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Definitions

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Attributes/Values Definitions SourceID
+ AMBI ecological groupAZTI’s Marine Biotic Index ecological group
very sensitive to disturbanceSpecies very sensitive to disturbance and present under undisturbed conditions (they are present in mature systems).390863
indifferent to disturbanceSpecies indifferent to disturbance, always present in low densities with non-significant variations with time (they are present in mature systems and slight unbalanced).390863
tolerant to disturbanceSpecies tolerant to disturbance. These species may occur under normal conditions (e.g. in naturally disturbed or enriched conditions, such as estuaries), but their populations are stimulated by some disturbances, such as organic enrichment (present in slight unbalanced situations).390863
second-order opportunisticSecond-order opportunistic species, able to resist some periods of low oxygen levels, and some concentration of pollutants (present in slight to pronounced unbalanced situations).390863
first-order opportunisticFirst-order opportunistic species, able to resist very low oxygen levels, episodes of anoxia and high concentration of pollutants, early and successful pioneers (present in pronounced unbalanced situations).390863
+ Asexual reproductionReproduction which does not involve formation and fusion of gametes and results in progeny with an identical genetic constitution to the parent and to each other. Reproduction may occur by binary fission, budding, asexual spore formation or vegetative propagation. In asexual division in eukaryotic organisms, all cell divisions are by mitosis.424973
yesThe taxon reproduces asexually, which is reproduction which does not involve fusion of gametes or meiosis and usually results in progeny with an identical genetic constitution to the parent and to each other. Asexual reproduction may amongst others occur by binary fission, budding, asexual spore formation or vegetative propagation (adapted from Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005).424973
by unknown mechanismAsexual reproduction is detected, but the underpinning mechanism is unknown. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
by direct development of sporesReproduction by asexual spores resulting in a new individual of the same ploidy (exospore, endospore, monospore, bispore, paraspore, zoospore, aplanospore, autospore). (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
by fragmentationType of asexual reproduction in which the organism breaks up into smaller pieces, each of which can develop into a new individual, as in some algae.424973
by parthenogenesisReproduction from a female gamete without fertilization by a male gamete (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005). Direct development of a new individual from an unfused gamete. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)424973
by vegetative propagulesAny spore, seed, fruit or other part of a plant or microorganism capable of producing a new plant and used as a means of dispersal (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005). Asexual reproduction by development of a new individual from a vegetative progagule. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)424973
by binary fissionBinary fission in prokaryotic organisms, the chief mode of division, in which a cell divides into two equal daughter cells, each containing a copy of the chromosome.424973
by budding(1) production of buds; (2) (zool.) method of asexual reproduction common in sponges, coelenterates and some other invertebrates, in which new individuals develop as outgrowths of the parent organism, and may eventually be set free; (3) (bot.) artificial vegetative propagation by insertion of a bud within the bark of another plant; (4) (mycol.) cell division by the outgrowth of a new cell from the parent cell; (5) (virol.) release of certain animal viruses from the host cell by their envelopment in a piece of plasma membrane which subsequently pinches off from the cell.424973
noThe taxon does not reproduce asexually, which is reproduction which does not involve formation and fusion of gametes and results in progeny with an identical genetic constitution to the parent and to each other. Reproduction may occur by binary fission, budding, asexual spore formation or vegetative propagation. In asexual division in eukaryotic organisms, all cell divisions are by mitosis.424973
unknownAccording to literature it is unknown whether or not this organism reproduces asexually.
+ Life stage
+ Locality (MRGID)Marine Regions Geographic IDentifier (MRGID) for a place name in the Marine Regions gazetteer
+ Body shapeThe general shape of the body of an organism.
branchedForming main and lateral branches (and branchlets) (macroalgae thallus; Womersley, 1987).345374
capitate(1) Enlarged or swollen at tip; (2) Gathered into a mass at tip of stem or apex (Adapted from Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's dictionary of Biology).424973
crustoseForming a thin crust on the substratum, appl. certain lichens, sponges, algae (adapted from Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005).424973
cushion-likeApproximating the shape of a cushion (macroalgae thallus; Womersley, 1987).345374
discoid(1) Flat and circular; (2) Disc-shaped (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005).424973
erectUpright; (1) appl. ovule, directed towards summit of ovary; (2) appl. plants, growing upright, not decumbent.424973
filamentousExisting out of a branched or unbranched row of cells joined end to end (macroalgae thallus; Womersley, 1987).345374
flabellateWith projecting flaps on one side, appl. to certain insect antennae (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005). Fan-shaped, thallus usually expanding upward from a narrow base. (macroalgae thallus; Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)424973
foliose(1) With many leaves; (2) Having leaf-like lobes, appl. the thallus of some lichens and liverworts (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005). Leaf-like (macroalgae thallus; Womersley, 1987).424973
pinnate(1) Divided in a feathery manner; (2) having lateral processes; (3) (bot.) of a compound leaf, having leaflets on each side of an axis or midrib (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005). With laterals or branches arranged along each side of an axis or branch (macroalgae thallus; Womersley, 1987).424973
prostrateTrailing on the ground or lying closely along a surface (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005).424973
saccatePouched (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005). Inflated, or sac-like (macroalgae thallus; Womersley, 1987).424973
sphericApproximating the shape of a sphere (macroalgae thallus; Womersley, 1987).345374
tubularIn the form of a tube, having tubes, consisting of tubes (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005).424973
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature what the body shape (thallus) is for this taxon.
+ Life stage
+ Body sizeA measurement of the size of the organism. The measurement used to express body size varies within taxonomic groups. For example, some disciplines measure diameter, others carapace length, total body length or wing span. Also, body size can vary with gender and life stage.
+ Body size (qualitative)Mean Body Size: the mean of the overall physical magnitude of an organism (based on def in OLS)
<0.2 mmIndividual organisms with a mean body size smaller than 0.2 mm (as defined, agreed and applied by the WoRMS Steering Committee).
0.2 - 2.0 mmIndividual organisms with a mean body size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm (as defined, agreed and applied by the WoRMS Steering Committee).
2.0 - 200 mmIndividual organisms with a mean body size between 2.0 and 200 mm (as defined, agreed and applied by the WoRMS Steering Committee).
200 mmIndividual organisms with a mean body size larger than 200 mm (as defined, agreed and applied by the WoRMS Steering Committee).
+ GenderThe sex of an organism. The sum of all structural, functional and behavioural characteristics distingiusing males, females and hermaphrodites. (Lincoln et al., 1998). The sum characteristics, structures, features and functions by which a plant or animal is classed as male or female. In some animals sex is entirely genetically determined, in others the sex may change in response to environmental conditions. (Henderson's dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005)416344
maleThe attribute is valid for organisms of the male gender; the sperm producing form of a a bisexual or dioecious organism.416344
femaleThe attribute is valid for organisms of the female gender; the egg producing form of a bisexual or dioecious organism.416344
male & femaleThe attribute is valid for both organisms of the male gender and organisms of the female gender.
hermaphroditeThe attribute is valid for hermaphroditic organisms. Having both male and female reproductive organs in the same individual (animal) or the same flower (plant); androgyne; bisexual; the maturation of the male organs before the female is protandrous hermaphroditism; the female before the male is protogynous hermaphroditism, and simultaneously is syncrhonous hermaphroditism.416344
undeterminedIt has not yet been determined for which gender this attribute is valid.
male/unsexedThe attribute is valid for organisms of the male gender or for organisms for which the gender has not yet been identified.
+ Stage
adultThe reproductively capable (mature), fully formed, usually longest lived, stage of an animals life cycle.
juvenileYoung bird or other animal, before it has acquired full adult plumage or form.424973
egg(1) ovum q.v.; (2) in certain animals, e.g. reptiles, birds, amphibians and insects, a structure composed of the fertilized ovum and nutritive and protective tissues, surrounded by a protective shell, which is laid by the female, and from which the young animal hatches.424973
larvaIndependently living, post-embryonic stage of an animal that is markedly different in form from the adult and which undergoes metamorphosis into the adult form, e.g. caterpillar, grub, tadpole.424973
planulaThe ovoid free-swimming ciliated larva of coelenterates.424973
tadpoleLlarval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly frog or toad. Also called "pollywog".
postlarva
spatThe spawn or young of bivalve molluscs.424973
subadult
zoeaEarly larval form of certain decapod crustaceans.424973
naupliusEarliest larval stage of many crustaceans, with three pairs of appendages.424973
polyp(1) Sedentary individual or zooid of a colonial animal; (2) in coelenterates, an individual having a tubular body, usually with a mouth and ring of tentacles on top, like a miniature sea anemone.424973
medusaOne of the forms of individuals of coelenterates of the classes Hydrozoa (hydroids) and Scyphozoa (jellyfish). It is bell-shaped, with a tube hanging down in the centre ending in a mouth, and tentacles around the edge of the bell, and is the form commonly called a jellyfish. It forms the free-swimming sexual reproductive stage of most hydrozoans, and is large and conspicuous in jellyfish.424973
ephyraImature medusa in some jellyfish, formed by strobilization from a polyp.424973
megalopsA larval stage of certain crustaceans such as crabs, which has large stalked eyes and a crab-like cephalothorax.424973
hydroidOne of the forms of individuals in the Hydrozoa, a class of solitary and colonial coelenterates, having a hollow cylindrical body closed at one end and with a mouth at the other surrounded by tentacles.424973
mancaLarval (juvenile) stage of some isopods.424973
cyprisThe nonfeeding larval stage prior to metamorphosis into the cyprid (unknown source). Larval stage that follows the nauplius stage in cirripedes (Lawrence, 2005).424973
hatchling
copepodite IJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the nauplius life stage; determined by 2 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite I life stage; determined by 3 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite II life stage; determined by 4 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IVJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite III life stage; determined by 5 swimming legs.6961
copepodite VJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite IV life stage; pre-adult stage; determined by enlargement of the urosome and development of sexual organs. 6961
copepodite VIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite V life stage; adult stage; 5th leg is fully complete.6961
gametophyteThe haploid sexual phase of a plant which exhibits an alternation of generations, from which gametes are produced, usually by mitotic division; the haploid gametophyte is typically formed by meiotic division of a diploid sporophyte q.v.; gamophyte; haplophyte.416344
sporophyteThe diploid, spore-producing, asexual generation in the life cycle of a plant; typically formed by fusion of haploid gametes; diplophyte; synkaryophyte.416344
macrothallusThe larger, conspicuous, phase in the life history of an organism, as contrasted with the microthallus.200706
microthallusThe smaller, often inconspicuous, phase in the life history of an organisms, as contrasted with the marcrothallus.380501
neonateNewborn animal.424973
1-year oldAn animal that has reached the age of 1 year.
foetusMammalian embryo after the stage at which it becomes recognizable.424973
podocystA cyst beneath the pedal discs of scyphozoan polyps.
polygastricMain, asexual life stage of calycophoran siphonophores. The polygastric stage is comprised of an anterior nectophore and a posterior nectophore, joined together to form a functional swimming unit. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Calycophorae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. Cf. Physonectae and Cystonectae, where this life stage is called "colony".391288
eudoxidSexual stage of siphonophores.391288
colonyMain, asexual life stage of physonect and cystonect siphonophores. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Physonectae and Cystonectae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. cf. Calycophorae, where this life stage is called "polygastric".391288
medusoidA life stage resembling or developing into a medusa.424973
cerinulalarval stage within Ceriantharia
pilidiumThe characteristic helmet-shaped larva of nemertine worms.424973
+ Corresponding lengthCorresponding length of a length-width pair for Nematoda.
+ Corresponding widthCorresponding width of a length-width pair for Nematoda.
+ DimensionThe dimension of a body size (e.g. length, width, diameter).
lengthMaximum recorded linear body length (in millimetres) excluding appendages. [Source: https://marinespecies.org/traits/wiki/Traits:Bodylength]
widthA measurement or extent of something from side to side; the lesser of two or the least of three dimensions of a body. [Source: https://marinespecies.org/traits/wiki/Traits:Width]424864
diameterThe length of a straight line passing from side to side through the centre of a body or figure, especially a circle or sphere.
