliplactus Pax, 1952
  37. Species Epizoanthus hians McMurrich, 1898
  38. Species Epizoanthus humilis Verrill, 1869
  39. Species Epizoanthus illoricatus Tischbierek, 1930
  40. Species Epizoanthus inazuma Kise & Reimer, 2016
  41. Species Epizoanthus indicus (Lwowsky, 1913)
  42. Species Epizoanthus induratum Cutress & Pequenat, 1960
  43. Species Epizoanthus jingxingensis Pei, 1998
  44. Species Epizoanthus karenae Philipp & Fautin, 2009
  45. Species Epizoanthus koreni Carlgren, 1913
  46. Species Epizoanthus leptoderma Cutress & Pequenat, 1960
  47. Species Epizoanthus liguricus Pax & Muller, 1957
  48. Species Epizoanthus lindahli Carlgren, 1913
  49. Species Epizoanthus lobatus Pax, 1957
  50. Species Epizoanthus longiceps (Lwowsky, 1913)
  51. Species Epizoanthus macintoshi Haddon & Shackleton, 1891
  52. Species Epizoanthus marioni (Jourdan, 1880)
  53. Species Epizoanthus marmarensis Ocana & Cinar, 2018
  54. Species Epizoanthus martinsae Carreiro-Silva, Ocaña, Stanković, Sampaio, Porteiro, Fabri & Stefanni, 2017
  55. Species Epizoanthus mediterraneus Carlgren, 1935
  56. Species Epizoanthus michaelsarsi Carlgren, 1923
  57. Species Epizoanthus mortenseni Carlgren, 1934
  58. Species Epizoanthus norvegicus (Koren & Danielssen, 1877)
  59. Species Epizoanthus oliveri Stuckey, 1914
  60. Species Epizoanthus paguricola Roule, 1900
  61. Species Epizoanthus paguriphilus Verrill, 1883
  62. Species Epizoanthus papillosus Johnston, 1842
  63. Species Epizoanthus paxii Abel, 1955
  64. Species Epizoanthus planus Carlgren, 1923
  65. Species Epizoanthus ramosus Carlgren, 1936
  66. Species Epizoanthus rinbou Kise & Reimer, 2019
  67. Species Epizoanthus rodmani Philipp & Fautin, 2009
  68. Species Epizoanthus roseus Danielssen, 1890
  69. Species Epizoanthus rubricornis (Holdsworth, 1861)
  70. Species Epizoanthus sabulosus Cutress, 1971
  71. Species Epizoanthus sagaminensis Balss, 1924
  72. Species Epizoanthus scotinus Wood, 1957
  73. Species Epizoanthus senegambiensis (Carter, 1882)
  74. Species Epizoanthus stellaris Hertwig, 1888
  75. Species Epizoanthus steueri Pax, 1937
  76. Species Epizoanthus studeri Carlgren, 1923
  77. Species Epizoanthus tergestinus Pax, 1937
  78. Species Epizoanthus thalamophilus Hertwig, 1888
  79. Species Epizoanthus tubae Carlgren, 1938
  80. Species Epizoanthus univittatus (Lorenz, 1860)
  81. Species Epizoanthus vagus Herberts, 1972
  82. Species Epizoanthus valdivae Carlgren, 1923
  83. Species Epizoanthus vatovai Pax & Lochter, 1935
  84. Species Epizoanthus wrightii Haddon & Shackleton, 1891
  85. Species Epizoanthus xenomorphoideus Kise, Montenegro, Ekins, Moritaki & Reimer, 2019
  86. Species Epizoanthus americanus Verrill, 1864 accepted as Epizoanthus papillosus Johnston, 1842 (Synonym)
  87. Species Epizoanthus arborescens Danielssen, 1890 accepted as Isozoanthus arborescens Danielssen, 1890 (Became type species of the genus Isozoanthus Carlgren, 1905, designation invalid due to description of I. giganteus Carlgren in Chun, 1903 as type species by monotypy.)
  88. Species Epizoanthus australiae Colin & Arneson, 1995 (unaccepted > nomen nudum, in guidebook, no description.)
  89. Species Epizoanthus californicus Carlgren, 1951 accepted as Terrazoanthus californicus (Carlgren, 1951)
  90. Species Epizoanthus cnidosus Tischbierek, 1929 accepted as Hydrozoanthus gracilis (Lwowsky, 1913) (Junior synonym)
