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Bertemes, P.; Grosbusch, A. L.; Egger, B. (2020). No head regeneration here: regeneration capacity and stem cell dynamics of Theama mediterranea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes). Cell and Tissue Research. 379(2): 301-321.
402528
10.1007/s00441-019-03094-8 [view]
Bertemes, P.; Grosbusch, A. L.; Egger, B.
2020
No head regeneration here: regeneration capacity and stem cell dynamics of Theama mediterranea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes)
Cell and Tissue Research
379(2): 301-321
Publication
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Research on the regeneration potential of flatworms (Platyhelminthes) has been mainly undertaken with planarians (Tricladida), where most species can regenerate a head and no proliferation takes place in the blastema, i.e. the early undifferentiated regenerative tissue. Only few studies are available for an early-branching group within the Platyhelminthes, the Polycladida. Head regeneration in polyclads is not possible, with a single exception from a study performed more than 100 years ago: Cestoplana was reported to be able to regenerate a head if cut a short distance behind the brain. Here, we show that ‘Cestoplana’ was misdetermined and most likely was the small interstitial polyclad Theama mediterranea.We revisited regeneration capacity and dynamics of T. mediterranea with live observations and stainings of musculature, nervous system, and proliferating and differentiating stem cells. In our experiments, after transversal amputation, only animals retaining more than half of the brain could fully restore the head including the brain. If completely removed, the brain was never found to regenerate to any extent. Different from planarians, but comparable to other free-living flatworms we detected cell proliferation within the posterior regeneration blastema in T. mediterranea. Similar to other free-living flatworms, proliferation did not occur within, but only outside, the differentiating organ primordia. Our results strongly imply that brain regeneration in the absence of the latter is not possible in any polyclad studied so far. Also, it appears that proliferation of stem cells within the regeneration blastema is a plesiomorphy in flatworms and that planarians are derived in this character.
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