WoRMS taxon details

Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Balech & Tangen, 1985

109712  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:109712)

accepted
Species
marine, fresh, terrestrial
Paulsen, O. (1904). Plankton investigations in the waters round Iceland in 1903. Medd. Komm. Havunders. København, Ser. Plankton. 1: 1-40. [details]   
Type locality contained in Iceland  
type locality contained in Iceland [details]
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:47212  
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:47212 [details]
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Balech & Tangen, 1985. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=109712 on 2018-05-20
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2006-07-27 06:59:07Z
changed
Camba Reu, Cibran
2008-09-04 09:44:46Z
changed
2010-01-15 07:09:15Z
changed
2010-10-27 09:50:34Z
changed
2015-06-26 12:00:51Z
changed

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original description Paulsen, O. (1904). Plankton investigations in the waters round Iceland in 1903. Medd. Komm. Havunders. København, Ser. Plankton. 1: 1-40. [details]   

original description  (ofPyrodinium phoneus Woloszynskia & Conrad, 1939) Woloszynska, J.; Conrad, W. (1939). Pyrodinium phoneus, n. sp., agent de la toxicité des moules du canal maritime de Bruges à Zeebrugge [Pyrodinium phoneus, n. sp., toxic agent in mussels from the sea channel Brugge-Zeebrugge]. Bull. Mus. royal d'Hist. Nat. Belg./Med. Kon. Natuurhist. Mus. Belg. 15(46): 1-5 (look up in IMIS[details]   

original description  (ofAlexandrium peruvianum (Balech & Mendiola) Balech & Tangen, 1985) Balech, E.; Rojas, E. D. (1977). Un nuevo Gonyaulax productor de hemotalasia en Perú (Protozoa, Dinoflagellata). Neotropica. 23: 49-54. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

basis of record Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source Dyntaxa. (2013). Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013]., available online at http://www.dyntaxa.se [details]   

additional source Chang, F.H.; Charleston, W.A.G.; McKenna, P.B.; Clowes, C.D.; Wilson, G.J.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Myzozoa: dinoflagellates, perkinsids, ellobiopsids, sporozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 175-216. [details]   

additional source Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). , available online at http://www.itis.gov [details]   

additional source Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

additional source Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Horner, R.A. 2002. A taxonomic guide to some common marine phytoplankton. Biopress Ltd. Bristol. 195 p.  [details]   

additional source Martin, J.L., M.M. LeGresley and P.M. Strain. 2001. Phytoplankton monitoring in the Western Isles region of the Bay of Fundy during 1997-98. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2349. iv + 85 p. [details]   

additional source Steidinger, K.A.; Tangen, K. (1997). Dinoflagellates. pp. 387-584. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.) (1997). Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780126930184500057 [details]   

additional source MacKenzie L., White D., Oshima Y. & Kapa J. 1996. The resting cyst and toxicity of Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) in New Zealand. Phycologia 35: 148-155. [details]   

source of synonymy Kremp, A., Tahvanainen, P., Litaker, W., Krock, B., Suikkanen, S., Leaw, C. P. & Tomas, C. (2013). Phylogenetic relationships, morphological variation, and toxin patterns in the Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) complex: implications for species boundaries and identities. J Phycol 50:81-100. [details]   

source of synonymy Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

new combination reference Balech E.& Tangen K. 1985. Morphology and taxonomy of toxic species in the tamarensis group (Dinophyceae) Alexandrium excavatum (Braarud) comb. nov. and Alexandrium ostenfeldii(Paulsen) comb. nov. Sarsia 70: 333-343. [details]   

toxicology source Hansen P.J., Cembella A.D. & Moestrup Ø. 1992. The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii: paralytic shellfish toxin concentration, composition, and toxicity to a tintinnid ciliate. J. Phycol. 28: 597-603. [details]   

toxicology source Cembella A.D., Lewis N.I. & Quilliam M.A. 2000. The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) as the causative organism of spirolide shellfish toxins. Phycologia 39: 67-74. [details]   