  91. Species Epizoanthus cutressi West, 1979 accepted as Parazoanthus cutressi (West, 1979) accepted as Bergia cutressi (West, 1979)
  92. Species Epizoanthus hirondellei Jourdan, 1891 accepted as Epizoanthus paguriphilus Verrill, 1883 (junior synonym)
  93. Species Epizoanthus incrustatus Düben & Koren, 1847 accepted as Epizoanthus papillosus Johnston, 1842 (subjective synonym)
  94. Species Epizoanthus minutus Duerden, 1898 accepted as Terrazoanthus minutus (Duerden, 1898)
  95. Species Epizoanthus paguropsidis Ates, 2003 (unaccepted > nomen nudum, likely misspelling; no description following ICZN rules)
  96. Species Epizoanthus parasiticus (Verrill, 1864) accepted as Epizoanthus americanus Verrill, 1864 accepted as Epizoanthus papillosus Johnston, 1842 (unaccepted > unavailable name)
  97. Species Epizoanthus patagonichus Carlgren, 1899 accepted as Terrazoanthus patagonichus (Carlgren, 1899)
  98. Species Epizoanthus rubicornis Walton, 1908 (unaccepted > nomen nudum, misspelling of E. rubricornis Haddon & Shackleton, 1891)
  99. Species Epizoanthus californicum Cutress & Pequegnat, 1960 represented as Epizoanthus californicus Carlgren, 1951 accepted as Terrazoanthus californicus (Carlgren, 1951)
  100. Species Epizoanthus crassum Cutress & Pequegnat, 1960 represented as Epizoanthus crassus Verrill, 1869
  101. Species Epizoanthus elongatum Cutress & Pequegnat, 1960 represented as Epizoanthus elongatus Verrill, 1869
  102. Species Epizoanthus humile Cutress & Pequegnat, 1960 represented as Epizoanthus humilis Verrill, 1869
  103. Species Epizoanthus paguriphila Haddon & Shackleton, 1891 represented as Epizoanthus paguriphilus Verrill, 1883
  104. Species Epizoanthus papillosum Cutress & Pequegnat, 1960 represented as Epizoanthus papillosus Johnston, 1842
  105. Species Epizoanthus patagonichum Cutress & Pequegnat, 1960 represented as Epizoanthus patagonichus Carlgren, 1899 accepted as Terrazoanthus patagonichus (Carlgren, 1899)
  106. Species Epizoanthus sabulosum Cutress, 1971 represented as Epizoanthus sabulosus Cutress, 1971
  107. Subgenus Epizoanthus (Sidisia) (uncertain > unassessed)
    1. Species Epizoanthus (Sidisia) fatuus M. Schultze (uncertain > unassessed)
  108. Species Epizoanthus axinellae (uncertain > unassessed)
  109. Species Epizoanthus bengalensis Walsh, 1967 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, in Walsh's nomenclator, likely mistake.)
  110. Species Epizoanthus similis Carlgren, 1938 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, Possible synonymy with E. incrustatus mentioned in the original description)
  111. Species Epizoanthus uruguayensis Walsh, 1967 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, in Walsh's nomenclator, likely mistake.)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Gray, J. E. (1867). Notes on Zoanthinæ, with the descriptions of some new genera. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 15, 233-240
page(s): 237-238 [details]   
Reimer, J.D.; Sinniger, F. (2024). World List of Zoantharia. Epizoanthus Gray, 1867. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=100790 on 2024-06-18
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2006-09-11 06:44:08Z
changed
Martinez, Olga
2010-06-30 01:20:05Z
checked
2011-10-04 13:36:00Z
changed
2014-06-13 05:53:51Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Gray, J. E. (1867). Notes on Zoanthinæ, with the descriptions of some new genera. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 15, 233-240
page(s): 237-238 [details]   