height
thickness
wingspanThe distance between the wing tips when the wings are held outstretched.
volume
corresponding lengthCorresponding length of a length-width pair for Nematoda.
corresponding widthCorresponding width of a length-width pair for Nematoda.
thallus lengthMaximum length observed for the regarding thallus feature.
thallus diameterMaximum diameter observed for the regarding thallus feature.
weight
corresponding weight
standard length (SL)The measurement from the most anterior tip of the body to the midlateral posterior edge of the hypural plate (in fish with a hypural plate) or to the posterior end of the vertebral column (in fish lacking hypural plates). It may be restricted to the tip of the snout if the lower jaw projects. The base of the caudal fin (end of the vertebral column or posterior edge of the hypural plate) is determined by flexing the tail up while the caudal peduncle is held down. The resultant wrinkle or caudal flexure indicates the caudal base. It may also be determined by probing or dissection. Sometimes the posteriormost point is the last scale, the last pored scale or the beginning of the caudal fin rays. It is the usual scientific measurement for length of a fish except in Myxini, Petromyzontiformes, Elasmobranchii and Holocephali. This measurement is used because long-preserved fish often lose the tips of the caudal fin rays through breakage after the desiccation effect of alcohol. See total length and fork length. In Holocephali the length is usually taken from the tip of the snout to the origin of the upper caudal fin because the caudal filament breaks off frequently. In Scaridae it is taken back to the rear margin of the second to last lateral line scale {because the large scales obscure the point of caudal flexure. In small dead fish, the end point is detected by bending the caudal fin to one side. In fishery work, as a result of the use of the measuring board, standard-, fork- and total length are taken from the most anterior part of the head. Abbreviated as SL.1128
total length (TL)The greatest length of the whole body between the most anterior point of the body and the most posterior point, in a straight line, not over the curve of the body. Sometimes, when there are two equal lobes, the caudal rays are squeezed together and their tip is taken as the most posterior point (excluding the caudal filaments), or the longest lobe is squeezed to the midline (maximum length or extreme tip length). Also an imaginary line may be drawn between the two lobe tips and length to its mid-point taken as the most posterior point (total auxiliary length or bilobular length). Usually the tip of the most posterior lobe of the fin in normal position is taken as the posteriormost point (total normal length or natural tip length). Total length is used by taxonomists in Myxini, Petromyzontiformes, usually in Elasmobranchii and sometimes in other fishes. Standard length is usually employed with Teleostei. Abbreviated TL.1128
fork length (FL)Length of a fish measured from the tip of the snout to the posterior end of the middle caudal rays. This measurement is used instead of standard length for fishes on which it is difficult to ascertain the end of the vertebral column, and instead of total length in fish with stiff, forked tail, e.g., tuna. Mostly used in fishery biology and not in systematics.1128
width of disk (WD)The greatest distance between the lateral tips of the pectoral fins in Rajiformes.1128
bell diameterDiameter of the bell of a jellyfish.
+ GenderThe sex of an organism. The sum of all structural, functional and behavioural characteristics distingiusing males, females and hermaphrodites. (Lincoln et al., 1998). The sum characteristics, structures, features and functions by which a plant or animal is classed as male or female. In some animals sex is entirely genetically determined, in others the sex may change in response to environmental conditions. (Henderson's dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005)416344
maleThe attribute is valid for organisms of the male gender; the sperm producing form of a a bisexual or dioecious organism.416344
femaleThe attribute is valid for organisms of the female gender; the egg producing form of a bisexual or dioecious organism.416344
male & femaleThe attribute is valid for both organisms of the male gender and organisms of the female gender.
hermaphroditeThe attribute is valid for hermaphroditic organisms. Having both male and female reproductive organs in the same individual (animal) or the same flower (plant); androgyne; bisexual; the maturation of the male organs before the female is protandrous hermaphroditism; the female before the male is protogynous hermaphroditism, and simultaneously is syncrhonous hermaphroditism.416344
undeterminedIt has not yet been determined for which gender this attribute is valid.
male/unsexedThe attribute is valid for organisms of the male gender or for organisms for which the gender has not yet been identified.
+ Locality (MRGID)Marine Regions Geographic IDentifier (MRGID) for a place name in the Marine Regions gazetteer
+ Stage
adultThe reproductively capable (mature), fully formed, usually longest lived, stage of an animals life cycle.
juvenileYoung bird or other animal, before it has acquired full adult plumage or form.424973
egg(1) ovum q.v.; (2) in certain animals, e.g. reptiles, birds, amphibians and insects, a structure composed of the fertilized ovum and nutritive and protective tissues, surrounded by a protective shell, which is laid by the female, and from which the young animal hatches.424973
larvaIndependently living, post-embryonic stage of an animal that is markedly different in form from the adult and which undergoes metamorphosis into the adult form, e.g. caterpillar, grub, tadpole.424973
planulaThe ovoid free-swimming ciliated larva of coelenterates.424973
tadpoleLlarval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly frog or toad. Also called "pollywog".
postlarva
spatThe spawn or young of bivalve molluscs.424973
subadult
zoeaEarly larval form of certain decapod crustaceans.424973
naupliusEarliest larval stage of many crustaceans, with three pairs of appendages.424973
polyp(1) Sedentary individual or zooid of a colonial animal; (2) in coelenterates, an individual having a tubular body, usually with a mouth and ring of tentacles on top, like a miniature sea anemone.424973
medusaOne of the forms of individuals of coelenterates of the classes Hydrozoa (hydroids) and Scyphozoa (jellyfish). It is bell-shaped, with a tube hanging down in the centre ending in a mouth, and tentacles around the edge of the bell, and is the form commonly called a jellyfish. It forms the free-swimming sexual reproductive stage of most hydrozoans, and is large and conspicuous in jellyfish.424973
ephyraImature medusa in some jellyfish, formed by strobilization from a polyp.424973
megalopsA larval stage of certain crustaceans such as crabs, which has large stalked eyes and a crab-like cephalothorax.424973
hydroidOne of the forms of individuals in the Hydrozoa, a class of solitary and colonial coelenterates, having a hollow cylindrical body closed at one end and with a mouth at the other surrounded by tentacles.424973
mancaLarval (juvenile) stage of some isopods.424973
cyprisThe nonfeeding larval stage prior to metamorphosis into the cyprid (unknown source). Larval stage that follows the nauplius stage in cirripedes (Lawrence, 2005).424973
hatchling
copepodite IJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the nauplius life stage; determined by 2 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite I life stage; determined by 3 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite II life stage; determined by 4 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IVJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite III life stage; determined by 5 swimming legs.6961
copepodite VJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite IV life stage; pre-adult stage; determined by enlargement of the urosome and development of sexual organs. 6961
copepodite VIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite V life stage; adult stage; 5th leg is fully complete.6961
gametophyteThe haploid sexual phase of a plant which exhibits an alternation of generations, from which gametes are produced, usually by mitotic division; the haploid gametophyte is typically formed by meiotic division of a diploid sporophyte q.v.; gamophyte; haplophyte.416344
sporophyteThe diploid, spore-producing, asexual generation in the life cycle of a plant; typically formed by fusion of haploid gametes; diplophyte; synkaryophyte.416344
macrothallusThe larger, conspicuous, phase in the life history of an organism, as contrasted with the microthallus.200706
microthallusThe smaller, often inconspicuous, phase in the life history of an organisms, as contrasted with the marcrothallus.380501
neonateNewborn animal.424973
1-year oldAn animal that has reached the age of 1 year.
foetusMammalian embryo after the stage at which it becomes recognizable.424973
podocystA cyst beneath the pedal discs of scyphozoan polyps.
polygastricMain, asexual life stage of calycophoran siphonophores. The polygastric stage is comprised of an anterior nectophore and a posterior nectophore, joined together to form a functional swimming unit. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Calycophorae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. Cf. Physonectae and Cystonectae, where this life stage is called "colony".391288
eudoxidSexual stage of siphonophores.391288
colonyMain, asexual life stage of physonect and cystonect siphonophores. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Physonectae and Cystonectae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. cf. Calycophorae, where this life stage is called "polygastric".391288
medusoidA life stage resembling or developing into a medusa.424973
cerinulalarval stage within Ceriantharia
pilidiumThe characteristic helmet-shaped larva of nemertine worms.424973
+ TypeThe type of a body size (e.g. minimum, maximum, average).
minimum
maximum
average
unknownAccording to literature it is unknown which type this body size is.
mean
standard mean
common
+ UnitThe unit of a body size (e.g. m, cm, mm).
µmmicrometer
mmmillimeter
cmcentimeter
mmeter
cm²square centimeter
dm²square decimeter
square meter
cm³cubic centimeter
inchesinch
kgkilogram
tonton
+ Brooding
Yes
No
+ CalcificationMode of calcification of seaweed.
calcified articulatedAlgal thallus that is encrusted or impregnated with lime with non-calcified articulae rendering the thallus a segmented nature (macroalgae).345374
calcified non-articulatedAlgal thallus that is encrusted or impregnated with lime lacking non-calcified articulae (macroalgae).345374
non-calcifiedAlgal thallus not encrusted or impregnated with lime (macroalgae).345374
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature whether or not the algal thallus is calcified (macroalgae).345374
+ Life stage
+ Cytomorphology
unicellularHaving only one cell, or consisting of one cell.424973
siphonousAppl. coenocytic green algae of the class Chlorophyceae, which form hollow tubular colonies (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005). An algal growth form that is filamentous, tubular, multinucleate and with a few cross-walls, if any (macroalgae thallus; Brodie & Maggs, 2007)..302237
non-unicellularHaving more than one cell, or consisting of more than one cell (adapted from Henderson's Dictionary of Biology).424973
coenocyticWith cells being multinucleate.
+ Life stage
+ Dispersion mode1: The pattern of distribution of organisms or populations in space. 2: The non-accidental movement of individuals into or out of an area or population, typically a movement over a relatively short distance and of a more or less regular nature; cf. migration. (Lincoln et al., 1998)416344
aplanosporesA non-motile spore, without power of locomotion (Lincoln et al., 1998). A non-motile resting spore (Henderson's Dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005). A non-motile, asexual spore ((Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.).416344
monosporesA simple or undivided spore.424973
motile sporesSpores are flagellate and can therefore disperse . (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
one motile gameteOnly the male gamete is flagellate and can therefore disperse. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
two motile gametesBoth male and female gametes are flagellate and can therefore disperse . (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
vegetative fragmentationType of asexual reproduction in which the organism breaks up into smaller pieces, each of which can develop into a new individual.424973
thallus fragmentation and driftA part of the thallus can be lost and drift. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
vegetative propagationAny spore, seed, fruit or other part of a plant or microorganism capable of producing a new plant and used as a means of dispersal (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005). Vegetative reproduction by propagules that can also be used as a means of dispersal. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)424973
presence of buoyance structuresIndividuals exhibit gas-filled structures that favourise their floating. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
species cultivated or sold in aquaria tradeThe species is cultivated or sold in aquaria trade. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
species growing on artificial substrateThe species is growing on artificial substrate such as harbour walls, boat hulls, piers, buoys. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
unknownAccording to literature it is unknown which dispersion mode this organism has.
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature which dispersion mode this taxon has.
+ Life stage
+ Environmental positionPosition relative to substratum or fluid medium (air/water).
endolithicGrowing within a rock or other hard inorganic substratum; petriculous; saxicavous; cf. epilithic (Lincoln et al., 1998). Living or penetrating into rock, as some algae and fungi (Henderson's dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005).416344
endophyticA plant living within another plant; entophytic; cf. ectophytic (Lincoln et al., 1998). Bacterium, fungus or alga living inside the body or cells of an organism to which they cause no apparent damage. alt. endosymbiont (Henderson's dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005).416344
endozoicLiving within or passing through the body of an animal; entozoic; cf. epizoic (Lincoln et al., 1998). Living within an animal or involving passage through an animal, as in the distribution of some seeds (Henderson's dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005).416344
epilithicGrowing on rocks or other hard inorganic substrata; petrophillous; cf. endolithic (Lincoln et al., 1998). Attached on rocks, appl. algae, lichens (Henderson's dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005).416344