toxicology source  (ofAlexandrium peruvianum (Balech & Mendiola) Balech & Tangen, 1985) Franco, J.M., Paz, B., Riobó , P., Pizarro, G., Figueroa, R.I., Fraga, S., & Bravo, I. (2006). First report of the production of spirolides by Alexandrium peruvianum (Dinophyceae) from the Mediterranean Sea. Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Harmful Algae, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4–8 September, 2006., available online at http://www.bi.ku.dk/hab/docs/P&A_Book.pdf [details]   

additional source  (ofAlexandrium peruvianum (Balech & Mendiola) Balech & Tangen, 1985) Penna, A., Fraga, S., Maso, M., Giacobbe, M. G., Bravo, I., Garces, E., Vila, M., Bertozzini, E., Andreoni, F., Luglie, A. & Vernesi, C. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships among the Mediterranean Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species based on sequences of 5.8S gene and Internal Transcript Spacers of the rRNA operon. European Journal of Phycology 43:163-78. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (ofAlexandrium peruvianum (Balech & Mendiola) Balech & Tangen, 1985) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofAlexandrium peruvianum (Balech & Mendiola) Balech & Tangen, 1985) Kremp, A., Tahvanainen, P., Litaker, W., Krock, B., Suikkanen, S., Leaw, C. P. & Tomas, C. (2013). Phylogenetic relationships, morphological variation, and toxin patterns in the Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) complex: implications for species boundaries and identities. J Phycol 50:81-100. [details]   

additional source  (ofAlexandrium peruvianum (Balech & Mendiola) Balech & Tangen, 1985) Balech, E. (2002). Dinoflagelados tecados tóxicos en el Cono Sur Americano. En: SAR, E.A., FERRARIO, M.E. & REGUERA, B. (Eds.). Floraciones Algales Nocivas en el Cono Sur Americano. Instituto Español de Oceanografía. pp. 123-144. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (ofGonyaulax peruviana E.Balech & B.R.E. de Mendiola, 1977) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

basis of record  (ofGonyaulax peruviana E.Balech & B.R.E. de Mendiola, 1977) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofGonyaulax peruviana E.Balech & B.R.E. de Mendiola, 1977) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofGoniaulax ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Paulsen, 1949) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

basis of record  (ofGlenodinium ostenfeldii Paulsen, 1903) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

basis of record  (ofGonyaulax ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Paulsen, 1949) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofGonyaulax ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Paulsen, 1949) Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

basis of record  (ofGonyaulax phoneus (Woloszynsky & Conrad) Loeblich & Loeblich) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

basis of record  (ofGoniaulux ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Paulsen, 1949) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

basis of record  (ofGoniaulux tamarensis var. globosa Braarud, 1945) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

basis of record  (ofProtogonyaulax dimorpha (Biecheler) F.J.R. Taylor, 1979) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofGessnerium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) L.Loeblich & Loeblich III, 1979) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofGessnerium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) L.Loeblich & Loeblich III, 1979) Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

additional source  (ofGessnerium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) L.Loeblich & Loeblich III, 1979) Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofGessnerium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) L.Loeblich & Loeblich III, 1979) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofGessnerium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) L.Loeblich & Loeblich III, 1979) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofGessnerium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) L.Loeblich & Loeblich III, 1979) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

basis of record  (ofPyrodinium phoneus Woloszynskia & Conrad, 1939) Woloszynska, J.; Conrad, W. (1939). Pyrodinium phoneus, n. sp., agent de la toxicité des moules du canal maritime de Bruges à Zeebrugge [Pyrodinium phoneus, n. sp., toxic agent in mussels from the sea channel Brugge-Zeebrugge]. Bull. Mus. royal d'Hist. Nat. Belg./Med. Kon. Natuurhist. Mus. Belg. 15(46): 1-5 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source  (ofPyrodinium phoneus Woloszynskia & Conrad, 1939) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofPyrodinium phoneus Woloszynskia & Conrad, 1939) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