original description  (of Sidisia Gray, 1858) Gray, J.E. (1858). On the <i>Dysidea papillosa</i> of Dr. Johnston. <em>Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.</em> 26: 531-532. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Mardoell Danielssen, 1890) Danielssen D.C. (1890). Actinida. <em>In: Den Norske Nordhavs-Expedition 1876–1878. Zoologi. Grøndahl & Søns, Christiania.</em>  [details]   

basis of record van der Land, J.; den Hartog, J.H. (2001). Actiniaria, <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 106-109 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Neave, Sheffield Airey. (1939-1996). Nomenclator Zoologicus vol. 1-10 Online. <em>[Online Nomenclator Zoologicus at Checklistbank. Ubio link has gone].</em> , available online at https://www.checklistbank.org/dataset/126539/about [details]   

additional source Colin, P.L.; Arneson, C. (1995). Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. A fieldGuide to the Marine Invertebrates Occurring on Tropical Pacific Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangroves. <em>Coral Reef Press: Irvine, USA.</em> 1-296.
page(s): 126 [details]   

additional source Hyman, L.H., 1940. The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York and London : i-xii, 1-726.
page(s): 625 [details]   

additional source Ross, D.M., 1974. Behavior patterns in associations and interactions with other animals. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 281-312.
page(s): 297 [details]   

additional source Weill, R., 1934. Contribution à l'étude des Cnidaires et de leurs nématocystes. II. Valeur taxonomique du cnidôme. Trav. Stn zool. Wimereux 11 : 349-701.
page(s): 622 [details]   

additional source Gravely, F.H., 1941. Shells and other animal remains found on the Madras beach. I. Groups other than snails, etc. (Mollusca Gastropoda). Bull. Madras Govt Mus., n. ser., nat. Hist. 5 1: 1-112.
page(s): 16 [details]   

additional source Dixon, G.Y. & A.F. Dixon, 1891. Report on the marine Invertebrate fauna near Dublin. Proc R. Ir. Acad. -32 : 19-33.
page(s): 29-30 [details]   

additional source Grygier, M.J. (1985). Lauridae: taxonomy and morphology of ascothoracid crustacean parasites of zoanthids. <em>Bulletin of Marine Science.</em> 36(2): 278-303.
page(s): 278, 284, [details]   

additional source Grygier, M.J. (1996). A world list of coral reef-associated Ascothoracida (Crustacea), with remarks on Lauridae Petrarcidae, and Dendrogastridae from Okinawa, Japan. <em>Galaxea.</em> 13: 15-33.
page(s): 16 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Van Beneden, E. (1897). Les Anthozoaires de la Plankton-Expedition = Die Anthozoen der Plankton-Expedition. Ergebnisse der in dem Atlantischen Ocean von Mitte Juli bis Anfang November 1889 ausgeführten Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung, II. K.e.. Lipsius & Tischer: Kiel. 222 + XVIII plates pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 161, 163 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1913). Zoantharia. <em>The Danish Ingolf-Expedition.</em> 5(4): 1-62.
page(s): 9 [details]   

additional source Manuel RL. (1979) Some new records of Anthozoa from British waters. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 59:393-397
page(s): 395 [details]   

additional source Cairns, S.D., L. Gershwin, F.J. Brook, P. Pugh, E.W. Dawson, O.V.; Ocaña, W. Vervoort, G. Williams, J.E. Watson, D.M. Opresko, P. Schuchert, P.M. Hine, D.P. Gordon, H.I. Campbell, A.J. Wright, J.A.Sánchez & D.G. Fautin. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. <em>in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia.</em> pp. 59-101., available online at https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/8431 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Carlgren, O. (1923). Ceriantharia und Zoantharia der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. <em>Deutsche Tiefsee-Expedition 1898-1899.</em> 19(7): 243-337.
page(s): 259-261 [details]   

