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Emig, C.C.; Roldán, C.; Viéitez, J.M. (2001). Phoronida, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 324-325
In: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50. Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle: Paris. ISBN 2-85653-538-0. 463 pp., more
In: Collection Patrimoines Naturels. Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle: Paris. ISSN 1158-422X
Currently only two genera, Phoronis, Wright, and Phoronopsis, Gilchrist, are recognised, together with respectively seven and three well-defined species (Emig, 1971, 1979, 1982). The name Phoronis, given by Wright (1856) from the genus name, is one of the numerous epithets of the Egyptian goddess Isis (Wright, 1856). The genus Phoronopsis has an epidermal invagination at the base of the lophophore.
The characteristic larva of the Phoronida, named actinotroch or Actinotrocha, has been described near Helgoland (Germany) by Müller (1846). He considered it as an adult form, and named it Actinotrocha branchiata. The transformation of the actinotroch into an adult phoronid was described for the first time by Kowalevsky (1867) who, following the metamorphosis, realised that the Actinotrocha was a larval stage of Wright's Phoronis species.
Separate names for larval and adult forms are still used in taxonomy. Despite the priority of the larval name Actinotrocha, the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature accepted also as valid the name Phoronis. Consequently, the actinotroch keeps a separate "generic" name considered as a technical term under Actinotrocha (see Silén, 1952) which is sometimes still different from the adult species name.
From data of recent ecological surveys in Europe, mainly in the south of the Iberian Peninsula, the Chafarinas Islands and Canary Islands (Emig et al. 1999a, 199b, 2000), the number of phoronid species occuring in the European waters increased to 9 of 10 species known in the world. The species not recorded in Europe, Phoronis ijimai, is presently known from Pacific and N. W. Atlantic waters. The Iberian Peninsula and the surrounding islands represent a privileged area for the Phoronida because all 9 species has been recorded along their coasts.
For more detailed information on Phoronida see the website at http://www.com.univ-mrs.fr/DIMAR/Phoro/.
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