basis of record  (ofGonyaulax phoenus (Woloszynbska & Conrad) F.J.R. Taylor, 1975) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofGonyaulax phoenus (Woloszynbska & Conrad) F.J.R. Taylor, 1975) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofProtogonyaulax globosa (Braarud) Taylor, 1979) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofProtogonyaulax globosa (Braarud) Taylor, 1979) Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

basis of record  (ofProtogonyaulax globosa (Braarud) Taylor, 1979) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofProtogonyaulax globosa (Braarud) Taylor, 1979) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofGonyaulax trygvei Parke, 1976) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofGonyaulax trygvei Parke, 1976) Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

basis of record  (ofGonyaulax trygvei Parke, 1976) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofAlexandrium peruvianum (Balech & Mendiola) Balech & Tangen, 1985) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofAlexandrium peruvianum (Balech & Mendiola) Balech & Tangen, 1985) Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

basis of record  (ofAlexandrium peruvianum (Balech & Mendiola) Balech & Tangen, 1985) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofGonyaulax dimorpha Biecheler, 1952) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofGonyaulax dimorpha Biecheler, 1952) Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofGonyaulax dimorpha Biecheler, 1952) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofGonyaulax globosa (Braarud) Balech, 1971) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofGonyaulax globosa (Braarud) Balech, 1971) Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

additional source  (ofGonyaulax globosa (Braarud) Balech, 1971) Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofGonyaulax globosa (Braarud) Balech, 1971) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofGonyaulax globosa (Braarud) Balech, 1971) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofHeteraulacus ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Loeblich III, 1970) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofHeteraulacus ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Loeblich III, 1970) Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

additional source  (ofHeteraulacus ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Loeblich III, 1970) Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofHeteraulacus ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Loeblich III, 1970) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofHeteraulacus ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Loeblich III, 1970) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofGoniodoma ostenfeldii Paulsen, 1904) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofGoniodoma ostenfeldii Paulsen, 1904) Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

additional source  (ofGoniodoma ostenfeldii Paulsen, 1904) Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofGoniodoma ostenfeldii Paulsen, 1904) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofGoniodoma ostenfeldii Paulsen, 1904) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofGoniodoma ostenfeldii Paulsen, 1904) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source  (ofTriadinium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Dodge, 1981) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofTriadinium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Dodge, 1981) Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

additional source  (ofTriadinium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Dodge, 1981) Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofTriadinium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Dodge, 1981) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofTriadinium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Dodge, 1981) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofTriadinium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Dodge, 1981) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source  (ofGonyaulax tamarensis var. globosa Braarud, 1945) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofGonyaulax tamarensis var. globosa Braarud, 1945) Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofGonyaulax tamarensis var. globosa Braarud, 1945) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofGonyaulax tamarensis var. globosa Braarud, 1945) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofPyrodinium phoneus Woloszynskia & Conrad, 1939) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2018). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofPyrodinium phoneus Woloszynskia & Conrad, 1939) Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 6(9): 485-492., available online at https://www.conservationgateway.org/ConservationPractices/Marine/Pages/marineinvasives.aspx [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien 
 

From editor or global species database
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:47212 [details]

From regional or thematic species database
Harmful effect It may produce paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins and spirolides (macrocyclic imines, neurotoxins) [details]

Introduced species impact in Romanian part of the Black Sea : Human health [details]

Introduced species impact in Scandinavia (General Region) : Human health [details]

From other sources
Diet general for group: both heterotrophic (eat other organisms) and autotrophic (photosynthetic) [details]

Habitat pelagic [details]

Importance General: known for producing dangerous toxins, particularly when in large numbers, called "red tides" because the cells are so abundant they make water change color. Also they can produce non-fatal or fatal amounts of toxins in predators (particularly shellfish) that may be eaten by humans. [details]

Predators marine microorganisms and animal larvae [details]

Reproduction general for group: both sexual and asexual [details]