The French-Indonesian 1991 campagne to the islands of Kai, Aru and Tanimbar, part of tbe Maluku region of Indonesia, revealed an unexpected wealth of hermit crabs of the family Paguridae. Although only 295 specimens were collected in depths ranging from 85 to 1024 meters, an incredible 19 genera and 36 species are represented, of which seven genera aDd 26 species are described for the first time. Included are the monotypic Alainopaguroides gen. nov., Enneopagurus gen. nov., Enneophyllus gen. nov., Icelopagurus gen. nov., and Tarrasopagurus gen. nov., and their respective new species. The genus Michelopagurus, gen. nov., is establisbed for "Pagurodes" limatulus Henderson, 1888, and one additional new species, and the genus Pseudopagurus is created for "Pagurodes" piliferus Henderson, 1888, the last of the original trio of species initially assigned to tbe heterogeneous Pagurodes. A lectotype for Pagurodes inarmatus Henderson, 1888, the type species of tbe now monotypic Pagurodes, is also designated. The genus Turleania is proposed as a replacement name for Laurentia McLaughlin & Haig. Of the new genera, three are particularly noteworthy. Not only are Enneopagurus and Enneophyllus just tbe second and third genera of the Paguridae to be characterized, in part, by the absence of gills on the third maxillipeds, the latter genus is unique, at least for the present. Its type species, E. spinirostris sp. nov., is the first pagurid known to have a well developed epi-rostral spine. Alainopaguroides joins that very specialized group of genera distinguisbed by marked reduction in the abdomen, accompanied by total loss of male pleopods and reduction in the number of female pleopods. Two additional genera of this group, Solitariopagurus and Porcellanopagurus, are also represented in the KARUBAR collection, each by a new species- In addition to the new genera, new species are described in several of the less commonly reported genera, e.g., Catapaguroides, Decaphyllus, Catapagurus, and Tomopaguropsis. Altbougb Pagurus is widely represented in the colder waters, particularly of the Dorthem hemisphere, the discovery of three new species from the restricted geograpbic region of the KARUBAR campagne was unexpected. A third species has been added to, and extends the distributional range of, the recently described Bathypaguropsis from Australian and New Zealand waters. A new species described in Australeremus has provided continuity to the heretofore disjunct distribution of this genus. Only one genus, Pylopaguropsis, was represented entirely by known species. The KARUBAR collection is a1so significant for its number of highly evolved genera. Specifically, development of the male sexua1 tube(s) is uncommonly prevalent. In the 19 genera included in the collection, males of 13 develop a sexua1 tube on one or both coxae of the fifth pereopods, or nearly two-thirds of the tota1 genera. All species are fully illustrated and detailed descriptions or diagnoses provided. Keys are provided for the regional genera and species, including those reported from the Maluku area, but not included in the KARUBAR collection.