World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
# alien species: 2,309
# species with uncertain origin: 315
# species with unknown origin: 137
||The World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS) records which marine species in the World Register of
Marine species (WoRMS) have been introduced deliberately or accidentally by human activities to geographic areas outside their
native range. It excludes species that colonised new locations naturally (so called ‘range extensions’), even if in response to
WRiMS notes the origin (source location) of the species at a particular location by country, sea area and/or latitude
longitude as available. If the species is reported to have had ecological or economic impacts it is considered invasive in that
location. Each record is linked to a source publication or specialist database.
A glossary of terminology is available. Links have been provided to species profiles of well-known
marine invasive species in the Global Invasive Species Database
(GISD) of the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group
In using WRiMS, users need to consider possible species misidentifications in the sources, and that for some species it is
uncertain which is their native and introduced ranges. Whether a species is ‘invasive’ can vary between locations and over time
at a particular location.
Background of the database
In 2008-2009 the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) worked on a project,
within the framework of the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS), that developed an annotated dataset
of marine introduced and invasive species for the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)
in order to flag species on the register as "alien and invasive species".
Both online databases and publications were consulted
with an aim to achieve global coverage. They include:
- Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE)
- Galil, B. (2009). Taking stock: inventory of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea. Biological Invasions 11(2): 359-372.
- Lasram, F.B.R.; Mouillot, D. (2009). Increasing southern invasion enhances congruence between endemic and exotic Mediterranean fish fauna. Biological Invasions 11: 697-711.
- Hayes, K.R. (2005). Marine Species Introductions. Unpublished data from CSIRO.
- Molnar, J.L.; Gamboa, R.L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M.D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(9): 485-492.
In addition to biological status (represented as occurrence, provenance and invasiveness), annotations included higher taxonomy, origin of species,
introduced location, as well as (where available) information on the date of first record/introduction and pathway of introduction.
In 2013-2014, ISSG worked with the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) on a data collection project
developed within the framework of the Biology Project of the European Marine Observation and Data Network
(EMODnet) to complete trait information related to "invasiveness".
The dataset submitted in 2009 was updated using additional data and information from
online databases such as:
- The Global Invasive Species Database (GISD)
- The European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN)
- The Information system on Aquatic Non-indigenous Species (AquaNIS)
- The National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS)
- and (recently) published literature
The terminology and definitions
to describe occurrence, provenance and invasiveness have been revised and expanded.
Additionally, any available information on abundance, pathways of introduction and spread,
evidence of impacts on biodiversity were documented. The geographic coverage of this dataset is global. Focus was placed on
documenting authoritative information on marine species introductions in the recognized
marine bio-invasion hotspots.
- Ahyong, Shane: Thematic editor: Lithodoidea, Thematic editor: Polychelida, Thematic editor: Stomatopoda
- Bieler, Rüdiger: Thematic editor: Mollusca (since Jan 2021)
- Boudouresque, Charles: Thematic editor: Biota (Macroalgae)
- Costello, Mark J.: Thematic editor: Biota
- Galil, Bella Sarah: Thematic editor: Biota (Mediterranean)
- Gollasch, Stephan: Thematic editor: Biota (North Sea)
- Hutchings, Pat: Thematic editor: Polychaeta
- Kamburska, Lyudmila: Thematic editor: Copepoda (since august 2021, through Marc Rius), Thematic editor: Ctenophora
- Katsanevakis, Stelios: Thematic editor: Biota (Europe, Mediterranean)
- Kupriyanova, Elena: Thematic editor: Polychaeta (Serpulid polychaetes)
- Lejeusne, Christophe: Thematic editor: Artemia, Thematic editor: Ascidia, Thematic editor: Decapoda, Thematic editor: Mysida (Mediterranean and European Atlantic)
- Marchini, Agnese: Thematic editor: Amphipoda, Thematic editor: Pisces
- Occhipinti, Anna: Thematic editor: Biota (Mediterranean)
- Pagad, Shyama: Thematic editor: Biota
- Panov, Vadim E.: Thematic editor: Cladocera
- Poore, Gary C.B.: Thematic editor: Anthuroidea
- Robinson, Tamara B.: Thematic editor: Biota (Southern Africa)
- Stern, Nir: Thematic editor: Pisces
- Sterrer, Wolfgang: Thematic editor: Biota (Bermuda)
- Turon, Xavier: Thematic editor: Ascidiacea
- Valls Domedel, Georgina: Thematic editor: Biota
- Verleye, Thomas: Thematic editor: Biota (Belgium)
- Vieira, Leandro M.: Thematic editor: Biota
- Willan, Richard C.: Thematic editor: Mollusca
- Yeo Chong Jinn, Darren: Thematic editor: Biota (Singapore)
- Zhan, Aibin: Thematic editor: Biota
CitationUsage of data from the World Register of Introduced Marine Species in scientific publications should be acknowledged by citing as follows:
If the data from the World Register of Introduced Marine Species constitute a substantial proportion of the records used in analyses, the chief editor(s) of the database should be contacted. There may be additional data which may prove valuable to such analyses.
- Rius, M.; Ahyong, S.; Costello, M. J.; Galil, B. S.; Gollasch, S.; Hutchings, P.; Katsanevakis, S.; Lejeusne, C.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti, A.; Pagad, S.; Poore, G. C. B; Robinson, T. B.; Sterrer, W.; Turon, X.; Willan, R. C.; Zhan, A. (2021). World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS). Accessed at http://www.marinespecies.org/introduced on 2021-10-24. doi:10.14284/347
Individual pages are individually authored and dated. These can be cited separately: the proper citation is provided at the bottom of each page.
Banner: From left to right:
Asterias amurensis - Northern Pacific seastar (Photo by: Lycoo - Wikimedia Commons);
Ciona intestinalis - Sea squirt (Photo by: perezoso - Wikemedia Commons);
Pterois volitans - Indo-Pacific Lionfish (Photo by: Jens Petersen - Wikimedia Commons);
Tubastraea coccinea - Orange cup coral (Photo by: Nick Hobgood - Wikimedia Commons).
Top: Botrylloides violaceus, Woods Hole (Photo by Rosana Moreira da Rocha, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil).
Bottom: Didemnum vexilum on experimental plates, Woods Hole (Photo by Rosana Moreira da Rocha, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil)