WoRMS source details

Cárdenas, P.; Rapp, H.T.; Schander, C.; Tendal, O.S. (2010). Molecular taxonomy and phylogeny of the Geodiidae (Porifera,Demospongiae, Astrophorida) - combining phylogenetic and Linnaean classification. Zoologica Scripta. 39 (1): 89-106.
10.1111/j.1463-6409.2009.00402.x [view]
Cárdenas, P.; Rapp, H.T.; Schander, C.; Tendal, O.S.
Molecular taxonomy and phylogeny of the Geodiidae (Porifera,Demospongiae, Astrophorida) - combining phylogenetic and Linnaean classification
Zoologica Scripta
39 (1): 89-106
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
According to the fossil records, the Geodiidae represents one of the oldest families of demosponges (Phylum Porifera). There are approximately 220 described extant species, geographically and bathymetrically widely distributed around the world. Species of this family all share a two-layered cortex with ball-shaped spicules called ‘sterrasters’ in the endocortex. However, molecular studies have questioned the monophyly of the group. Moreover, the evolutionary history and the intrafamily relationships of the Geodiidae are not fully resolved. Using a partial sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and a partial sequence of the 28S rDNA gene (D1–D2 domains), we present the first molecular phylogeny focusing on this group. The congruent results from the two gene fragments suggest that (i) the Geodiidae is monophyletic, (ii) the Erylinae D Geodinae subdivision sensu Sollas, 1888 is valid and that (iii) Isops and Sidonops are junior synonyms of Geodia. The synonymization of Isops and Sidonops implies that the oscule D pore morphology as a diagnostic character should be abandoned. Geodia hentscheli nom. nov. has been given for Geodia mesotriaena (Hentschel, 1929). This study served as the basis for a revised phylogenetic classification of the Geodiidae. Well-supported clades led to the establishment of clade names following the PhyloCode. The Geodinae clade is strongly supported and notably composed of Depressiogeodia, Cydonium and Geodia. A morphological synapomorphy of Geodinaeis the presence of euasters in the ectocortex. The Erylinae (Erylus, Penares, Caminus and Pachymatisma) form a strongly supported monophyletic group with three morphological synapomorphies: (i) loss of anatriaenes and protriaenes, (ii) microrhabds (or spherules) in the ectocortex and (iii) short-shafted triaenes. The Erylus monophyly is ambiguous. Erylus species are distributed in three well-supported clades. Finally, spicule homology in the cortex of the Geodiidae is discussed.
Molecular systematics, Molecular biology
Phylogeny, Phylogenesis
Systematics, Taxonomy
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
2017-12-16 08:17:49Z
2018-01-24 07:33:25Z
2018-02-10 09:51:03Z

Calthropellinae von Lendenfeld, 1907 (basis of record)
Depressiogeodia Cárdenas, Rapp, Schander & Tendal, 2010 (original description)
Erylinae Sollas, 1888 (basis of record)
Geodia hentscheli Cárdenas, Rapp, Schander & Tendal, 2010 (original description)
Geodia phlegraei (Sollas, 1880) (new combination reference)
Geodiidae Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Geodiinae Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Penares Gray, 1867 (additional source)

This is a replacement name for the preoccupied Geodia mesotriaena sensu Hentschel, 1929 (not Lendenfeld, 1910) [details]