additional source Alcock A., 1893. On some Actiniaria from the Indian seas. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. vol 62, part 2, N 3: 151-153
page(s): 152 [details]   

additional source Reimer, J.D.; Fujii, T. (2010). Four new species and one new genus of zoanthids (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Galápagos Islands. ZooKeys, 42: 1-36.
page(s): 3 [details]   

additional source Reimer, J.D.; Sinniger, F. (2010). Unexpected diversity in Canadian Pacific zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia): a molecular examination and description of a new species from the waters of British Columbia. Mar. Biodiv., 40(4): 249-260. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 251, 252 [details]   

additional source Sinniger, F.; Reimer, J.D.; Pawlowski, J. (2010). The Parazoanthidae (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) DNA taxonomy: description of two new genera. Marine Biodiversity, 40(1), 57-70.
page(s): 58, 59, 63, 65, 66, 67 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1911). Aktinien der Aru-Inseln. <em>Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft.</em> 33: 297-304., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/37103285
page(s): 299 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. 1937. Die Korallenfauna der Adria. Teil 1: Krustenanemonen. Thalassia. 2(7):3-66.
page(s): 33-34 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1957). Die Zoantharien des Golfes von Neapel. <i>Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli</i>. 30: 309-329.
page(s): 326-327 [details]   

additional source Haddon, A. and Shackleton, A. (1891). Reports on the zoological collections made in Torres Straits by Professor A. C. Haddon, 1888-1889. Actiniæ: I. Zoantheæ. <i>Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society</i>. 4 (13): 673-701., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/14865820
page(s): 675 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Etude systématique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. <em>Tethys.</em> Supplement 3, pp. 69-156.
page(s): 69, 72, 74, 80, 81, 89, 142 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Ryland, J. S.; Lancaster, J. E. (2003). Revision of methods for separating species of Protopalythoa (Hexacorallia : Zoanthidea) in the tropical West Pacific. <em>Invertebrate Systematics.</em> 17(3): 407-428., available online at https://doi.org/10.1071/is02008
page(s): 408 [details]   

additional source Parker, T.; Tunnicliffe, V. (1994). Dispersal strategies of the biota on an oceanic seamount: implications for ecology and biogeography. Biol. Bull., 187: 336-345
page(s): 339 [details]   

additional source Fenner, D. P. (2005). Corals of Hawai'i. A Field Guide to the Hard, Black, and Soft Corals of Hawai'i and the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, Including Midway. <em>Mutual Publishing, Ltd., Honolulu.</em> 144 pp.
page(s): 27, 90 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. et al. (2000). Semper’s (zoanthid) larvae: pelagic life, parentage and other problems. Hydrobiologia, 440: 191-198
page(s): 1-7 [details]   

additional source Kaplan, E. H. (1982). A Field Guide to Coral Reefs: Caribbean and Florida. <em>Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.</em> pp 289.
page(s): 246 [details]   

additional source Fossa, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1998). The Modern Coral Reef Aquarium. <em>Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag, Bornheim, Germany.</em> volume 2, pp 479.
page(s): 276-277 [details]   

additional source Menon, K. R. (1927). Subclass Zoantharia (except Scleractiniae). Bulletin of Madras Government Museum (Natural History Section), 1(1): 31-40
page(s): 32, 33 [details]   

additional source Duerden, J. E. (1902). Report on the actinians of Porto Rico [Investigations of the aquatic resources and fisheries of Porto Rico by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer Fish Hawk in 1899]. Bulletin of the U.S. Fisheries Commission, 20, 2, 323-374
page(s): 331 [details]   