epiphytic1: A plant growing on another plant (the phorophyte) for support or anchorage rather than for water supply or nutrients; aerophyte. 2: Any organism living on the surface of a plant. (Lincoln et al., 1998). Plant that lives on the surface of another plant but does not derive nourishment from it (Henderson's dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005).416344
epizoicLiving attached to the body of an animal; used of a non-parasitic animal that lives attached to the outer surface of another animal; epizoan, epizoism, epizoite, epizoon; cf. endozoic (Lincoln et al., 1998). (1) living on or attached to the body of an animal; (2) having seeds or fruits dispersed by being attached to the surface of an animal (Henderson's dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005).416344
unattachedGrowing without attachment to any type of substrate. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
+ Life stage
+ FeedingtypeA mixture of the feeding method/behaviour (how the organism gathers food, and from where; e.g. predator) and the food type/diet (what it feeds on; e.g. carnivore) of an organism.
carnivoreFlesh-eating; creophagous; sarcophagous.416344
commensalParticipating in commensalism. Commensalism is symbiosis in which one species derives benefit from a common food supply whilst the other species is not adversely affected.416344
deposit feederAny organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter in or on the substratum; a detritivorous organism.416344
non-selectiveFeeding group category for marine free-living meiobenthic Nematoda. Group 1-B: With cup-shaped, conical or cylindrical mouth-cavity, without any armature. Food obtained as above with additional help from active movements of lips and the anterior part of the mouth-cavity itself. Material available as food as above though larger objects (e.g. diatoms) are now being swallowed. Non-selective deposit-feeders.181619
selectiveFeeding group category for marine free-living meiobenthic Nematoda. Group 1-A: Without any mouth-cavity (though sometimes with traces of it). Food obtained mainly by means of the sucking power of the oesophagus. Consistency of material available as food most probable soft or floating. Large and hard particles never found in the intestine. Probably selective deposit-feeders.181619
subsurfaceAny organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter within the substratum (e.g. Echinocardium cordatum) (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
surfaceAny organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter on the surface of the substratum (e.g. Corophium volutator) (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
detritus feederAny organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter (detritus); detritivore.416344
epigrowth feederFeeding group category for marine free-living meiobenthic Nematoda. Group 2-A: Mouth-cavity provided with small armature. Food scraped off bigger surfaces, or else the food-object is pierced and the cell-liquid sucked through the hole made in its wall. Epigrowth-feeders.181619
filter feederAny animal that feeds by filtering suspended particulate organic matter from water.416344
grazerAny organism that feeds on herbage, algae or phytoplankton, by consuming the whole food plant or by cropping the entire surface growth in the case of herbage; cf. browsing.416344
interface grazer
on organic substratesGrazing on organic substrates.
on periphytonGrazing on periphyton. Any organism that feeds on periphyton, a community of plants, animals and associated detritus adhering to and forming a surface coating on stones, plants and other submerged objects (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
on algaeGrazing on algae. Any organism that feeds on algae, by consuming the whole food plant (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
on phanerogamsGrazing on phanerogams. Phanerogams are all seed-bearing plants (Lawrence, 2005).424973
herbivoreAny organism that feeds on plants; phytophagous; also used of protozoans that feed on bacteria and/or othe algae.416344
kleptovoreFeeding type specifically for Nemertea species that live inside bivalves and steal part of the food that has been filtered by the bivalve. Note that this is different from kleptoparasitism, where the female searches out the prey or stored food of another female, usually of a different species, and takes it for her own offspring (Lawrence, 2005). (The "kleptovore" feeding type was requested by the Nemertea editors during their WoRMS Editor Workshop in 2017.)
omnivoreAny organism that feeds on a mixed diet of plant and animal material.416344
parasiticAny organism that is intimately associated with, and metabolically dependent upon another living organism (the host) for completion of its life cycle, and which is typically detrimental to the host to a greater or lesser extent.416344
ectoparasiticA parasite that lives on the outer surface of its host, ectosite; epiparasite; episite; exoparasite; cf. endoparasite.416344
endocommensalA commensal symbiont that lives inside of its host.416344
endoparasiticAn internal parasite which lives within the organs or tissues of its host; endosite; entoparasite; cf. ectoparasite.416344
predatorAny organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food.416344
on sessile preyAny organism that feeds by preying on sessile organisms, killing them for food (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
on mobile preyAny organism that feeds by preying on mobile organisms, killing them for food (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
predator/omnivoreFeeding group category for marine free-living meiobenthic Nematoda. Group 2-B: With big and powerful armature of different structure. Mostly predators. Prey swallowed whole or pierced by means of spears or teeth and the liquid food sucked and swallowed.181619
scavengerAny organism that feeds on carrion or organic refuse.416344
suspension feederAny organism that feeds on particulate organic matter suspended in water.416344
facultativeFacultative suspension feeder. Some species (e.g. polychaetes Nereis diversicolor and Pygospio elegans, gastropods Valvata piscinalis and Viviparus viviparus, bivalve Macoma balthica, etc) are known to use more than one feeding mode, e.g. to get particles from the water column (by filtering or using mucus nets) and also collect detritus from the surface of the bottom sediments (Fauchald and Jumars 1979; Kuznetzov 1980; Tsikhon-Lukanina 1987). These species were defined as “facultative suspension-feeders” to distinguish them from those which exclusively suspension-feed, i.e. “obligatory suspension-feeders”, such as the bivalve Mytilus edulis trossulus, the barnacle Balanus improvisus or the bryozoan Electra crustulenta.424854
symbioticParticipating in symbiosis. Symbiosis is the living together of two organisms; the relationship between two interacting organisms or populations, commonly used to describe all relationships between members of two different species, and also to include intraspecific associations; sometimes restricted to those associations that are mutually beneficial.416344
epizoic1: Living attached to the body of an animal; used of a non-parasitic animal that lives attached to the outer surface of another animal; epizoan, epizoism, epizoite, epizoon; cf. endozoic. 2: Dispersed by attachment to the surface of an animal; epizoochorous.416344
with chemosymbiontssymbiosis in which a bacterium provides chemically-derived energy and nutrients
xylophagousFeeding on wood; dendrophagous; hylophagous; lignivorous; xylophage, xylophagy.416344
non-feedingNon-feeding life stages (e.g. lecithotroph).
unknownAccording to literature it is unknown which feeding type this organism has.
+ Host/prey
+ Stage
adultThe reproductively capable (mature), fully formed, usually longest lived, stage of an animals life cycle.
juvenileYoung bird or other animal, before it has acquired full adult plumage or form.424973
egg(1) ovum q.v.; (2) in certain animals, e.g. reptiles, birds, amphibians and insects, a structure composed of the fertilized ovum and nutritive and protective tissues, surrounded by a protective shell, which is laid by the female, and from which the young animal hatches.424973
larvaIndependently living, post-embryonic stage of an animal that is markedly different in form from the adult and which undergoes metamorphosis into the adult form, e.g. caterpillar, grub, tadpole.424973
planulaThe ovoid free-swimming ciliated larva of coelenterates.424973
tadpoleLlarval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly frog or toad. Also called "pollywog".
postlarva
spatThe spawn or young of bivalve molluscs.424973
subadult
zoeaEarly larval form of certain decapod crustaceans.424973
naupliusEarliest larval stage of many crustaceans, with three pairs of appendages.424973
polyp(1) Sedentary individual or zooid of a colonial animal; (2) in coelenterates, an individual having a tubular body, usually with a mouth and ring of tentacles on top, like a miniature sea anemone.424973
medusaOne of the forms of individuals of coelenterates of the classes Hydrozoa (hydroids) and Scyphozoa (jellyfish). It is bell-shaped, with a tube hanging down in the centre ending in a mouth, and tentacles around the edge of the bell, and is the form commonly called a jellyfish. It forms the free-swimming sexual reproductive stage of most hydrozoans, and is large and conspicuous in jellyfish.424973
ephyraImature medusa in some jellyfish, formed by strobilization from a polyp.424973
megalopsA larval stage of certain crustaceans such as crabs, which has large stalked eyes and a crab-like cephalothorax.424973
hydroidOne of the forms of individuals in the Hydrozoa, a class of solitary and colonial coelenterates, having a hollow cylindrical body closed at one end and with a mouth at the other surrounded by tentacles.424973
mancaLarval (juvenile) stage of some isopods.424973
cyprisThe nonfeeding larval stage prior to metamorphosis into the cyprid (unknown source). Larval stage that follows the nauplius stage in cirripedes (Lawrence, 2005).424973
hatchling
copepodite IJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the nauplius life stage; determined by 2 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite I life stage; determined by 3 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite II life stage; determined by 4 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IVJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite III life stage; determined by 5 swimming legs.6961
copepodite VJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite IV life stage; pre-adult stage; determined by enlargement of the urosome and development of sexual organs. 6961
copepodite VIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite V life stage; adult stage; 5th leg is fully complete.6961
gametophyteThe haploid sexual phase of a plant which exhibits an alternation of generations, from which gametes are produced, usually by mitotic division; the haploid gametophyte is typically formed by meiotic division of a diploid sporophyte q.v.; gamophyte; haplophyte.416344
sporophyteThe diploid, spore-producing, asexual generation in the life cycle of a plant; typically formed by fusion of haploid gametes; diplophyte; synkaryophyte.416344
macrothallusThe larger, conspicuous, phase in the life history of an organism, as contrasted with the microthallus.200706
microthallusThe smaller, often inconspicuous, phase in the life history of an organisms, as contrasted with the marcrothallus.380501
neonateNewborn animal.424973
1-year oldAn animal that has reached the age of 1 year.
foetusMammalian embryo after the stage at which it becomes recognizable.424973
podocystA cyst beneath the pedal discs of scyphozoan polyps.
polygastricMain, asexual life stage of calycophoran siphonophores. The polygastric stage is comprised of an anterior nectophore and a posterior nectophore, joined together to form a functional swimming unit. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Calycophorae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. Cf. Physonectae and Cystonectae, where this life stage is called "colony".391288
eudoxidSexual stage of siphonophores.391288
colonyMain, asexual life stage of physonect and cystonect siphonophores. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Physonectae and Cystonectae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. cf. Calycophorae, where this life stage is called "polygastric".391288
medusoidA life stage resembling or developing into a medusa.424973
cerinulalarval stage within Ceriantharia
pilidiumThe characteristic helmet-shaped larva of nemertine worms.424973
+ Fossil rangeor Chrono-stratigraphic range
Phanerozoic421682
Cenozoic421682
Quaternary421682
Holocene421682
Pleistocene421682
Pleistocene, Upper421682
Pleistocene, Middle421682
Calabrian421682
Gelasian421682
Neogene421682
Pliocene421682
Piacenzian421682
Zanclean421682
Miocene421682
Messinian421682
Tortonian421682
Serravallian421682
Langhian421682
Burdigalian421682
Aquitanian421682
Paleogene421682
Oligocene421682
Chattian421682
Rupelian421682
Eocene421682
Priabonian421682
Bartonian421682
Lutetian421682
Ypresian421682
Paleocene421682
Thanetian421682
Selandian421682
Danian421682
Mesozoic421682
Cretaceous421682
Cretaceous, Upper421682
Maastrichtian421682
Campanian421682
Santonian421682
Coniacian421682
Turonian421682
Cenomanian421682
Cretaceous, Lower421682
Albian421682
Aptian421682
Barremian421682
Hauterivian421682
Valanginian421682
Berriasian421682
Jurassic421682
Jurassic, Upper421682
Tithonian421682
Kimmeridgian421682
Oxfordian421682
Jurassic, Middle421682
Callovian421682
Bathonian421682
Bajocian421682
Aalenian421682
Jurassic, Lower421682
Toarcian421682
Pliensbachian421682
Sinemurian421682
Hettangian421682
Triassic421682
Triassic, Upper421682
Rhaetian421682
Norian421682
Carnian421682
Triassic, Middle421682
Ladinian421682
Anisian421682
Triassic, Lower421682
Olenekian421682
Induan421682
Paleozoic421682
Permian421682
Lopingian421682
Changhsingian421682
Wuchiapingian421682
Guadalupian421682
Capitanian421682
Wordian421682
Roadian421682
Cisuralian421682
Kungurian421682
Artinskian421682
Sakmarian421682
Asselian421682
Carboniferous421682
Pennsylvanian421682
Pennsylvanian, Upper421682
Gzhelian421682
Kasimovian421682
Pennsylvanian, Middle421682
Moscovian421682
Pennsylvanian, Lower421682
Bashkirian421682
Mississippian421682
Mississippian, Upper421682
Serpukhovian421682
Mississippian, Middle421682
Visean421682
Mississippian, Lower421682
Tournaisian421682
Devonian421682
Devonian, Upper421682
Famennian421682
Frasnian421682
Devonian, Middle421682
Givetian421682
Eifelian421682
Devonian, Lower421682
Emsian421682
Pragian421682
Lochkovian421682
Silurian421682
Pridoli421682
Ludlow421682
Ludfordian421682
Gorstian421682
Wenlock421682
Homerian421682
Sheinwoodian421682
Llandovery421682
Telychian421682
Aeronian421682
Rhuddanian421682
Ordovician421682
Ordovician, Upper421682
Hirnantian421682
Katian421682
Sandbian421682
Ordovician, Middle421682
Darriwilian421682
Dapingian421682
Ordovician, Lower421682
Floian421682
Tremadocian421682
Cambrian421682
Furongian421682
Stage 10421682
Jiangshanian421682
Paibian421682
Series 3421682
Guzhangian421682
Drumian421682
Stage 5421682
Series 2421682
Stage 4421682
