MSBIAS taxon details


1269  (

Order Echiuroidea
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent + fossil
MSBIAS (2018). Echiura. Accessed at: on 2018-03-22
The UK Marine Environmental Data and Information Network (2018). Marine Species of the British Isles and Adjacent Seas (MSBIAS): a checklist of species derived from the UNICORN and Marine Recorder applications. Echiura. Accessed at: on 2018-03-22
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
2015-07-08 14:17:39Z
2017-05-24 07:42:18Z
2017-11-18 09:57:31Z

taxonomy source Fisher, W. K. (1946). Echiuroid worms of the North Pacific Ocean. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 96: 215–292, plates 20–37., available online at [details]   

taxonomy source Stephen, A. C., Edmonds, S. J. (1972). The Phyla Sipuncula and Echiura. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. [details]   

taxonomy source Bock, S. (1942). On the structure and affinities of "Thalassema" lankesteri Herdman and the classification of the group Echiuroidea. Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhälles Handlingar, Sjätte följden. Ser. B. 2(6): 1–94. [details]   

additional source Goto, Ryutaro. (2017). The Echiura of Japan: diversity, classification, phylogeny, and their associated fauna. In Motokawa, M., Kajihara, H. (eds). Species Diversity of Animals in Japan. pp. 513–542. Springer Japan, Tokyo., available online at [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

status source Goto, R. (2016). A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of spoon worms (Echiura, Annelida): implications for morphological evolution, the origin of dwarf males, and habitat shifts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 99: 247–260., available online at [details]   

status source McHugh, Damhnait. (1997). Molecular evidence that echiurans and pogonophorans are derived annelids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94: 8006–8009., available online at [details]   

status source Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. (look up in IMIS), available online at [details]  OpenAccess publication 

identification resource Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

context source (Polychaeta) Stephen, A. C. (1965). A revision of the classification of the phylum Sipuncula. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13). 7(80): 457–462., available online at [details]   

English spoon worms  [details]