Chinese
Register of
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Zenetos, A.; Gofas, S.; Verlaque, M.; Cinar, M.; Garcia Raso, J.; Bianchi, C.; Morri, C.; Azzurro, E.; Bilecenoglu, M.; Froglia, C.; Siokou, I.; Violanti, D.; Sfriso, A.; San Martin, G.; Giangrande, A.; Katagan, T.; Ballesteros, E.; Ramos-Espla, A.; Mastrototaro, F.; Ocana, O.; Zingone, A.; Gambi, M.; Streftaris, N. (2010). Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution. Mediterranean Marine Science. 11(2): 381-493.
155063
10.12681/mms.87 [view]
Zenetos, A.; Gofas, S.; Verlaque, M.; Cinar, M.; Garcia Raso, J.; Bianchi, C.; Morri, C.; Azzurro, E.; Bilecenoglu, M.; Froglia, C.; Siokou, I.; Violanti, D.; Sfriso, A.; San Martin, G.; Giangrande, A.; Katagan, T.; Ballesteros, E.; Ramos-Espla, A.; Mastrototaro, F.; Ocana, O.; Zingone, A.; Gambi, M.; Streftaris, N.
2010
Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution
Mediterranean Marine Science
11(2): 381-493
Publication
The state-of-art on alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is presented, making distinctions among the four subregions defined in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive: (i) the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED); (ii) the Central Mediterranean Sea (CMED); (iii) the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA); and (iv) the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED). The updated checklist (December 2010) of marine alien species within each subregion, along with their acclimatization status and origin, is provided. A total of 955 alien species is known in the Mediterranean, the vast majority of them having being introduced in the EMED (718), less in the WMED (328) and CMED (267) and least in the Adriatic (171). Of these, 535 species (56%) are established in at least one area. Despite the collective effort of experts who attempted in this work, the number of introduced species remains probably underestimated. Excluding microalgae, for which knowledge is still insufficient, aliens have increased the total species richness of the Mediterranean Sea by 5.9%. This figure should not be directly read as an indication of higher biodiversity, as spreading of so many aliens within the basin is possibly causing biotic homogenization. Thermophilic species, i.e. Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Pacific, and circum(sub)tropical, account for 88.4% of the introduced species in the EMED, 72.8% in the CMED, 59.3% in the WMED and 56.1% in the Adriatic. Cold water species, i.e. circumboreal, N Atlantic, and N Pacific, make up a small percentage of the introduced species, ranging between 4.2% and 21.6% and being more numerous in the Adriatic and less so in the EMED. Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 75 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.
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Acanthaster planci (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Acanthopleura gemmata (Blainville, 1825) (additional source)
Acartia (Acanthacartia) fossae Gurney, 1927 (additional source)
Acrochaetium robustum Børgesen, 1915 (additional source)
Aequorea conica Browne, 1905 (additional source)
Aeverrillia setigera (Hincks, 1887) (additional source)
Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis (Harvey) Masuda, 1993 (additional source)
Aidanosagitta neglecta (Aida, 1897) (additional source)
Alpheus audouini Coutière, 1905 accepted as Alpheus edwardsii (Audouin, 1826) (additional source)
Alpheus inopinatus Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1958 (additional source)
Alpheus rapacida De Man, 1908 (additional source)
Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Amphibalanus eburneus (Gould, 1841) (additional source)
Amphiodia (Amphispina) obtecta Mortensen, 1940 (additional source)
Amphioplus (Lymanella) laevis (Lyman, 1874) (additional source)
Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg, 1839 (additional source)
Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny in Guérin-Méneville, 1832 (additional source)
Amphistegina madagascariensis d'Orbigny in Fornasini, 1903 accepted as Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny in Guérin-Méneville, 1832 (additional source)
Amphogona pusilla Hartlaub, 1909 (additional source)
Anguilla japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 (additional source)
Antigona lamellaris Schumacher, 1817 (additional source)
Antithamnion hubbsii E.Y.Dawson, 1962 (additional source)
Antithamnionella elegans (Berthold) J.H.Price & D.M.John, 1986 (additional source)
Antithamnionella spirographidis (Schiffner) E.M.Wollaston, 1968 (additional source)
Antithamnionella ternifolia (J.D.Hooker & Harvey) Lyle, 1922 (additional source)
Apionsoma (Apionsoma) misakianum (Ikeda, 1904) (additional source)
Apogon fasciatus (White, 1790) accepted as Ostorhinchus fasciatus (White, 1790) (additional source)