Stage 3421682
Terreneuvian421682
Stage 2421682
Fortunian421682
Proterozoic421682
Neoproterozoic421682
Ediacaran421682
Cryogenian421682
Tonian421682
Mesoproterozoic421682
Stenian421682
Ectasian421682
Calymmian421682
Paleoproterozoic421682
Statherian421682
Orosirian421682
Rhyacian421682
Siderian421682
Archaen421682
Neoarchean421682
Mesoarchean421682
Paleoarchean421682
Eoarchean421682
Hadean421682
+ Functional group
benthosBenthic organisms, or the benthos, are those that live on or burried in the bottom.407106
macrobenthosThe component of the benthos that consists of large organisms 2 to 200 mm in size (as defined, agreed and applied by the WoRMS Steering Committee).
meiobenthosThe component of the benthos that consists of organisms 0,2 to 2 mm in size (as defined, agreed and applied by the WoRMS Steering Committee).
microbenthosThe component of the benthos that consists of organisms 20 to 200 microns (µm) (0,02 to 0,2 mm) in size (as defined, agreed and applied by the WoRMS Steering Committee).
endobenthos[Organisms] living within the sediment of a lake or sea floor; infauna. Also called endobiontic.1128
epibenthos[Organisms] living on the surface of the bottom. Epifaunal or epifloral.407092
hyperbenthos[Organisms] living above but close to the substratum.416344
phytobenthos1: A bottom-living plant community; phytobenthon. 2: That part of the bottom of a stream or lake covered by vegetation; cf. geobenthos.416344
megabenthosThe component of the benthos that consists of very large organisms over 20 cm in size (as defined, agreed and applied by the WoRMS Steering Committee).
planktonOrganisms that cannot maintain a fixed location in the water column, and are thus moved by the tides and currents.414832
phytoplanktonPlankton obtaining nourishment via photo(auto)trophy and osmo(hetero)trophy. They are incapable of phagotrophy; cf. mixoplankton.414832
zooplanktonPlankton obtaining nourishment via heterotrophy. They are incapable of phototrophy; cf. mixoplankton.414832
megaplanktonThe component of the plankton that consists of very large organisms over 20 cm in size.407106
macroplanktonThe component of the plankton that consists of large organisms 2 to 200 mm in size (as defined, agreed and applied by the WoRMS Steering Committee).
mesoplanktonThe component of the plankton that consists of organisms 0,2 to 2 mm in size.407106
microplanktonThe component of the plankton that consists of organisms 20 to 200 microns (µm) (0,02 to 0,2 mm) in size.407106
nanoplanktonThe component of the plankton that consists of very small organisms 2 to 20 microns (µm) (0,002 to 0,02 mm) in size; they are too small to catch in a standard plankton net.407106
mixoplanktonPlankton protists capable of obtaining nourishment via photo(auto)trophy and phago(hetero)trophy, as well as via osmo(hetero)trophy.414832
endosymbiotic Specialist Non-Constitutive MixoplanktonSpecialist non-constitutive mixoplankton (SNCMs) are NCMs that acquire their capacity for phototrophy from specific phototrophic prey (cf. GNCM). Endosymbiotic Specialist Non-Constitutive Mixoplankton (eSNCM) are endosymbiotic acquiring phototrophy by harbouring specific phototrophic prey.414832
Constitutive MixoplanktonProtist plankton with an inherent capacity for phototrophy that can also exhibit phagotrophy.414832
plastid Specialists Non-Constitutive MixoplanktonSpecialist non-constitutive mixoplankton (SNCMs) are NCMs that acquire their capacity for phototrophy from specific phototrophic prey (cf. GNCM). Plastid Specialists Non-Constitutive Mixoplankton (pSNCMs) are plastidic specialists acquiring phototrophy from specialist prey type(s).414832
General Non-Constitutive MixoplanktonNCMs that acquire their capacity for phototrophy from general (i.e. non-specific) phototrophic prey (cf. SNCM). Non-constitutive mixoplankton (NCMs) is protist plankton that acquire the capability for phototrophy from consumption (via phagotrophy) of phototrophic prey.414832
picoplanktonThe component of the plankton that consists of extremely small organisms, 0,2 to 2 microns (µm) (0,0002 to 0,002 mm) in size; they are too small to catch in a standard plankton net.407106
femtoplanktonThe component of the plankton that consists of extremely small organisms, 0,02 to 0,2 microns (µm) (0,00002 to 0,0002 mm) in size; they are too small to catch in a standard plankton net.414833
nektonOrganisms that swim strongly enough to move against the current.407106
neustonOrganisms that live right at the sea surface but remain underwater.407106
pleustonOrganisms that live right at the sea surface, with part of the body projecting into the air.407106
benthopelagic[Organisms] living and feeding near the bottom as well as in midwaters or near the surface. Feeding on benthic as well as free swimming organisms. Many freshwater fish are opportunistic feeders that forage on the bottom as well as in midwater and near the surface, also pertaining to forms which hover or swim just over the floor of the sea, e.g. Halosauridae, Macrouridae, Moridae, Brotulidae; the depth zone about 100 metres off the bottom at all depths below the edge of the continental shelf. 1128
edaphofaunaAnimals that spend a significant portion of their life cycle within a soil profile or at the soil-litter interface421715
macroMacro edaphofauna.421715
mesoMeso edaphofauna.421715
not applicableThe attribute "functional group" is not applicable for this taxon. This is e.g. used for parasitic taxa, to overwrite the functional group inherited from higher taxa.
+ Stage
adultThe reproductively capable (mature), fully formed, usually longest lived, stage of an animals life cycle.
juvenileYoung bird or other animal, before it has acquired full adult plumage or form.424973
egg(1) ovum q.v.; (2) in certain animals, e.g. reptiles, birds, amphibians and insects, a structure composed of the fertilized ovum and nutritive and protective tissues, surrounded by a protective shell, which is laid by the female, and from which the young animal hatches.424973
larvaIndependently living, post-embryonic stage of an animal that is markedly different in form from the adult and which undergoes metamorphosis into the adult form, e.g. caterpillar, grub, tadpole.424973
planulaThe ovoid free-swimming ciliated larva of coelenterates.424973
tadpoleLlarval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly frog or toad. Also called "pollywog".
postlarva
spatThe spawn or young of bivalve molluscs.424973
subadult
zoeaEarly larval form of certain decapod crustaceans.424973
naupliusEarliest larval stage of many crustaceans, with three pairs of appendages.424973
polyp(1) Sedentary individual or zooid of a colonial animal; (2) in coelenterates, an individual having a tubular body, usually with a mouth and ring of tentacles on top, like a miniature sea anemone.424973
medusaOne of the forms of individuals of coelenterates of the classes Hydrozoa (hydroids) and Scyphozoa (jellyfish). It is bell-shaped, with a tube hanging down in the centre ending in a mouth, and tentacles around the edge of the bell, and is the form commonly called a jellyfish. It forms the free-swimming sexual reproductive stage of most hydrozoans, and is large and conspicuous in jellyfish.424973
ephyraImature medusa in some jellyfish, formed by strobilization from a polyp.424973
megalopsA larval stage of certain crustaceans such as crabs, which has large stalked eyes and a crab-like cephalothorax.424973
hydroidOne of the forms of individuals in the Hydrozoa, a class of solitary and colonial coelenterates, having a hollow cylindrical body closed at one end and with a mouth at the other surrounded by tentacles.424973
mancaLarval (juvenile) stage of some isopods.424973
cyprisThe nonfeeding larval stage prior to metamorphosis into the cyprid (unknown source). Larval stage that follows the nauplius stage in cirripedes (Lawrence, 2005).424973
hatchling
copepodite IJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the nauplius life stage; determined by 2 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite I life stage; determined by 3 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite II life stage; determined by 4 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IVJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite III life stage; determined by 5 swimming legs.6961
copepodite VJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite IV life stage; pre-adult stage; determined by enlargement of the urosome and development of sexual organs. 6961
copepodite VIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite V life stage; adult stage; 5th leg is fully complete.6961
gametophyteThe haploid sexual phase of a plant which exhibits an alternation of generations, from which gametes are produced, usually by mitotic division; the haploid gametophyte is typically formed by meiotic division of a diploid sporophyte q.v.; gamophyte; haplophyte.416344
sporophyteThe diploid, spore-producing, asexual generation in the life cycle of a plant; typically formed by fusion of haploid gametes; diplophyte; synkaryophyte.416344
macrothallusThe larger, conspicuous, phase in the life history of an organism, as contrasted with the microthallus.200706
microthallusThe smaller, often inconspicuous, phase in the life history of an organisms, as contrasted with the marcrothallus.380501
neonateNewborn animal.424973
1-year oldAn animal that has reached the age of 1 year.
foetusMammalian embryo after the stage at which it becomes recognizable.424973
podocystA cyst beneath the pedal discs of scyphozoan polyps.
polygastricMain, asexual life stage of calycophoran siphonophores. The polygastric stage is comprised of an anterior nectophore and a posterior nectophore, joined together to form a functional swimming unit. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Calycophorae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. Cf. Physonectae and Cystonectae, where this life stage is called "colony".391288
eudoxidSexual stage of siphonophores.391288
colonyMain, asexual life stage of physonect and cystonect siphonophores. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Physonectae and Cystonectae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. cf. Calycophorae, where this life stage is called "polygastric".391288
medusoidA life stage resembling or developing into a medusa.424973
cerinulalarval stage within Ceriantharia
pilidiumThe characteristic helmet-shaped larva of nemertine worms.424973
+ Gamete typeDescriptors of the relative size of gametes.
anisogamousHaving gametes of dissimilar size, shape or behaviour; cf. isogamous (Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
isogamousHaving gametes that are similar in size, shape and behaviour; having gametes (isogametes) not differentiated into male and female; cf. anisogamous (Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
oogamousHaving a reproduction involving a large, non-motile female gamete (egg cell) and a small, motile male gamete (sperm cell or equivalent), except for red algae in which the male gamete is also non-motile (macroalgae; Womersley, 1987).345374
not applicableThe attribute "gamete type" is not applicable for this taxon.
unknownAccording to literature it is unknown which gamete type this organism has.
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature what the gamete type is for this taxon.
+ Life stage
+ Gametophyte arrangement
dioeciousWhen male and female reproductive structures are formed on the separate individual and the sex is determined in diploid phase.380506
dioiciousWhen male and female reproductive structures are formed on the separate individual and the sex is determined in haploid phase.380506
mixedWith individuals bearing only male or female reproductive structures and indivduals bearing both male and female reproductive structures in one species.380506
monoeciousWhen male and female reproductive structures are formed on same individuals and the sex is determined in diploid phase.380506
monoiciousWhen male and female reproductive structures are formed on same individuals and the sex is determined in haploid phase.380506
not applicableThe attribute "gametophyte arrangement" is not applicable for this taxon.
unknownAccording to literature it is unknown which gametophyte arrangement this organism has.
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature what the gametophyte arrangement is for this taxon.
+ Life stage
+ Generation time1: The average duration of a life cycle between birth and reproduction. 2: The mean period of time between reproduction of the parent generation and reproduction of the first filial generation. (Lincoln et al., 1998). Period of time to complete a life cycle in the lab. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.) 416344
1 to 3 monthsLife cycle completed in 1 to 3 months in the lab. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
3 to 12 monthsLife cycle completed in 3 to 12 months in the lab. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
1 to 3 yearsLife cycle completed in 1 to 3 years in the lab. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
more than 3 yearsLife cycle completed in more than 3 years in the lab. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
+ Life stage
+ Larval and juvenile developmentDescription of how the larvae or juveniles develop into adults
direct developmentType of heterochronous development in which the embryo abandons the larval stages of development and proceeds directly to adult stage.424973
oviparousEgg laying; producing eggs that are laid and hatch externally (Lincoln et al., 1998). Egg-laying (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005).416344
no careThere is no form of parental behaviour (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
parental careAny form of parental behaviour that appears likely to increase the fitness of a parent's offspring.416344
ovoviviparousFully formed eggs are retained and hatched inside the maternal body and are released as live offspring. No nutrition is derived from the mother (Lincoln et al., 1998). Pert. organisms that produce an egg with a persistent outer covering, but which hatches within the maternal body (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005).416344
viviparous1: Producing live offspring from within the body of the parent; zoogonous; viviparity, vivipary; cf. larvipary, oviparous, ovoviviparous. 2: Germinating while still attached to the parent plant (Lincoln et al., 1998). Development of an embryo within the body of the parent, in part, resources passing directly from parent to embryo (Barnes et al., 2006). (1) producing young alive rather than laying eggs, appl. all mammals except monotremes, and some animals in other groups; (2) appl. plants, having seeds that germinate while still attached to the parent plant, e.g. mangrove (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005).416344
no careThere is no form of parental behaviour (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
parental careAny form of parental behaviour that appears likely to increase the fitness of a parent's offspring.416344
lecithotrophicPertaining to developmental stages that feed upon yolk, and to eggs rich in yolk (Lincoln et al., 1998). Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female (Barnes et al., 1993). Feeding on stored yolk, as in some sea urchin larvae (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005).416344
planktotrophicFeeding on plankton (Lincoln et al., 1998). Feeding at least in part on materials captured from the plankton (Barnes et al., 1993). Feeding on plankton (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005).416344
+ Life cycleThe type of life cycle an organism has. Life cycle according to Lincoln et al., 1998: 1: The sequence of events from the origin as a zygote, to the death of an individual. 2: Those stages through which an organism passes between the production of gametes by one generation and the production of gametes by the next.416344
diplontic[diplont] Having a life cycle in which the direct products of meiosis act as gametes; only the gametes of diplonts are haploid; cf. haplont (Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
haplodiplonticHaving a life cycle with alternating free-living gametophyte and sporophyte phases (macroalgae; Womersley, 1987).345374
heteromorphicOrganisms with the gametophyte and sporophyte of different morphology and size (macroalgae; Womersley, 1987). Having different forms at different times or at different stages of the life cycle; used of a plant having an alternation of vegetatively dissimilar generations; heteromorphous; cf. homomorphic (Lincoln et al., 1998).345374
isomorphicOrganisms with the gametophyte and sporophyte of similar morphology and size (macroalgae; Womersley, 1987). Used of a plant having an alternation between diploid and haploid generations which are morphologically similar in appearance; homomoprhic; isomorphous; cf. heteromorphic (Lincoln et al., 1998).345374
not applicableIt is not applicable whether this taxon is heteromorphic or isomorphic.
unknownAccording to literature it is unknown whether this organism is heteromorphic or isomorphic.
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature whether this taxon is heteromorphic or isomorphic.
haplontic[haplont] Having a life cycle in which meiosis occurs in the zygote to produce the haploid phase; only the zygote of the haplonts is diploid; cf. diplont.416344
unknownAccording to literature it is unknown what life cycle this organism has.
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature what life cycle this taxon has.
+ Life stage
+ Life spanLongevity; the maximum or mean duration of life of an individual or group.416344
annual(1) Appl. structures or growth features that are marked off or completed yearly; (2) living for a year only; (3) completing life-cycle in a year from germination; (4) n. plant that completes its life-cycle in a year. (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005). Thallus which survives only one growing season (less than 1 year) (macroalgae; Womersley, 1987).424973
ephemeral(1) Short-lived; (2) taking place once only, appl. plant movements as expanding buds; (3) completing life-cycle within a brief period; (4) n. a short-lived plant or animal species (Henderson's Dictionary of Biology; Lawrence, 2005). Thallus which survives for only a few weeks (less than 1 month) (macroalgae; Womersley, 1987).424973
perennialPlant which persists for several years.424973
long perennialThallus or part thereof with a lifespan exceeding 3 years (more than 3 years) (macroalgae; Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
short perennialThallus or part thereof with a lifespan exceeding 1 year but under 3 years (macroalgae; Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature which life span this organism has.
+ Life stage
+ Macroalgal bloomingTypes of blooming specific for macroalgae species.
yesThe species has the potential to go through episodes of intense growth and mass proliferation of the thallus under specific environmental conditions such as high nutrient and temperature conditions.380516
noThe species does not have the obvious potential to go through episodes of intense growth and mass proliferation of the thallus under specific environmental conditions such as high nutrient and temperature conditions.380516
+ Life stage
+ Locality (MRGID)Marine Regions Geographic IDentifier (MRGID) for a place name in the Marine Regions gazetteer
+ MobilityThe tendency of an organism or population to change its location or distribution with time; vagility.416344
mobileAn organism or population that can change its location or distribution with time; mobility; vagility.416344
sessileNon-motile; permanently attached at the base.416344
sedentaryAttached to the substrate; not free-living.416344
+ Stage
adultThe reproductively capable (mature), fully formed, usually longest lived, stage of an animals life cycle.
juvenileYoung bird or other animal, before it has acquired full adult plumage or form.424973
egg(1) ovum q.v.; (2) in certain animals, e.g. reptiles, birds, amphibians and insects, a structure composed of the fertilized ovum and nutritive and protective tissues, surrounded by a protective shell, which is laid by the female, and from which the young animal hatches.424973
larvaIndependently living, post-embryonic stage of an animal that is markedly different in form from the adult and which undergoes metamorphosis into the adult form, e.g. caterpillar, grub, tadpole.424973
planulaThe ovoid free-swimming ciliated larva of coelenterates.424973
tadpoleLlarval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly frog or toad. Also called "pollywog".
postlarva
spatThe spawn or young of bivalve molluscs.424973
subadult
zoeaEarly larval form of certain decapod crustaceans.424973
naupliusEarliest larval stage of many crustaceans, with three pairs of appendages.424973
polyp(1) Sedentary individual or zooid of a colonial animal; (2) in coelenterates, an individual having a tubular body, usually with a mouth and ring of tentacles on top, like a miniature sea anemone.424973
medusaOne of the forms of individuals of coelenterates of the classes Hydrozoa (hydroids) and Scyphozoa (jellyfish). It is bell-shaped, with a tube hanging down in the centre ending in a mouth, and tentacles around the edge of the bell, and is the form commonly called a jellyfish. It forms the free-swimming sexual reproductive stage of most hydrozoans, and is large and conspicuous in jellyfish.424973
ephyraImature medusa in some jellyfish, formed by strobilization from a polyp.424973
megalopsA larval stage of certain crustaceans such as crabs, which has large stalked eyes and a crab-like cephalothorax.424973
hydroidOne of the forms of individuals in the Hydrozoa, a class of solitary and colonial coelenterates, having a hollow cylindrical body closed at one end and with a mouth at the other surrounded by tentacles.424973
mancaLarval (juvenile) stage of some isopods.424973
cyprisThe nonfeeding larval stage prior to metamorphosis into the cyprid (unknown source). Larval stage that follows the nauplius stage in cirripedes (Lawrence, 2005).424973
hatchling
copepodite IJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the nauplius life stage; determined by 2 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite I life stage; determined by 3 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite II life stage; determined by 4 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IVJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite III life stage; determined by 5 swimming legs.6961
copepodite VJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite IV life stage; pre-adult stage; determined by enlargement of the urosome and development of sexual organs. 6961
copepodite VIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite V life stage; adult stage; 5th leg is fully complete.6961
gametophyteThe haploid sexual phase of a plant which exhibits an alternation of generations, from which gametes are produced, usually by mitotic division; the haploid gametophyte is typically formed by meiotic division of a diploid sporophyte q.v.; gamophyte; haplophyte.416344
sporophyteThe diploid, spore-producing, asexual generation in the life cycle of a plant; typically formed by fusion of haploid gametes; diplophyte; synkaryophyte.416344
macrothallusThe larger, conspicuous, phase in the life history of an organism, as contrasted with the microthallus.200706
microthallusThe smaller, often inconspicuous, phase in the life history of an organisms, as contrasted with the marcrothallus.380501
neonateNewborn animal.424973
1-year oldAn animal that has reached the age of 1 year.
foetusMammalian embryo after the stage at which it becomes recognizable.424973
podocystA cyst beneath the pedal discs of scyphozoan polyps.
polygastricMain, asexual life stage of calycophoran siphonophores. The polygastric stage is comprised of an anterior nectophore and a posterior nectophore, joined together to form a functional swimming unit. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Calycophorae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. Cf. Physonectae and Cystonectae, where this life stage is called "colony".391288
eudoxidSexual stage of siphonophores.391288
colonyMain, asexual life stage of physonect and cystonect siphonophores. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Physonectae and Cystonectae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. cf. Calycophorae, where this life stage is called "polygastric".391288
medusoidA life stage resembling or developing into a medusa.424973
cerinulalarval stage within Ceriantharia
pilidiumThe characteristic helmet-shaped larva of nemertine worms.424973
+ Paraphyletic groupA group of taxa derived from a single ancestral taxon, but one which does not contain all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor; a category based on the common possession of plesiomorphic characters (symplesiomorphy) (Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
AlgaeParaphyletic group to combine all algae in Aphia.
MacroalgaeParaphyletic group to combine all macroalgae in Aphia.
MangrovesParaphyletic group to combine all mangroves in Aphia.
PiscesParaphyletic group to combine all fish in Aphia.
+ Plant habitThe characteristic form in which a given species of plant grows
treeA woody perennial plant which has a single main trunk at least 7.5 cm in diameter at 1.3 m height, a definitely formed crown of foliage, and a height of at least 4 m.424973
shrubLow-growing woody plant, usually less than 6 m high, that does not have a main trunk and which branches from the base.424973
herbAny seed plant with non-woody green stems.424973
annual(1) appl. structures or growth features that are marked off or completed yearly; (2) living for a year only; (3) completing life-cycle in a year from germination; (4) n. plant that completes its life-cycle in a year.424973
biennialPlant living for two years and fruiting only in the second.424973
perennialPlant which persists for several years.424973
vine
+ Reproductive frequency
all over the yearFertile individuals observed all over the year. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
one long period a yearA unique fertility period lasting more than 1 month. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
one short period a yearA unique fertility period lasting less than 1 month. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
several long periods a yearSeveral distinct fertility periods lasting more than 1 month each. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
several short periods a yearSeveral distinct fertility periods lasting less than 1 month each.
+ Life stage
+ Seasonality
springThe organism can be observed in spring.
summerThe organism can be observed in summer.
autumnThe organism can be observed in autumn.
winterThe organism can be observed in winter.
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature in which season(s) this organism can be reported.
+ Life stage
+ Locality (MRGID)Marine Regions Geographic IDentifier (MRGID) for a place name in the Marine Regions gazetteer
+ SociabilityTraits that describe an organism's behavioural interactions with members of the same species. [Source: https://www.marinespecies.org/traits/wiki/Traits:Sociability]
colonialIn biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another. This association is usually for mutual benefit such as stronger defense or the ability to attack bigger prey. It is a cluster of identical cells (clones) on the surface of (or within) a solid medium, usually derived from a single parent cell, as in bacterial colony. [Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_(biology)]. Organisms that live together in large numbers, esp. where the individual organisms form part of a larger structure. Examples are some algae, soft corals, reef-building corals, gorgonians and other anthozoans, and siphonophores. (Henderson's dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005).424973
social colonies of unitary organismsUnicellular and multicellular unitary organisms may aggregate to form colonies. Examples are slime molds of protists, colonies of ants and bees, breeding or nesting colonies of birds and mammals. [Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_(biology)]
modular organismsModular organisms are those in which a genet (or genetic individual formed from a sexually-produced zygote) asexually reproduces to form genetically identical clones called ramets. [Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_(biology)]
microbial coloniesA microbial colony is defined as a visible cluster of microorganisms growing on the surface of or within a solid medium, presumably cultured from a single cell. [Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_(biology)]
solitaryLiving alone, not gregarious (Thompson 1995). [Source: https://www.marinespecies.org/traits/wiki/Traits:Solitary]. Solitary organisms are ones in which all individuals live independently and have all of the functions needed to survive and reproduce. [Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_(biology)]
non-territorialIndependent without a defined territory [Source: https://www.marinespecies.org/traits/wiki/Traits:NonTerritorial]. The animal does not establish a territory to defend against other members of the same species (adapted from Henderson's dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005).424973
territorialIndependent but maintains a defined territory [Source: https://www.marinespecies.org/traits/wiki/Traits:Territorial]. The animal establishes a territory which it defends against other members of the same species (adapted from Henderson's dictionary of biology; Lawrence, 2005).424973
+ SpawningThe release of gametes or eggs into the water (Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
fertilisation in the water columnFertilization with gametes released in the water column.
fertilisation on female gametophyteFemale gamete retained on the female gametophyte (e.g. Rhodophyta).380501
not applicableThe attribute "spawning" is not applicable for this taxon.
unknownAccording to literature it is unknown which spawning mechanism this organism has.
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature whether or not there is spawning for this taxon.
+ Life stage
+ Species exhibits underwater soniferous behaviour

