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NameCárdenas P, Xavier JR, Reveillaud J, Schander C, Rapp HT (2011) Molecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiae) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy. PLoS ONE 6(4)
DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0018318
AuthorsC?rdenas, P.; Xavier, J. R.; Reveillaud, J.; Schander, C.; Rapp, H. T.
Year2011
TitleMolecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy
JournalPLoS ONE
Suffix6(4), e18318
Type Publication
Linkhttp://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0018318
Full textCardenas et al 2011.pdf OpenAccess publication
AbstractAbstract Background: The Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) is geographically and bathymetrically widely distributed. Systema Porifera currently includes five families in this order: Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae and Thrombidae. To date, molecular phylogenetic studies including Astrophorida species are scarce and offer limited sampling. Phylogenetic relationships within this order are therefore for the most part unknown and hypotheses based on morphology largely untested. Astrophorida taxa have very diverse spicule sets that make them a model of choice to investigate spicule evolution. Methodology/Principal Findings: With a sampling of 153 specimens (9 families, 29 genera, 89 species) covering the deep and shallow-waters worldwide, this work presents the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Astrophorida, using a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene partial sequence and the 59 end terminal part of the 28S rDNA gene (C1-D2 domains). The resulting tree suggested that i) the Astrophorida included some lithistid families and some Alectonidae species, ii) the sub-orders Euastrophorida and Streptosclerophorida were both polyphyletic, iii) the Geodiidae, the Ancorinidae and the Pachastrellidae were not monophyletic, iv) the Calthropellidae was part of the Geodiidae clade (Calthropella at least), and finally that v) many genera were polyphyletic (Ecionemia, Erylus, Poecillastra, Penares, Rhabdastrella, Stelletta and Vulcanella). Conclusion: The Astrophorida is a larger order than previously considered, comprising ca. 820 species. Based on these results, we propose new classifications for the Astrophorida using both the classical rank-based nomenclature (i.e., Linnaean classification) and the phylogenetic nomenclature following the PhyloCode, independent of taxonomic rank. A key to the Astrophorida families, sub-families and genera incertae sedis is also included. Incongruences between our molecular tree and the current classification can be explained by the banality of convergent evolution and secondary loss in spicule evolution. These processes have taken place many times, in all the major clades, for megascleres and microscleres.
Bibliographical
term
Phylogeny, Phylogenesis
Taxonomic
term
Porifera
Taxa
(65)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAlectona Carter, 1879 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAncorina Schmidt, 1862 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAnnulastrella Maldonado, 2002 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAsteropus radiocrusta Kennedy, 2000 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStryphnus radiocrusta (Kennedy, 2000) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCalthropellidae Lendenfeld, 1907 (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCryptosyringa Vacelet, 1979 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDercitus Gray, 1867 (taxonomy source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDercitus (Dercitus) Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDisyringa Sollas, 1888 (taxonomy source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEcionemia megastylifera Wintermann-Kilian & Kilian, 1984 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStellettinopsis megastylifera (Wintermann-Kilian & Kilian, 1984) (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEcionemia robusta (Carter, 1883) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAncorina robusta (Carter, 1883) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia canaliculata Schmidt, 1868 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia contorta (Bowerbank, 1873) (new combination reference)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia cordata (Wiedenmayer, 1989) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhabdastrella cordata Wiedenmayer, 1989 (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia fibrosa (Schmidt, 1870) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStelletta fibrosa (Schmidt, 1870) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia globostellata (Carter, 1883) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhabdastrella globostellata (Carter, 1883) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia imperfecta Bowerbank, 1874 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia intermedia (Wiedenmayer, 1989) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhabdastrella intermedia Wiedenmayer, 1989 (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia intuta (Topsent, 1892) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCaminella intuta (Topsent, 1892) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia jousseaumei (Topsent, 1906) (new combination reference)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia loricata (Lendenfeld, 1894) (new combination reference)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia maculosa (Vosmaer, 1894) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia megastylifera (Wintermann-Kilian & Kilian, 1984) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEcionemia megastylifera Wintermann-Kilian & Kilian, 1984 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStellettinopsis megastylifera (Wintermann-Kilian & Kilian, 1984) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia phlegraei (Sollas, 1880) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia robusta (Carter, 1883) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEcionemia robusta (Carter, 1883) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAncorina robusta (Carter, 1883) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia tuberculata (Carter, 1886) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStelletta tuberculata (Carter, 1886) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia tuberosa (Topsent, 1892) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStelletta tuberosa (Topsent, 1892) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia tumulosa Bowerbank, 1872 (status source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodiinae Sollas, 1888 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeostelletta Cardenas, Xavier, Reveillaud, Schrander & Rapp, 2011 (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIsops apiarium (Schmidt, 1870) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia apiarium (Schmidt, 1870) (new combination reference)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIsops carcinophila Lendenfeld, 1897 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia carcinophila (Lendenfeld, 1897) (new combination reference)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMelophlus Thiele, 1899 (taxonomy source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNeamphius de Laubenfels, 1953 (status source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNethea Sollas, 1888 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNethea amygdaloides (Carter, 1876) (taxonomy source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPachastrellidae Carter, 1875 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPenares Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPenares euastrum (Schmidt, 1868) (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPoecillastra Sollas, 1888 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPoecillastra amygdaloides (Carter, 1876) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNethea amygdaloides (Carter, 1876) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhabdastrella cordata Wiedenmayer, 1989 (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhabdastrella globostellata (Carter, 1883) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhabdastrella intermedia Wiedenmayer, 1989 (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSanidasterinae Sollas, 1888 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAncorinidae Schmidt, 1870 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSidonops Sollas, 1889 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia Lamarck, 1815 (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSphinctrella Schmidt, 1870 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanella Sollas, 1886 (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSphinctrella aberrans Maldonado & Uriz, 1996 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanella aberrans (Maldonado & Uriz, 1996) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSphinctrella ornata Sollas, 1888 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAnnulastrella ornata (Sollas, 1888) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStelletta fibrosa (Schmidt, 1870) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStelletta tuberculata (Carter, 1886) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStelletta tuberosa (Topsent, 1892) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStellettinae Carter, 1875 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAncorinidae Schmidt, 1870 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTethyopsis Stewart, 1870 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorThenea levis Lendenfeld, 1907 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTheneidae Carter, 1883 (status source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorThoosidae Cockerell, 1925 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanella Sollas, 1886 (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanella (Annulastrella) ornata (Sollas, 1888) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAnnulastrella ornata (Sollas, 1888) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanella (Vulcanella) aberrans (Maldonado & Uriz, 1996) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanella aberrans (Maldonado & Uriz, 1996) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanella (Vulcanella) gracilis (Sollas, 1888) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanella gracilis (Sollas, 1888) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanella aberrans (Maldonado & Uriz, 1996) (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanella acanthoxea (Tanita & Hoshino, 1989) (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanella gracilis (Sollas, 1888) (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulcanellidae Cárdenas, Xavier, Reveillaud, Schander & Rapp, 2011 (original description)
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