WoRMS source details

Gerovasileiou, V.; Voultsiadou, E. (2012). Marine Caves of the Mediterranean Sea: A Sponge Biodiversity Reservoir within a Biodiversity Hotspot. PLoS ONE. 7(7): e39873.
199504
10.1371/journal.pone.0039873 [view]
Gerovasileiou, V.; Voultsiadou, E.
2012
Marine Caves of the Mediterranean Sea: A Sponge Biodiversity Reservoir within a Biodiversity Hotspot
PLoS ONE
7(7): e39873
Publication
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
Marine caves are widely acknowledged for their unique biodiversity and constitute a typical feature of the Mediterranean coastline. Herein an attempt was made to evaluate the ecological significance of this particular ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot. This was accomplished by using Porifera, which dominate the rocky sublittoral substrata, as a reference group in a meta-analytical approach, combining primary research data from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean) with data derived from the literature. In total 311 species from all poriferan classes were recorded, representing 45.7% of the Mediterranean Porifera. Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha are highly represented in marine caves at the family (88%), generic (70%), and species level (47.5%), the latter being the most favored group along with Dictyoceratida and Lithistida. Several rare and cave-exclusive species were reported from only one or few caves, indicating the fragmentation and peculiarity of this unique ecosystem. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity varied among Mediterranean areas; the former was positively correlated with research effort, being higher in the northern Mediterranean, while the latter was generally higher in caves than in the overall sponge assemblages of each area. Resemblance analysis among areas revealed that cavernicolous sponge assemblages followed a pattern quite similar to that of the overall Mediterranean assemblages. The same pattern was exhibited by the zoogeographic affinities of cave sponges: species with Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution and Mediterranean endemics prevailed (more than 40% each), 70% of them having warm-water affinities, since most caves were studied in shallow waters. According to our findings, Mediterranean marine caves appear to be important sponge biodiversity reservoirs of high representativeness and great scientific interest, deserving further detailed study and protection.
Mediterranean Sea in general
Ecology
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2015-07-31 13:46:05Z
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Aaptos aaptos (Schmidt, 1864) (additional source)
Acanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862 (additional source)
Aplysilla rosea (Barrois, 1876) (additional source)
Aplysina aerophoba (Nardo, 1833) (additional source)
Axinella damicornis (Esper, 1794) (additional source)
Axinella verrucosa (Esper, 1794) (additional source)
Cacospongia mollior Schmidt, 1862 (additional source)
Chondrosia reniformis Nardo, 1847 (additional source)
Coscinoderma sporadense Voultsiadou-Koukoura, van Soest & Koukouras, 1991 (additional source)
Crambe crambe (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Dendroxea lenis (Topsent, 1892) (additional source)
Dictyonella incisa (Schmidt, 1880) (additional source)
Dictyonella obtusa (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Dysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1814) (additional source)
Eurypon clavatum (Bowerbank, 1866) (additional source)
Fasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Geodia cydonium (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Haliclona (Gellius) microsigma (Babic, 1922) (additional source)
Haliclona (Halichoclona) perlucida (Griessinger, 1971) (additional source)
Haliclona (Soestella) mucosa (Griessinger, 1971) (additional source)
Hexadella pruvoti Topsent, 1896 (additional source)
Hexadella racovitzai Topsent, 1896 (additional source)
Hyrtios collectrix (Schulze, 1880) (additional source)
Ircinia paucifilamentosa Vacelet, 1961 (additional source)
Jaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Myrmekioderma spelaeum (Pulitzer-Finali, 1983) (additional source)
Oscarella balibaloi Pérez, Ivanisevic, Dubois, Pedel, Thomas, Tokina & Ereskovsky, 2011 (additional source)
Oscarella tuberculata (Schmidt, 1868) (additional source)
Penares helleri (Schmidt, 1864) (additional source)
Petrosia (Petrosia) ficiformis (Poiret, 1789) (additional source)
Petrosia (Strongylophora) vansoesti Boury-Esnault, Pansini & Uriz, 1994 (misapplication)
Phorbas tenacior (Topsent, 1925) (additional source)
Phorbas topsenti Vacelet & Pérez, 2008 (additional source)
Plakina bowerbanki (Sarà, 1960) (additional source)
Plakina monolopha Schulze, 1880 (misapplication)
Plakina trilopha Schulze, 1880 (additional source)
Pleraplysilla spinifera (Schulze, 1879) (additional source)
Protosuberites rugosus (Topsent, 1893) (additional source)
Pseudocorticium jarrei Boury-Esnault, Muricy, Gallissian & Vacelet, 1995 (additional source)
Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862 (additional source)
Spirastrella cunctatrix Schmidt, 1868 (additional source)
Spongia (Spongia) nitens (Schmidt, 1862) (additional source)
Spongia (Spongia) virgultosa (Schmidt, 1868) (additional source)
Spongia officinalis Linnaeus, 1759 represented as Spongia (Spongia) officinalis Linnaeus, 1759 (additional source)
Terpios gelatinosa (Bowerbank, 1866) accepted as Terpios gelatinosus (Bowerbank, 1866) (additional source)
Thymosiopsis cuticulatus Vacelet & Pérez, 1998 (additional source)
Timea geministellata Pulitzer-Finali, 1978 (additional source)
Timea unistellata (Topsent, 1892) (additional source)
Aegean Sea for Aaptos aaptos (Schmidt, 1864) 
Aegean Sea for Aaptos aaptos (Schmidt, 1864) 
Aegean Sea for Acanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862 
Aegean Sea for Acanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862 
Aegean Sea for Acanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862 
Aegean Sea for Acanthella acuta Schmidt, 1862 
Aegean Sea for Aplysilla rosea (Barrois, 1876) 
Aegean Sea for Aplysilla rosea (Barrois, 1876) 
Aegean Sea for Aplysilla rosea (Barrois, 1876) 
Aegean Sea for Aplysina aerophoba (Nardo, 1833)  (doubtful)
Aegean Sea for Axinella cannabina (Esper, 1794) 
Aegean Sea for Axinella damicornis (Esper, 1794) 
Aegean Sea for Axinella damicornis (Esper, 1794) 
Aegean Sea for Axinella verrucosa (Esper, 1794) 
Aegean Sea for Cacospongia mollior Schmidt, 1862 
Aegean Sea for Chondrosia reniformis Nardo, 1847 
Aegean Sea for Chondrosia reniformis Nardo, 1847 
Aegean Sea for Cliona schmidtii (Ridley, 1881) 
Aegean Sea for Coscinoderma sporadense Voultsiadou-Koukoura, van Soest & Koukouras, 1991 
Aegean Sea for Crambe crambe (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Dendroxea lenis (Topsent, 1892) 
Aegean Sea for Dictyonella incisa (Schmidt, 1880) 
Aegean Sea for Dictyonella obtusa (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Diplastrella bistellata (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Dysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1814) 
Aegean Sea for Erylus euastrum (Schmidt, 1868) 
Aegean Sea for Eurypon clavatum (Bowerbank, 1866) 
Aegean Sea for Fasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Fasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Geodia cydonium (Linnaeus, 1767) 
Aegean Sea for Haliclona (Gellius) microsigma (Babic, 1922) 
Aegean Sea for Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva (Topsent, 1893) 
Aegean Sea for Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva (Topsent, 1893) 
Aegean Sea for Haliclona (Halichoclona) perlucida (Griessinger, 1971) 
Aegean Sea for Haliclona (Soestella) mucosa (Griessinger, 1971) 
Aegean Sea for Haliclona (Soestella) mucosa (Griessinger, 1971) 
Aegean Sea for Hexadella pruvoti Topsent, 1896 
Aegean Sea for Hexadella pruvoti Topsent, 1896 
Aegean Sea for Hexadella racovitzai Topsent, 1896 
Aegean Sea for Hexadella racovitzai Topsent, 1896 
Aegean Sea for Hyrtios collectrix (Schulze, 1880) 
Aegean Sea for Ircinia oros (Schmidt, 1864) 
Aegean Sea for Ircinia oros (Schmidt, 1864) 
Aegean Sea for Ircinia oros (Schmidt, 1864) 
Aegean Sea for Ircinia oros (Schmidt, 1864) 
Aegean Sea for Ircinia paucifilamentosa Vacelet, 1961 
Aegean Sea for Ircinia paucifilamentosa Vacelet, 1961 
Aegean Sea for Ircinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Ircinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Ircinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Jaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Jaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Jaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Myrmekioderma spelaeum (Pulitzer-Finali, 1983) 
Aegean Sea for Myrmekioderma spelaeum (Pulitzer-Finali, 1983) 
Aegean Sea for Oscarella balibaloi Pérez, Ivanisevic, Dubois, Pedel, Thomas, Tokina & Ereskovsky, 2011 
Aegean Sea for Oscarella microlobata Muricy, Boury-Esnault, Bézac & Vacelet, 1996 
Aegean Sea for Oscarella tuberculata (Schmidt, 1868) 
Aegean Sea for Penares helleri (Schmidt, 1864) 
Aegean Sea for Petrosia (Petrosia) ficiformis (Poiret, 1789) 
Aegean Sea for Petrosia (Petrosia) ficiformis (Poiret, 1789) 
Aegean Sea for Petrosia (Petrosia) ficiformis (Poiret, 1789) 
Aegean Sea for Petrosia (Strongylophora) vansoesti Boury-Esnault, Pansini & Uriz, 1994  (inaccurate)
Aegean Sea for Phorbas tenacior (Topsent, 1925) 
Aegean Sea for Phorbas tenacior (Topsent, 1925) 
Aegean Sea for Phorbas tenacior (Topsent, 1925) 
Aegean Sea for Phorbas topsenti Vacelet & Pérez, 2008 
Aegean Sea for Plakina bowerbanki (Sarà, 1960) 
Aegean Sea for Plakina bowerbanki (Sarà, 1960) 
Aegean Sea for Plakina monolopha Schulze, 1880  (inaccurate)
Aegean Sea for Plakina trilopha Schulze, 1880 
Aegean Sea for Pleraplysilla spinifera (Schulze, 1879) 
Aegean Sea for Pleraplysilla spinifera (Schulze, 1879) 
Aegean Sea for Protosuberites rugosus (Topsent, 1893) 
Aegean Sea for Pseudocorticium jarrei Boury-Esnault, Muricy, Gallissian & Vacelet, 1995 
Aegean Sea for Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862 
Aegean Sea for Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862 
Aegean Sea for Sarcotragus spinosulus Schmidt, 1862 
Aegean Sea for Spirastrella cunctatrix Schmidt, 1868 
Aegean Sea for Spirastrella cunctatrix Schmidt, 1868 
Aegean Sea for Spirastrella cunctatrix Schmidt, 1868 
Aegean Sea for Spirastrella cunctatrix Schmidt, 1868 
Aegean Sea for Spongia (Spongia) nitens (Schmidt, 1862) 
Aegean Sea for Spongia (Spongia) virgultosa (Schmidt, 1868) 
Aegean Sea for Spongia officinalis Linnaeus, 1759 
Aegean Sea for Spongionella pulchella (Sowerby, 1804) 
Aegean Sea for Terpios gelatinosa (Bowerbank, 1866) 
Aegean Sea for Terpios gelatinosa (Bowerbank, 1866) 
Aegean Sea for Terpios gelatinosa (Bowerbank, 1866) 
Aegean Sea for Thymosiopsis cuticulatus Vacelet & Pérez, 1998 
Aegean Sea for Thymosiopsis cuticulatus Vacelet & Pérez, 1998 
Aegean Sea for Thymosiopsis cuticulatus Vacelet & Pérez, 1998 
Aegean Sea for Timea geministellata Pulitzer-Finali, 1978 
Aegean Sea for Timea unistellata (Topsent, 1892)