additional source Faurot, L. (1895). Études sur l'anatomie, l'histologie et le développement des actinies. Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Générale, 3, 3, 43-262
page(s): 201, 203, 206 [details]   

additional source Sebens, K. P. (1998). Anthozoa: Actiniaria, Zoanthidea, Corallimorpharia, and Ceriantharia. National Marine Fisheries Service. Seattle., volume 141, pp. 1-67
page(s): 5, 17, 56 [details]   

additional source Hoover, J. P. (1998). Hawaii's Sea Creatures. Mutual Publishing. Honolulu., edition 1st, pp. 366.
page(s): 46 [details]   

additional source Endean, R. (1982). Australia's Great Barrier Reef. University of Queensland Press. St Lucia, London, New York., edition 1st, pp. 348.
page(s): 79 [details]   

additional source Beneden, É. (1890). Les Anthozoaires pélagiques recueillis par M. le professeur Hensen dans son expédition du Plankton. Communication préliminaire. I. - Une larve voisine de la larve de Semper. Archives de Biologie, 10, 485-521
page(s): 517 [details]   

additional source Pawlik, J. R.; Chanas, B.; Toonen, R. J.; Fenical, W. H. (1995). Defences of Caribbean sponges against predatory reef fish. I. Chemical deterrency. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 127, 183-194
page(s): 184 [details]   

additional source Haddon, A. C. (1889). A revision of the British Actiniae. Part I. Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, 4, 2, 297-361
page(s): 343, 352, Pl. XXXVII figs. 2, 5 [details]   

additional source Haddon, A. C. (1898). The Actiniaria of Torres Straits. Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, 6, 2, 393-520
page(s): 409 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1889). The Actiniaria of the Bahama Islands, W.I. Journal of Morphology, 3(1): 1-80
page(s): 64-65 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Müller, I. (1962). Die Anthozoenfauna der Adria / Fauna antozoa Jadrana. Fauna et Flora Adriatica, 3, 1-343
page(s): 18-120 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1987). Ordre des Zoanthaires. Masson. Paris., pp. 783-810
page(s): 787, 795, 801, 802, 804, 805, 806 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Contribution à l'étude écologique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. Marine Biology, 13, 127-136
page(s): 129, 130 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1976). Sur trois zoanthaires nouveaux pour Tuléar, Madagascar. Beaufortia, 25(320): 33-47
page(s): 33-34 [details]   

additional source Muirhead, A. M.; Ryland, J. S. (1984). Order Zoanthidea. Australian Coral Reef Society. Brisbane., edition 2nd, pp. 29-33
page(s): 29, 30, 33 [details]   

additional source Muirhead, A. M.; Tyler, P. A. (1986). Reproductive biology and growth of the genus Epizoanthus (Zoanthidea) from the north-east Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 66, 131-143
page(s): 131-142 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1934). Anthozoa (Teil I. Allgemeines, Ceriantharia, Antipatharia, Zoantharia, Madreporaria). Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostee, 26, 39-53
page(s): 39, 40, 43, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51 [details]   

additional source Tischbierek, H. (1930). Zoanthiden auf Wurmröhren. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 91, 91-95
page(s): 93, 94 [details]   

additional source Seifert, R. (1928). Die Nesselkapseln der Zoantharien und ihre differentialdiagnostische Bedeutung. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, 55, 419-500
page(s): 419, 420, 489-497 [details]   

additional source Walsh, G. E. (1967). An Annotated Bibliography of the Families Zoanthidae, Epizoanthidae, and Parazoanthidae (Coelenterata, Zoantharia). Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology. Honolulu., pp. 77.
page(s): 2, 36-49 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. (1997). Reproduction in Zoanthidea (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 31(1-3): 177-188
page(s): 177, 178, 179, 181 [details]   

additional source Roule, L. (1900). Description d'une nouvelle espèce Méditerranéenne de zoanthidé, commensale des pagures (Palythoa-Gemmaria-Paguricola). Bulletin de la Societé Zoologique de France, 25, 120-125
page(s): 124, 125 [details]   

