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HABs taxon details

Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada ex Y.Hara & Chihara, 1987

160585  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:160585)

accepted
Species
Entomosigma akashiwo Y.Hada, 1967 · unaccepted (basionym)
Olisthodiscus carterae Hulburt, 1965 · unaccepted (synonym)
marine
(of Entomosigma akashiwo Y.Hada, 1967) Hada Y. 1967. Protozoan plankton of the Inland Sea, Setonaikai I. The Mastigophora. Bull. Suzugamine Women's Coll., Nat. Sci. 14: 1-26. [details]   
Type locality contained in Seto Inland Sea  
type locality contained in Seto Inland Sea [details]
Distribution Heterosigma akashiwo is distributed almost worldwide, from the Arctic to the tropics.The available evidence has shown very...  
Distribution Heterosigma akashiwo is distributed almost worldwide, from the Arctic to the tropics.The available evidence has shown very little variation in rDNA sequences (>99.8% similarity) [details]

Harmful effect Mortality of fish. There is disagreement regarding the cause(s) of the fish kills.   
Harmful effect Mortality of fish. There is disagreement regarding the cause(s) of the fish kills.  [details]

Identification In the period 1971-c.1985, this species was often misidentified as Olisthodiscus luteus.  
Identification In the period 1971-c.1985, this species was often misidentified as Olisthodiscus luteus. [details]

Identification H. akashiwo is distinguished from Olisthodiscus luteus by its only slightly flattened cells versus the very flattened cells...  
Identification H. akashiwo is distinguished from Olisthodiscus luteus by its only slightly flattened cells versus the very flattened cells of Olisthodiscus. Also Heterosigma cells rotate during swimming while Olisthodiscus does not.
Cells of H. akashiwo are slightly longer than wide, measuring 11-25 micrometer in length. The newly described species H. minor is almost round and measures 7-12 micrometer in diameter.
In fixed samples, H. akashiwo can be difficult to identify (see image below). It may be confused with other species whose cells contain several yellow or yellow-brown chloroplasts such as Pseudochattonella or naked stages of other silicoflagellates.  [details]
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2024). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada ex Y.Hara & Chihara, 1987. Accessed through: Lundholm, N.; Churro, C.; Escalera, L.; Fraga, S.; Hoppenrath, M.; Iwataki, M.; Larsen, J.; Mertens, K.; Moestrup, Ø.; Murray, S.; Tillmann, U.; Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards) IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae at: https://www.marinespecies.org/hab/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=160585 on 2024-04-23
Lundholm, N.; Churro, C.; Escalera, L.; Fraga, S.; Hoppenrath, M.; Iwataki, M.; Larsen, J.; Mertens, K.; Moestrup, Ø.; Murray, S.; Tillmann, U.; Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae. Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada ex Y.Hara & Chihara, 1987. Accessed at: https://www.marinespecies.org/HAB/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=160585 on 2024-04-23
Date
action
by
2005-06-17 10:15:26Z
created
2008-11-20 10:21:18Z
changed
2010-12-13 10:09:16Z
changed
2015-06-26 12:00:51Z
changed
2024-03-04 08:55:12Z
changed

original description  (of Entomosigma akashiwo Y.Hada, 1967) Hada Y. 1967. Protozoan plankton of the Inland Sea, Setonaikai I. The Mastigophora. Bull. Suzugamine Women's Coll., Nat. Sci. 14: 1-26. [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245., available online at http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

context source (Schelde) Maris, T.; Beauchard, O.; Van Damme, S.; Van den Bergh, E.; Wijnhoven, S.; Meire, P. (2013). Referentiematrices en Ecotoopoppervlaktes Annex bij de Evaluatiemethodiek Schelde-estuarium Studie naar “Ecotoopoppervlaktes en intactness index”. <em>Monitor Taskforce Publication Series, 2013-01. NIOZ: Yerseke.</em> 35 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2023). AlgaeBase. <em>World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.</em> searched on YYYY-MM-DD., available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2023). AlgaeBase. <em>World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.</em> searched on YYYY-MM-DD., available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

additional source Streftaris, N., A. Zenetos & E. Papathanassiou. (2005). Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. <em>Oceanogry and Marine Biology: an Annual Review.</em> 43: 419-453. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Chang F. H., Anderson C. & Boustead N. C. 1990. First record of a <i>Heterosigma</i> (Raphidophyceae) bloom with associated mortality of cage-reared salmon in Big Glory Bay, New Zealand. New Zealand. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 24: 461-469. [details]   

