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NameGerovasileiou, V.; Voultsiadou, E. (2012). Marine Caves of the Mediterranean Sea: A Sponge Biodiversity Reservoir within a Biodiversity Hotspot. PLoS ONE. 7(7): e39873.
SourceID199504
DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0039873 [view]
AuthorsGerovasileiou, V.; Voultsiadou, E.
Year2012
TitleMarine Caves of the Mediterranean Sea: A Sponge Biodiversity Reservoir within a Biodiversity Hotspot
JournalPLoS ONE
Suffix7(7): e39873
Type Publication
Full textAvailable for editors  PDF available [request]
AbstractMarine caves are widely acknowledged for their unique biodiversity and constitute a typical feature of the Mediterranean coastline. Herein an attempt was made to evaluate the ecological significance of this particular ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot. This was accomplished by using Porifera, which dominate the rocky sublittoral substrata, as a reference group in a meta-analytical approach, combining primary research data from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean) with data derived from the literature. In total 311 species from all poriferan classes were recorded, representing 45.7% of the Mediterranean Porifera. Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha are highly represented in marine caves at the family (88%), generic (70%), and species level (47.5%), the latter being the most favored group along with Dictyoceratida and Lithistida. Several rare and cave-exclusive species were reported from only one or few caves, indicating the fragmentation and peculiarity of this unique ecosystem. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity varied among Mediterranean areas; the former was positively correlated with research effort, being higher in the northern Mediterranean, while the latter was generally higher in caves than in the overall sponge assemblages of each area. Resemblance analysis among areas revealed that cavernicolous sponge assemblages followed a pattern quite similar to that of the overall Mediterranean assemblages. The same pattern was exhibited by the zoogeographic affinities of cave sponges: species with Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution and Mediterranean endemics prevailed (more than 40% each), 70% of them having warm-water affinities, since most caves were studied in shallow waters. According to our findings, Mediterranean marine caves appear to be important sponge biodiversity reservoirs of high representativeness and great scientific interest, deserving further detailed study and protection.
Geographical
term
Mediterranean Sea in general
Bibliographical
term
Ecology
Taxonomic
term
Porifera
Taxa
(49)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAaptos aaptos (Schmidt, 1864) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAplysilla rosea (Barrois, 1876) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAplysina aerophoba (Nardo, 1833) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAxinella damicornis (Esper, 1794) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAxinella verrucosa (Esper, 1794) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCacospongia mollior Schmidt, 1862 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChondrosia reniformis Nardo, 1847 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCoscinoderma sporadense Voultsiadou-Koukoura, van Soest & Koukouras, 1991 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCrambe crambe (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDendroxea lenis (Topsent, 1892) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDictyonella incisa (Schmidt, 1880) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDictyonella obtusa (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1814) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEurypon clavatum (Bowerbank, 1866) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorFasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia cydonium (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Gellius) microsigma (Babic, 1922) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Halichoclona) perlucida (Griessinger, 1971) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Soestella) mucosa (Griessinger, 1971) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHexadella pruvoti Topsent, 1896 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHexadella racovitzai Topsent, 1896 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHyrtios collectrix (Schulze, 1880) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia paucifilamentosa Vacelet, 1961 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorJaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMyrmekioderma spelaeum (Pulitzer-Finali, 1983) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOscarella balibaloi Pérez, Ivanisevic, Dubois, Pedel, Thomas, Tokina & Ereskovsky, 2011 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOscarella tuberculata (Schmidt, 1868) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPenares helleri (Schmidt, 1864) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetrosia (Petrosia) ficiformis (Poiret, 1789) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetrosia (Strongylophora) vansoesti Boury-Esnault, Pansini & Uriz, 1994 (misapplication)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhorbas tenacior (Topsent, 1925) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhorbas topsenti Vacelet & Perez, 2008 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlakina bowerbanki (Sarà, 1960) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlakina monolopha Schulze, 1880 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlakina trilopha Schulze, 1880 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPleraplysilla spinifera (Schulze, 1879) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorProtosuberites rugosus (Topsent, 1893) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPseudocorticium jarrei Boury-Esnault, Muricy, Gallissian & Vacelet, 1995 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpirastrella cunctatrix Schmidt, 1868 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpongia (Spongia) nitens (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpongia (Spongia) virgultosa (Schmidt, 1868) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpongia officinalis Linnaeus, 1759 represented as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpongia (Spongia) officinalis Linnaeus, 1759 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTerpios gelatinosa (Bowerbank, 1866) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTerpios gelatinosus (Bowerbank, 1866) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorThymosiopsis cuticulatus Vacelet & Perez, 1998 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTimea geministellata Pulitzer-Finali, 1978 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTimea unistellata (Topsent, 1892) (additional source)
Distributions