Does the species actively1 or passively2 produce sound under natural conditions3 while submerged in water?

Definitions for terms used in the values of this trait:

1Active sound: produced deliberately in association with a particular behaviour or situation, frequently with specialized sonic organs or structures, and are generally used for communication; also referred to as intentional, deliberate, or specialized sounds (Looby et al., 2022).

2Passive sound: may not be associated with specialized sound-producing structures nor with specific behaviours or situations, though they may still serve some signal function; also referred to as incidental, unspecialized, or mechanical sounds (Looby et al., 2022).

3Natural conditions: in the absence of artificial manipulation, such as an electrical current or direct handling.

4Acoustic study or documentation: documentation in the peer-reviewed or grey scientific literature of the presence or absence of audible sounds through listening live or on a recording in captivity or the field (Looby et al., 2022).

5Morphological or physiological study or documentation: documentation in the peer-reviewed or grey scientific literature of the presence or absence of morphological and/or physiological structures with sound production functions (Looby et al., 2022).

6Ancestral state reconstruction analysis: the extrapolation back in time from measured characteristics of individuals to their common ancestors using statistical techniques to, in this case, recover information on the likelihood of soniferous behaviour (Joy et al., 2016; Rice et al., 2022).

7Artificial conditions: involving human intervention or manipulation, such as an electrical current or direct handling.

8Uncertainty: doubt or uncertainty expressed by researchers conducting examinations for sound production about their conclusions (e.g., that the species they examined was correctly identified, that they correctly identified active versus passive sounds; Looby et al., 2022).

9Validated: The researchers’ conclusions have no associated uncertainty in the documentation (see above).

429850
Unknown or undetermined

There is no known acoustic4, morphological, or physiological5 study of sound production for this species and its likelihood of soniferous behaviour based on an ancestral state reconstruction analysis6, lineage, or evolutionary records has not been assessed, or this species has yet to be categorized by an expert source.

For definitions of the terms used marked with superscript, see above.

429850
Does not or is unlikely to produce sound under natural conditions

Species has been the subject of one or more studies to assess its acoustic behaviour4 morphology, and/or physiology5, none of which have provided evidence of sound production either actively1 or passively2, and/or species does not have a likelihood of soniferous behaviour based on an ancestral state reconstruction analysis that results in a probability below 0.56, lineage, or evolutionary records.