additional source Roule, L. (1900). Sur les genres Palythoa et Epizoanthus. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 131, 279-281
page(s): 279, 280 [details]   

additional source den Hartog, J. C. (1997). The sea anemone fauna of Indonesian coral reefs. Periplus Editions. Republic of Singapore., chapter Box 8.2, volume 7, pp. 351-370
page(s): 362 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S.; Muirhead, A. M. (1991). Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): proposed conservation. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 48(1): 19-21
page(s): 19-20 [details]   

additional source Ates, R. M. L. (1995). Colonial anemones - Zoanthiniaria. A review for the seriously interested marine aquarist. Aquarium Frontiers, Spring 1995, 10-13
page(s): 10-13 [details]   

additional source Balss, H. (1924). Über Anpassungen und Symbiose der Paguriden. Eine zusammenfassende übersicht. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, 1, 752-792
page(s): 768, 769 [details]   

additional source Duerden, J. E. (1896). Zoanthidæ at Port Henderson. Journal of the Institute of Jamaica, 2(3): 285-287
page(s): 286 [details]   

additional source Erdmann, A. (1885). Ueber einige neue Zoantheen. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft, 19, 430-488
page(s): 451-468 [details]   

additional source Fosså, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1995). Korallenriff-Aquarium, 4. Nesseltiere in Korallenriff und für das Korallenriff-Aquarium. Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag. Bornheim, Germany., edition 1st, volume 4, pp. 447.
page(s): 262, 263 [details]   

additional source Duerden, J. E. (1898). On the relations of certain Stichodactylinae to the Madreporaria. Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Zoology), 26, 635-653
page(s): 644 [details]   

additional source Jaeckel, S. (1953). Zur Biologie der Actinie Amphianthus radiatus Carlgren und des Brachiopoden Pelagodiscus atlanticus King. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 150(1-2): 38-40
page(s): 40 [details]   

additional source Keller, N. B.; Naumov, D. V.; Pasternak, F. A. (1975). Bottom deep-sea Coelenterata from the Gulf and Caribbean [In Russian]. Transactions of the Institute of Oceanology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 100, 147-159
page(s): 157 [details]   

additional source Cutress, C. E.; West, D. A. (1973). The symbiotic zoanthids of Puerto Rico with observations on their biology. Proceedings of the Association of Island Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, 9, 23
page(s): 23 [details]   

additional source Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.; Núñez, J.; Bacallado, J. J. (1995). Redescripción de Gerardia savaglia (Bertoloni, 1819) (Anthozoa: Zoantharia: Gerardiidae). Vieraea, 24, 153-164
page(s): 159 [details]   

additional source Belcik, F. P. (1977). A distribution study of the Octocorallia of Oregon. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 24(1-3): 49-52
page(s): 50 [details]   

additional source Hirose, M.; Obuchi, M.; Hirose, E.; Reimer, J. D. (2011). Timing of spawning and early development of Palythoa tuberculosa (Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) in Okinawa, Japan. Biological Bulletin, 220(23-31): 23-31
page(s): 23 [details]   

additional source Ocaña, O.; Brito, A. (2004). A review of Gerardiidae (Anthozoa: Zoantharia) from the Macronesian Islands and the Mediterranean Sea with the description of a new species. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias, 15(3-4): 159-189
page(s): 160 [details]   

additional source Dunn, D. F. (1982). Cnidaria. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York and other cities., volume 1, pp. 669-706
page(s): 704 [details]   

additional source Hayward, P.J. & J.S. Ryland (Eds.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. <em>Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK.</em> 627 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
Nontype RBCM [details]
Nontype RBCM [details]
Nontype RBCM 974-568-1, geounit Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype RBCM 988-259-3, geounit Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype USNM 204743, 204744, geounit Bahamas Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype USNM 210851, geounit French Polynesian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
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