(95)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAaptos aaptos (Schmidt, 1864)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAaptos aaptos (Schmidt, 1864)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAplysilla rosea (Barrois, 1876)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAplysilla rosea (Barrois, 1876)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAplysilla rosea (Barrois, 1876)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAplysina aerophoba (Nardo, 1833)  (doubtful)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAxinella cannabina (Esper, 1794)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAxinella damicornis (Esper, 1794)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAxinella damicornis (Esper, 1794)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAxinella verrucosa (Esper, 1794)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCacospongia mollior Schmidt, 1862
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChondrosia reniformis Nardo, 1847
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChondrosia reniformis Nardo, 1847
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCliona schmidtii (Ridley, 1881)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCoscinoderma sporadense Voultsiadou-Koukoura, van Soest & Koukouras, 1991
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCrambe crambe (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDendroxea lenis (Topsent, 1892)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDictyonella incisa (Schmidt, 1880)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDictyonella obtusa (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiplastrella bistellata (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1814)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorErylus euastrum (Schmidt, 1868)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEurypon clavatum (Bowerbank, 1866)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorFasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorFasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGeodia cydonium (Linnaeus, 1767)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Gellius) microsigma (Babic, 1922)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Halichoclona) fulva (Topsent, 1893)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Halichoclona) fulva (Topsent, 1893)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Halichoclona) perlucida (Griessinger, 1971)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Soestella) mucosa (Griessinger, 1971)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliclona (Soestella) mucosa (Griessinger, 1971)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHexadella pruvoti Topsent, 1896
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHexadella pruvoti Topsent, 1896
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHexadella racovitzai Topsent, 1896
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHexadella racovitzai Topsent, 1896
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHyrtios collectrix (Schulze, 1880)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia oros (Schmidt, 1864)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia oros (Schmidt, 1864)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia oros (Schmidt, 1864)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia oros (Schmidt, 1864)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia paucifilamentosa Vacelet, 1961
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia paucifilamentosa Vacelet, 1961
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrcinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorJaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorJaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorJaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMyrmekioderma spelaeum (Pulitzer-Finali, 1983)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMyrmekioderma spelaeum (Pulitzer-Finali, 1983)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOscarella balibaloi Pérez, Ivanisevic, Dubois, Pedel, Thomas, Tokina & Ereskovsky, 2011
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOscarella microlobata Muricy, Boury-Esnault, Bézac & Vacelet, 1996
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOscarella tuberculata (Schmidt, 1868)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPenares helleri (Schmidt, 1864)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetrosia (Petrosia) ficiformis (Poiret, 1789)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetrosia (Petrosia) ficiformis (Poiret, 1789)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetrosia (Petrosia) ficiformis (Poiret, 1789)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPetrosia (Strongylophora) vansoesti Boury-Esnault, Pansini & Uriz, 1994  (inaccurate)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhorbas tenacior (Topsent, 1925)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhorbas tenacior (Topsent, 1925)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhorbas tenacior (Topsent, 1925)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhorbas topsenti Vacelet & Perez, 2008
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlakina bowerbanki (Sarà, 1960)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlakina bowerbanki (Sarà, 1960)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlakina monolopha Schulze, 1880
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlakina trilopha Schulze, 1880
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPleraplysilla spinifera (Schulze, 1879)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPleraplysilla spinifera (Schulze, 1879)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorProtosuberites rugosus (Topsent, 1893)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPseudocorticium jarrei Boury-Esnault, Muricy, Gallissian & Vacelet, 1995
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSarcotragus spinosulus Schmidt, 1862
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpirastrella cunctatrix Schmidt, 1868
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpirastrella cunctatrix Schmidt, 1868
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpirastrella cunctatrix Schmidt, 1868
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpirastrella cunctatrix Schmidt, 1868
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpongia (Spongia) nitens (Schmidt, 1862)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpongia (Spongia) virgultosa (Schmidt, 1868)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpongia officinalis Linnaeus, 1759
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpongionella pulchella (Sowerby, 1804)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTerpios gelatinosa (Bowerbank, 1866)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTerpios gelatinosa (Bowerbank, 1866)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTerpios gelatinosa (Bowerbank, 1866)
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorThymosiopsis cuticulatus Vacelet & Perez, 1998
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorThymosiopsis cuticulatus Vacelet & Perez, 1998
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorThymosiopsis cuticulatus Vacelet & Perez, 1998
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTimea geministellata Pulitzer-Finali, 1978
Aegean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTimea unistellata (Topsent, 1892)
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2015-07-31 13:46:05Z  created  Boury-Esnault, Nicole
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