For definitions of the terms used marked with superscript, see above.

429850
Likely to produce sound under natural conditions but unconfirmed

There is no known acoustic documentation4 to confidently validate sound production under natural conditions3 by this species, but it is likely to exhibit natural soniferous behaviour based on an ancestral state reconstruction analysis that results in a probability of 0.5 or higher6, lineage, evolutionary records, morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics5, documented sound production behaviour under artificial conditions7, and/or documented sound production behaviour with some uncertainty8.

For definitions of the terms used marked with superscript, see above.

429850
Produces passive sound under natural conditions

There is validated9 acoustic documentation4 that this species produces passive2 sound under natural conditions3, but no validated documentation to confirm that it actively1 produces sound.

For definitions of the terms used marked with superscript, see above.

429850
Produces active sound under natural conditions

There is validated9 acoustic documentation4 that this species produces active1 sound under natural conditions3, but no validated documentation to confirm that it passively2 produces sound.

For definitions of the terms used marked with superscript, see above.

429850
Produces active and passive sound under natural conditions

There is validated9 acoustic documentation4 that this species produces active1 and passive2 sound under natural conditions3.

For definitions of the terms used marked with superscript, see above.

429850
+ Stage
adultThe reproductively capable (mature), fully formed, usually longest lived, stage of an animals life cycle.
juvenileYoung bird or other animal, before it has acquired full adult plumage or form.424973
egg(1) ovum q.v.; (2) in certain animals, e.g. reptiles, birds, amphibians and insects, a structure composed of the fertilized ovum and nutritive and protective tissues, surrounded by a protective shell, which is laid by the female, and from which the young animal hatches.424973
larvaIndependently living, post-embryonic stage of an animal that is markedly different in form from the adult and which undergoes metamorphosis into the adult form, e.g. caterpillar, grub, tadpole.424973
planulaThe ovoid free-swimming ciliated larva of coelenterates.424973
tadpoleLlarval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly frog or toad. Also called "pollywog".
postlarva
spatThe spawn or young of bivalve molluscs.424973
subadult
zoeaEarly larval form of certain decapod crustaceans.424973
naupliusEarliest larval stage of many crustaceans, with three pairs of appendages.424973
polyp(1) Sedentary individual or zooid of a colonial animal; (2) in coelenterates, an individual having a tubular body, usually with a mouth and ring of tentacles on top, like a miniature sea anemone.424973
medusaOne of the forms of individuals of coelenterates of the classes Hydrozoa (hydroids) and Scyphozoa (jellyfish). It is bell-shaped, with a tube hanging down in the centre ending in a mouth, and tentacles around the edge of the bell, and is the form commonly called a jellyfish. It forms the free-swimming sexual reproductive stage of most hydrozoans, and is large and conspicuous in jellyfish.424973
ephyraImature medusa in some jellyfish, formed by strobilization from a polyp.424973
megalopsA larval stage of certain crustaceans such as crabs, which has large stalked eyes and a crab-like cephalothorax.424973
hydroidOne of the forms of individuals in the Hydrozoa, a class of solitary and colonial coelenterates, having a hollow cylindrical body closed at one end and with a mouth at the other surrounded by tentacles.424973
mancaLarval (juvenile) stage of some isopods.424973
cyprisThe nonfeeding larval stage prior to metamorphosis into the cyprid (unknown source). Larval stage that follows the nauplius stage in cirripedes (Lawrence, 2005).424973
hatchling
copepodite IJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the nauplius life stage; determined by 2 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite I life stage; determined by 3 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IIIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite II life stage; determined by 4 swimming legs.6961
copepodite IVJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite III life stage; determined by 5 swimming legs.6961
copepodite VJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite IV life stage; pre-adult stage; determined by enlargement of the urosome and development of sexual organs. 6961
copepodite VIJuvenile stage after the nauplius stage in copepods (Lawrence, 2005). There are six life stages for copepods after the nauplius stage. Each life stage stages can be defined by the number of legs an individual has. Copepoda life stage after the copepodite V life stage; adult stage; 5th leg is fully complete.6961
gametophyteThe haploid sexual phase of a plant which exhibits an alternation of generations, from which gametes are produced, usually by mitotic division; the haploid gametophyte is typically formed by meiotic division of a diploid sporophyte q.v.; gamophyte; haplophyte.416344
sporophyteThe diploid, spore-producing, asexual generation in the life cycle of a plant; typically formed by fusion of haploid gametes; diplophyte; synkaryophyte.416344
macrothallusThe larger, conspicuous, phase in the life history of an organism, as contrasted with the microthallus.200706
microthallusThe smaller, often inconspicuous, phase in the life history of an organisms, as contrasted with the marcrothallus.380501
neonateNewborn animal.424973
1-year oldAn animal that has reached the age of 1 year.
foetusMammalian embryo after the stage at which it becomes recognizable.424973
podocystA cyst beneath the pedal discs of scyphozoan polyps.
polygastricMain, asexual life stage of calycophoran siphonophores. The polygastric stage is comprised of an anterior nectophore and a posterior nectophore, joined together to form a functional swimming unit. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Calycophorae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. Cf. Physonectae and Cystonectae, where this life stage is called "colony".391288
eudoxidSexual stage of siphonophores.391288
colonyMain, asexual life stage of physonect and cystonect siphonophores. This resembles the "adult" life stage in Physonectae and Cystonectae, although the term "adult" should not be used for Siphonophorae. cf. Calycophorae, where this life stage is called "polygastric".391288
medusoidA life stage resembling or developing into a medusa.424973
cerinulalarval stage within Ceriantharia
pilidiumThe characteristic helmet-shaped larva of nemertine worms.424973
+ Species importance to society
FAO-ASFIS: Species for Fishery Statistics Purposes
OSPAR List of Threatened and/or Declining Species and HabitatsOSPAR List of Threatened and/or Declining Species and Habitats. Reference Number: 2008-6.197508
Habitats Directive
IUCN Red ListInternational Union for Conservation of Nature Red List
CITESConvention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
MSFD indicatorsMarine Strategy Framework Directive
HELCOM Red List390895
+ Birds Directive AnnexDirective 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds.197512
IThe species mentioned in Annex I shall be the subject of special conservation measures concerning their habitat in order to ensure their survival and reproduction in their area of distribution.197512
II, part AThe species referred to in Annex II, Part A may be hunted in the geographical sea and land area where this Directive applies.197512
II, part BThe species referred to in Annex II, Part B may be hunted only in the Member States in respect of which they are indicated.197512
III, part AThe activities referred to in paragraph 1 [of the Birds Directive] shall not be prohibited in respect of the species referred to in Annex III, Part A, provided that the birds have been legally killed or captured or otherwise legally acquired.197512
III, part BMember States may, for the species listed in Annex III, Part B, allow within their territory the activities referred to in paragraph 1 [of the Birds Directive], making provision for certain restrictions, provided that the birds have been legally killed or captured or otherwise legally acquired.197512
+ Black Sea proposed indicators
+ CITES AnnexConvention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Consulted April 2015.197517
ISpecies threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.197517
IISpecies not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival.197517
IIISpecies that are protected in at least one country, which has asked other CITES Parties for assistance in controlling the trade.197517
+ Habitats Directive AnnexCouncil Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora.197513
INatural habitat types of community interest whose conservation requires the designation of specia areas of conservation.197513
IIAnimal and plant species of community interest whose conservation requires the designation of special areas of conservation.197513
IIICriteria for selecting sites eligible for identification as sites of community importance and designation as specieal areas of conservation.197513
IVAnimal and plant species of comminity interest in need of strict protection.197513
VAnimal and plant species of community interest whose taking in the wild and exploitation may be subject to management measures.197513
VIProhibited methods and means of capture and killing and modes of transport.197513
+ HELCOM core biodiversity indicators
+ HELCOM Red List Category
ExtinctA taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon is presumed Extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form.421683
Extinct in the WildA taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumed Extinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form.421683
Critically EndangeredA taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Critically Endangered (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.421683
EndangeredA taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Endangered (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.421683
VulnerableA taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.421683
Conservation DependentTaxa which are the focus of a continuing taxon-specific or habitat-specific conservation programme targeted towards the taxon in question, the cessation of which would result in the taxon qualifying for one of the threatened categories above within a period of five years. (Note: The conservation dependent category is part of the IUCN 1994 Categories & Criteria (version 2.3), which is no longer used in evaluation of taxa, but persists in the IUCN Red List for taxa evaluated prior to 2001, when version 3.1 was first used. Using the 2001 (v3.1) system these taxa are classed as near threatened, but those that have not been re-evaluated remain with the "conservation dependent" category.)421687
Near ThreatenedA taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future.421683
Least ConcernA taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.421683
Data DeficientA taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data are available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD and a threatened status. If the range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively circumscribed, and a considerable period of time has elapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened status may well be justified.421683
Not EvaluatedA taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.421683
+ Identifier
+ IUCN Red List CategoryIUCN Red List Category (version 3.1)421683
ExtinctA taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon is presumed Extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form.421683
Extinct in the WildA taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumed Extinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form.421683
Critically EndangeredA taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Critically Endangered (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.421683
EndangeredA taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Endangered (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.421683
VulnerableA taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.421683
Conservation DependentTaxa which are the focus of a continuing taxon-specific or habitat-specific conservation programme targeted towards the taxon in question, the cessation of which would result in the taxon qualifying for one of the threatened categories above within a period of five years. (Note: The conservation dependent category is part of the IUCN 1994 Categories & Criteria (version 2.3), which is no longer used in evaluation of taxa, but persists in the IUCN Red List for taxa evaluated prior to 2001, when version 3.1 was first used. Using the 2001 (v3.1) system these taxa are classed as near threatened, but those that have not been re-evaluated remain with the "conservation dependent" category.)421687
Near ThreatenedA taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future.421683
Least ConcernA taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.421683
Data DeficientA taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data are available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD and a threatened status. If the range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively circumscribed, and a considerable period of time has elapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened status may well be justified.421683
Not EvaluatedA taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.421683
+ IUCN Red List Category > CriteriaIUCN Red List Criteria421683
+ IUCN Red List Category > Year AssessedIUCN Red List Year assessed421683
+ Mediterranean proposed indicators - Adriatic Sea
+ Mediterranean proposed indicators - Aegean-Levantine Sea
+ Mediterranean proposed indicators - Ionian Sea
+ Mediterranean proposed indicators - Mediterranean Sea
+ Mediterranean proposed indicators - Western Mediterranean
+ OSPAR candidate indicators: Bay of Biscay and the Iberian Coast
+ OSPAR candidate indicators: Celtic Seas