additional source Honjo T. 1993. Overview on bloom dynamics and physiological ecology of <i>Heterosigma akashiwo</i>. In: <i>Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea</i> (Ed. by T.J. Smayda & Y. Shimizu), pp. 33-41. Elsevier, Amsterdam. [details]   

additional source Smayda T.J. 1998. Ecophysiology and bloom dynamics of <i>Heterosigma akashiwo</i> (Raphidophyceae). In: <i>Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms</i> (Ed. by D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella & G.M. Hallegraeff), pp. 113-131. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. [details]   

additional source Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source Liu, J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. <em>China Science Press.</em> 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Harper, M.A.; Cassie Cooper, V.; Chang, F.H.; Nelson, W.A.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Ochrophyta: brown and golden-brown algae, diatoms, silicoflagellates, and kin, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 114-163. [details]   

additional source Lutaenko, K.A.; Furota, T.; Nakayama; S.; Shin, K.; Xu, J. (2013). Atlas of Marine Invasive Species in the NOWPAP Region. Beijing: NOWPAP DINRAC (Northwest Pacific Action Plan, Data and Information Network Regional Center). 189 pp. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

new combination reference Hara, Y. & Chihara, C. 1987. Morphology, ultrastructure and taxonomy of the raphidophycean alga <i>Heterosigma akashiwo</i>. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 100: 151-163. [details]   

ecology source Leles, S. G.; Mitra, A.; Flynn, K. J.; Tillmann, U.; Stoecker, D.; Jeong, H. J.; Burkholder, J.; Hansen, P. J.; Caron, D. A.; Glibert, P. M.; Hallegraeff, G.; Raven, J. A.; Sanders, R. W.; Zubkov, M. (2019). Sampling bias misrepresents the biogeographical significance of constitutive mixotrophs across global oceans. <em>Global Ecology and Biogeography.</em> 28(4): 418-428., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12853 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

ecology source Mitra, A.; Caron, D. A.; Faure, E.; Flynn, K. J.; Leles, S. G.; Hansen, P. J.; McManus, G. B.; Not, F.; Do Rosario Gomes, H.; Santoferrara, L. F.; Stoecker, D. K.; Tillmann, U. (2023). The Mixoplankton Database (MDB): Diversity of photo‐phago‐trophic plankton in form, function, and distribution across the global ocean. <em>Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology.</em> 70(4)., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12972 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

ecology source Nygaard, K.; Tobiesen, A. (1993). Bacterivory in algae: A survival strategy during nutrient limitation. <em>Limnology and Oceanography.</em> 38(2): 273-279., available online at https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1993.38.2.0273 [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
   

From regional or thematic species database
Description Cells include several disc-shaped brown-yellow chloroplasts separated from each other and a nucleus in the central part. Overall size: 11–25 μm in length, 8–13 μm in width, 8–11 μm in height. Two heterodynamic flagella inserted in an antero-lateral groove located at 1/3 to 1/4 of total length, from the apex. The benthic cyst is naked, spherical, and covered with mucus. Known as “Flagellate X’ in Scotland and Ireland in the 1980’s. Often confused with Olisthodiscus luteus.  [details]

Distribution Heterosigma akashiwo is distributed almost worldwide, from the Arctic to the tropics.The available evidence has shown very little variation in rDNA sequences (>99.8% similarity) [details]

Harmful effect Mortality of fish. There is disagreement regarding the cause(s) of the fish kills.  [details]

Identification In the period 1971-c.1985, this species was often misidentified as Olisthodiscus luteus. [details]

Identification H. akashiwo is distinguished from Olisthodiscus luteus by its only slightly flattened cells versus the very flattened cells of Olisthodiscus. Also Heterosigma cells rotate during swimming while Olisthodiscus does not.
Cells of H. akashiwo are slightly longer than wide, measuring 11-25 micrometer in length. The newly described species H. minor is almost round and measures 7-12 micrometer in diameter.
In fixed samples, H. akashiwo can be difficult to identify (see image below). It may be confused with other species whose cells contain several yellow or yellow-brown chloroplasts such as Pseudochattonella or naked stages of other silicoflagellates.  [details]

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