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Daly, M.M., Fautin D.G., Cappola V.A., 2003. Systematics of the Hexacorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 139 3: 419-437.
Daly, M. M.; Fautin, D. G.; Cappola, V. A.
Systematics of the Hexacorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
139(3): 419-437
The composition of and relationships among higher-level groups within the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia (= Zoantharia) has been controversial because independent analyses of anatomy, life history, ultrastructure, and molecular sequences have failed to provide a consistent framework for drawing taxonomic boundaries or understanding phylogenetic relationships. The relationship among stony corals (order Scleractinia), sea anemones (order Actiniaria), and corallimorpharians (order Corallimorpharia) has been particularly problematic. We synthesize existing studies and provide new anatomical and molecular evidence that bear on the question of ordinal circumscription and relationships. We find that orders Actiniaria, Antipatharia, Ceriantharia, Corallimorpharia, Scleractinia, and Zoanthidea are monophyletic; Corallimorpharia is most closely related to Scleractinia. We infer that many traditional diagnostic characters are shared primitive features and thus poor indicators of phylogenetic relationships. Although the major nodes of the hexacorallian tree are well supported by multiple types of data, questions about skeletal evolution and subordinal taxonomy remain unanswered pending denser taxonomic and character sampling.
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Systematics, Taxonomy
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z

Aiptasia Gosse, 1858 (additional source)
Anemonia Risso, 1827 (additional source)
Anthopleura Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860 (additional source)
Antipathes Pallas, 1766 (additional source)
Balanophyllia Wood, 1844 (additional source)
Bunodosoma Verrill, 1899 (additional source)
Caryophyllia Lamarck, 1801 (additional source)
Catalaphyllia Wells, 1971 (additional source)
Cerianthus Delle Chiaje, 1841 (additional source)
Cladocora Ehrenberg, 1834 (additional source)
Corynactis Allman, 1846 (additional source)
Flabellum Lesson, 1831 (additional source)
Fungia Lamarck, 1801 (additional source)
Goniopora de Blainville, 1830 (additional source)
Hydnophora Fischer von Waldheim, 1807 (additional source)
Lobophyllia de Blainville, 1830 (additional source)
Metridium de Blainville, 1824 (additional source)
Monomyces Ehrenberg, 1834 (additional source)
Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (additional source)
Paracyathus Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848 (additional source)
Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891 (additional source)
Pavona Lamarck, 1801 (additional source)
Placotrochus Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848 (additional source)
Platygyra Ehrenberg, 1834 (additional source)
Polycyathus Duncan, 1876 (additional source)
Porites Link, 1807 (additional source)
Rhizopsammia Verrill, 1870 (additional source)
Stichodactyla Brandt, 1835 (additional source)
Stichopathes Brook, 1889 (additional source)
Tubastraea Lesson, 1830 (additional source)
Turbinaria Oken, 1815 (additional source)