+ OSPAR candidate indicators: Greater North Sea including outside EU
+ OSPAR candidate indicators: North Sea
+ OSPAR common indicators
+ OSPAR common indicators: Bay of Biscay and Iberian Coast
+ OSPAR common indicators: Celtic Seas
+ OSPAR common indicators: Greater North Sea
+ OSPAR common indicators: Greater North Sea including outside EU
+ OSPAR Region where species is under threat and/or in decline
OSPAR Region I (Arctic Waters)Region I is the most northerly OSPAR region, characterised by its harsh climate and ice coverage although the ecosystems of this region are still rich. In spite of its low population density, human activities such as fishing and offshore petroleum production remain significant. (https://www.ospar.org/convention/the-north-east-atlantic/i)197508
OSPAR Region II (Greater North Sea)The Greater North Sea is one of the busiest maritime areas. Offshore activities related to the exploitation of oil and gas reserves, and maritime traffic are very important. Two of the world's largest ports are situated on the North Sea coast, and the coastal zone is used intensively for recreation. (https://www.ospar.org/convention/the-north-east-atlantic/ii)197508
OSPAR Region III (Celtic Seas)The Celtic Seas region contains wide variations in coastal topography, from fjordic sea lochs, to sand dunes, bays, estuaries and numerous sandy beaches. The large range of habitats in the region supports a diverse fish fauna. Although traditional maritime activities, such as fishing, take place in the Celtic Seas, there is ongoing development of tourism. (https://www.ospar.org/convention/the-north-east-atlantic/iii)197508
OSPAR Region IV (Bay of Biscay/Golfe de Gascogne & Iberian coasts)The bottom topography of Region IV and coastlines are highly diversified, including the continental shelf and slope and parts of the abyssal plain. Ecosystems in Region IV are very rich, support a rich fish fauna and have a particular importance for migratory birds. Main human activities in Region IV are fishing, maritime transport and tourism. (https://www.ospar.org/convention/the-north-east-atlantic/iv)197508
OSPAR Region V (Wider Atlantic)Region V represents the deep waters of the North-East Atlantic extending across the abyssal plain and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and including many seamounts. There have been recent discoveries of a number of different fragile deep-sea habitats (such as hydrothermal vents, carbonate mounds, coral gardens and sponge communities). Human population in the region is restricted to the Azores Archipelago. The main human activities are fishing and maritime transport. (https://www.ospar.org/convention/the-north-east-atlantic/v)197508
+ Supporting structure & enclosureHard framework, internal or external, which supports and protects softer parts of plant, animal or unicellular organism, and to which muscles usually attach in animals, includes skeletons (derived from Lawrence, 2005).
UnsupportedThe organism has no supporting structures and enclosures; no skeleton (derived from Lawrence 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
Hydrostatic skeletonSkeletal support provided by hydrostatic pressure from a fluid filled cavity (e.g. the coelum) surrounded by muscles. Hydrostatic pressure provides skeletal support in sea anemones, jellyfish, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, and other groups (derived from Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
EndoskeletonAny internal skeleton or supporting structure (derived from Lawrence 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
Exoskeleton (including shells)A rigid external structure that supports and/or protects the body of an organism and that is mainly completely secreted by the epidermis (derived from Lawrence 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
External tubeA built-structure inhabited by an organism and essential to its survival, but not part of its body, composed of hardened (either rigid or flexible) secretions, with or without the addition of embedded particles, with those particles either selectively collected from the environment or passively becoming glued during formation (pers. comm. Read, G.).259027
+ Structure
SolidMassive structure, i.e. not consisting of loose agglutinated particles (derived from Lawrence 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
Non-solid: cementComponent that keeps the agglutinated particles of the non-massive skeleton together (derived from Lawrence 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
Non-solid: particlesSmall and individual structural elements that function as supporting structure/enclosure, e.g. spicules in sponges (derived from Lawrence 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
+ Structure > Composition
Phosphatic Composed of phosphoric acid or phosphates (derived from form Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
SiliceousComposed of silicon based spines, spicules or lattice, e.g. siliceous or glass sponges (derived from form Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
ChitinousComposed of chitin, a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine. It is the chief polysaccharide in fungal cell walls and in the exoskeleton of arthropods (derived form Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
Gorgonin Fibrous protein in the mesoglea of sea fans (gorgonians) which forms the stiff skeleton of the colony (derived from Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
KeratinousComposed of keratin, a fibrous protein rich cysteine constituent of intermediate filaments (keratin filaments), chief material in horn, hair, nails and the upper layer of skin (derived from Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
Sponginous Composed of spongin, fibrous protein component of the horny sponges (derived from Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
CalcareousSkeleton composed of calcareous spicules (sponges/echinoderms), plates, spines, bones or other structures (derived from Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
AragoniteA crystalline form of calcium carbonate, e.g. one of the constituents of mollusc shells (derived from Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
CalciteCrystalline form of calcium carbonate, e. g. one of the constituents of mollusc shells and the skeletons of calcareous sponges (derived from Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
Amorphous calcium carbonateCalcium carbonate that lacks a crystalline structure, or whose internal is so irregular that there is no characteristic external form. The term does not preclude the existence of any degree of order (derived from Neuendorf et al. 2005, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424974
High-magnesium calciteCalcite where more than 8wt.% CaCO3 is substituted by MgCO3 (derived from Smith et al., 2006, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).368373
Organic(1) derived from, or showing the properties of a living organism; (2) containing carbon, applied to molecules (derived from Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
VariableMixed and variable material (derived from Lawrence, 2005 - Henderson's Dictionary of Biology, and discussed and agreed upon by the WoRMS/Aphia editor community).424973
+ Thallus vertical space used
canopyVegetation of macroalgae or plants partially blocking light penetration, thereby creating a shaded understory. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
encrustingWith a crustose growth form (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
sub-canopyForming a secondary cover, usually of 20 cm height maximum (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
turfVegetation dominated by macroalgae with limited vertical height, usually < 5 cm height. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
+ Life stage
+ Tolerance to pollutants
clear watersWaters where visisbility is most of the time > 10 m. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
eutrophic watersHaving high primary productivity; pertaining to waters rich in nutrients (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
mesotrophic watersHaving intermediate levels of primary productivity; pertaining to waters having intermediate levels of nutrients (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
moderately turbid watersWaters where visibility is most of the time > 1m and < 10m. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
oligotrophic watersHaving low primary productivity; pertaining to waters having low levels of nutrients (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).416344
waters with variable turbidityWaters where turbidity varies periodically. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
turbid watersWaters where visibility is most of the time < 1m. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
+ Life stage
+ Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem (VME) indicative taxonVulnerable Marine Ecosystem indicative taxa based on FAO guidelines
Yes
No
+ VME Region
No regional information available
FAO fishing area I
FAO fishing area II
FAO fishing area III
FAO fishing area IV
FAO fishing area V
FAO fishing area VI
FAO fishing area VII
FAO fishing area VIII
FAO fishing area IX
FAO fishing area X
FAO fishing area XI
FAO fishing area XII
FAO fishing area XIII
FAO fishing area XIV
FAO fishing area XV
FAO fishing area XVI
FAO fishing area XVII
FAO fishing area XVIII
FAO fishing area XIX
+ Wave exposureTraits that describe the range of exposure to wave action in which the organism is recorded.
exposedSubject to high energy wave forces. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
high energy rockRocky substrate subject to high energy wave forces. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
features of rockSpecific characteristics of rocky substrate such as pools, caves, overhangs, surge gulleys, artificial hard substrata. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
semi-exposedSubject to moderate energy wave forces. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
moderate energy rockRocky substrate subject to moderate energy wave forces. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
shelteredSubject to low energy wave forces. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
coarse sedimentsCoarse sediments such as gravel, pebbles, shingles and cobbles ocurring at sheltered locations. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
low energy rockRocky substrate subject to low energy wave forces. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
macrophyte-dominated sedimentsSediments with a high cover of macroalgae or seagrasses. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
mud-dominated sedimentsSediments composed of a mixture of clay (< 2 um) and silt (4 - 62 um) typically deposited in a low energy environment. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
sand-dominated sedimentsSediments composed of a mixture of sand particles (0.074 - 4.75 mm) typically deposited in a low energy environment. (Definition composed by Line Le Gall, Olivier De Clerck, Sofie Vranken and Marine Robuchon, based on diverse literature sources, in the framework of compiling macroalgae traits.)425895
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature which wave exposure this organism has.
+ Life stage
+ Zonation
intertidalThe shore zone between the highest and lowest tides; eulittoral zone; littoral; tidal zone; see Appendix 9 in source.416344
littoral zoneThe intertidal zone of the seashore; eulittoral; sometimes used to refer to both the intertidal zone on the seashore and the adjacent continental shelf to a depth of about 200 m; litoral; littorine; subdivided into supralittoral, eulittoral (intertidal zone), infralittoral and circalittoral; see appendix 9 in source.416344
subtidal
lower infralittoral zoneShallow subtidal zone with sparse kelps.
upper circalittoral zoneDeep subtidal zone where foliose red algae are present but not dominant.
upper infralittoral zoneShallow subtidal zone with dense kelps.
unreportedSo far it has not been reported in literature which zonation this organism has.
+ Life stage
+ Life stage
gametophyteThe haploid sexual phase of a plant which exhibits an alternation of generations, from which gametes are produced, usually by mitotic division; the haploid gametophyte is typically formed by meiotic division of a diploid sporophyte q.v.; gamophyte; haplophyte.416344
sporophyteThe diploid, spore-producing, asexual generation in the life cycle of a plant; typically formed by fusion of haploid gametes; diplophyte; synkaryophyte.416344
microthallusThe smaller, often inconspicuous, phase in the life history of an organisms, as contrasted with the marcrothallus.380501
macrothallusThe larger, conspicuous, phase in the life history of an organism, as contrasted with the microthallus.200706
akinetes Akinetes are resting cells that develop from solitary cells or after the fusion of two or more neighboring cells, and occur in several members of the Nostocales (Cyanobacteria) (Komárek and Johansen 2015, p. 138).415851
resting sporeThe diatom resting spores are first and foremost recognized by their heavily silicified frustules. The resting spore morphology of some species is similar to that of the corresponding vegetative cells, whereas in other species, the resting spores and the vegetative cells differ drastically. Diatom resting spores are normally formed as a response to unfavorable environmental conditions, and germination occurs when the conditions improve. Resting spore formation is common in centric, but rare in pennate marine planktonic diatoms (Hasle and Syvertsen 1997, p. 11).238097
resting cystA dormant stage in which normal life processes are generally reduced (Fensome et al. 1993, p. 260).415852
temporary cyst A general term for nonmotile stages other than resting cysts (Dale 1983, p. 78).415853
gametes Haploid reproductive cell which, on fusion with another gamete produces a diploid cell (zygote) (Fensome et al. 1993, p. 254). 415852
auxosporeLarge cell resulting from sexual reproduction or autogamy. In diatoms, they lack the rigid valve construction as other cells; instead, they are covered by delicate siliceous scales or bands (= perizonium) (Wehr et al. 2015, p. 964).334095


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