Apoprionospio pygmaea (Hartman, 1961) accepted as Prionospio pygmaeus Hartman, 1961 (additional source)
Ashtoret lunaris (Forskål, 1775) (additional source)
Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan de Saint-Léon, 1845 (additional source)
Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) elegans (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821) (additional source)
Balanus trigonus Darwin, 1854 (additional source)
Beroe ovata Bruguière, 1789 (additional source)
Beryx splendens Lowe, 1834 (additional source)
Bonnemaisonia hamifera Hariot, 1891 (additional source)
Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927 (additional source)
Bougainvillia niobe Mayer, 1894 (additional source)
Calanopia elliptica (Dana, 1849) (additional source)
Calanopia minor Scott A., 1902 (additional source)
Calappa hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Caloria indica (Bergh, 1896) (additional source)
Canarium mutabile (Swainson, 1821) (additional source)
Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 (additional source)
Carcharhinus altimus (Springer, 1950) (additional source)
Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle, 1839) (additional source)
Carupa tenuipes Dana, 1852 (additional source)
Caulerpa mexicana Sonder ex Kützing, 1849 (additional source)
Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh, 1817 (additional source)
Celleporaria aperta (Hincks, 1882) (additional source)
Celleporaria pilaefera (Canu & Bassler, 1929) (additional source)
Centropages furcatus (Dana, 1849) (additional source)
Ceratonereis mirabilis Kinberg, 1865 (additional source)
Cerithium columna G. B. Sowerby I, 1834 (additional source)
Cerithium egenum A. Gould, 1849 (additional source)
Cerithium nesioticum Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1906 (additional source)
Cerithium nodulosum Bruguière, 1792 (additional source)
Chama asperella Lamarck, 1819 (additional source)
Chama pacifica Broderip, 1835 (additional source)
Charybdis (Charybdis) hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867) (additional source)
Charybdis (Charybdis) japonica (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861) (additional source)
Charybdis (Charybdis) lucifer (Fabricius, 1798) (additional source)
Chelidonura fulvipunctata Baba, 1938 accepted as Biuve fulvipunctata (Baba, 1938) (additional source)
Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Chirocentrus dorab (Forsskål, 1775) (additional source)
Chorda filum (Linnaeus) Stackhouse, 1797 (additional source)
Chrysymenia wrightii (Harvey) Yamada, 1932 accepted as Botryocladia wrightii (Harvey) W.E.Schmidt, D.L.Ballantine & Fredericq, 2017 (additional source)
Circe scripta (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Cirrholovenia tetranema Kramp, 1959 (additional source)
Cirriformia semicincta (Ehlers, 1905) (additional source)
Cladophora herpestica (Montagne) Kützing, 1849 accepted as Lychaete herpestica (Montagne) M.J.Wynne, 2017 (additional source)
Clavulina angularis d'Orbigny, 1826 (additional source)
Clementia papyracea (Gmelin, 1791) (additional source)
Clorida albolitura Ahyong & Naiyanetr, 2000 (additional source)
Clytia linearis (Thorneley, 1900) (additional source)
Clytia mccradyi (Brooks, 1888) (additional source)
Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889 (additional source)
Conus arenatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 (additional source)
Conus rattus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 (additional source)
Cordylophora caspia (Pallas, 1771) (additional source)
Crepidacantha poissonii (Audouin, 1826) (additional source)
Cushmanina striatopunctata (Parker & Jones, 1865) (additional source)
Cymbaloporetta plana (Cushman, 1924) (additional source)
Daira perlata (Herbst, 1790) (additional source)
Decapterus russelli (Rüppell, 1830) (additional source)
Dendrodoris fumata (Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) (additional source)
Desmarestia viridis (O.F.Müller) J.V.Lamouroux, 1813 (additional source)
Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778) (additional source)
Diala semistriata (Philippi, 1849) (additional source)
Diodon hystrix Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Diphasia digitalis (Busk, 1852) (additional source)
Dorippe quadridens (Fabricius, 1793) (additional source)
Doxander vittatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Dussumieria elopsoides Bleeker, 1849 (additional source)
Dynamena quadridentata (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (additional source)
Edentostomina cultrata (Brady, 1881) (additional source)
Eirene viridula (Péron & Lesueur, 1810) (additional source)
Elasmopus pectenicrus (Spence Bate, 1862) (additional source)
Electra tenella (Hincks, 1880) accepted as Arbopercula tenella (Hincks, 1880) (additional source)
Elysia grandifolia Kelaart, 1858 (additional source)
Engina mendicaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)