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Foraminifera
Gross, O. (2001). Foraminifera, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 60-75
In: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50. Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle: Paris. ISBN 2-85653-538-0. 463 pp., more
In: Collection Patrimoines Naturels.. ISSN 1158-422X

Keywords
    Foraminifera [WoRMS]; Marine

Author  Top 

Abstract
    Study of recent benthic Foraminifera in European waters began in the middle of the 18th century (e.g. Carpenter’s paper (1868) on benthic Foraminifera of the Faeroe-Shetland Channel). Since then, many other scientists have contributed papers on the taxonomy, distribution, and ecology of these organisms. However, to my knowledge this is the first time an attempt has been made to summarise a species list of European Foraminifera.
    During the course of the ERMS project a literature survey, and databases from universities and museums were used to establish such a species list. The database from which this checklist was compiled now holds 1233 species and 364 genera and includes another 431 synonyms of Foraminifera. The species fall into the four main suborders: 3% are members of the membranous or tectinous suborder Allogromiina, 28% are agglutinated species of Textulariina, 20% porcelaneous taxa of the suborder Miliolina and the majority (49%) are members of the suborder of hyaline calcareous Rotaliina (combining the ”calcareous“ suborders Fusulinina, Lagenina, Robertinina, Globigerinina, and others).


    However, our knowledge of the biodiversity patterns of benthic and planktonic Foraminifera is still far from complete. The general difficulties of the foraminiferal species concept, the taxonomic uncertainties due to frequent synonyms, the present lack of knowledge of the diversity of soft-walled Foraminifera (e.g. Allogromiina) especially in the deep-sea, and the unknown species richness of foraminiferal communities in many geographic regions (e.g., along the southern Mediterranean Sea and North-African coast) have do be kept in mind when looking at this checklist. The catalogue awaits further inputs, and revision and should be seen as a baseline for future biodiversity studies.
    The catalogue of Foraminifera benefited greatly from databases and comments of Thomas Cedhagen (University of Aarhus), Samuel Bowser (NY State Department of Health, Albany), Wolfgang Kuhnt and Jutta Wollenburg (University of Kiel), Bob Jones (BP Exploration Operating Company), John Murray (Southampton Oceanography Centre), Ralf Schiebel and Gerhard Schmiedl (University of Tübingen), Igor Dovgal (University of Kiev) and Dusan Zavodnik (Centre for Marine Research Rovinji, Croatia). I would like to thank these colleagues for their help.


    References



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    • Cedhagen, T., 1991, Foraminiferna i Nordostatlanten och Arktis, Manuscript, 50 p.
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    • Groß, O., 1991, Die Verbreitung der Meiofauna und der Foraminiferen am untermeerischen Hang der Färöer Inseln". Diploma thesis, University of Hamburg, Inst. Hydrobiologie und Fischereiwissenschaften, 147 p., 9 plt.
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    • Gudmundsson, G., 1998, Distribution limits of Pyrgo species at the biogeographic boundaries of the Arctic and the North-Atlantic boreal regions, J. Foram. Res., 28, p. 240-256.
    • Haynes, J., 1973, Cardigan Bay Recent Foraminifera (Cruises of the R. V. Antur, 1962-1964), Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.) Suppl. 4, London.
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    • Hemleben, Ch., Spindler, M. & Anderson, O.R., 1989, Modern Planktonic Foraminifera. Springer Verlag, New York.
    • Hermelin, J.O.R. & Scott, D.B., 1985, Recent benthic Foraminifera from the central North Atlantic: Micropaleontology, v. 31, p. 199 220
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    • Mikhalevich, V. I., 1968, The keys for identification of the Black and Asov Sea fauna. In 3 volumes. Vol1 Free-living invertebrates: Protists, sponges, coelenterates, vermes, tentaculifers. Kiev. Naukuva dumka. 437 p.(e-mail 17.10.99 by Igor V. Dovgal).
    • Moodley, L., 1992, Experimental Ecology of Benthic Foraminifera in Soft Sediments and its (Paleo) Environmental Significance: Diss. Univ. Enschede, 140 p.
    • Murray, J.W., 1991, Ecology and palaeoecology of benthic Foraminifera: Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, U.K., 397 p.
    • Parker, F.L., 1958, Eastern Mediterranean Foraminifera, Sediment Cores from the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea: Rept. Swed. Deep Sea Exped. 1947 1948, 8, no.4, 219 283.
    • Röttger, R., 1995, Benthische Foraminiferen (Nord und Ostsee) in Roettger, R. (eds), Praktikum der Protozoologie, 217 p., p. 100-110.
    • Tendal, 0. S., 1996, Synoptic checklist and bibliography of the Xenophyophorea (Protista), with a zoogeographical survey of the group, Galthea Rep., v. 17, p. 79-101.
    • Thalmann, H. E., 1960, An index to the genera and species of the Foraminifera 1890-1950, George Vanderbilt Foundation, Stanford University, California, USA.
    • Timm, S., 1992, Rezente Tiefsee Benthosforaminiferen aus Oberflächensedimenten des Golfes von Guinea (Westafrika) Taxonomie, Verbreitung, Ökologie und Korngrößenfraktionen: Ber. Geol. Paläontol. Inst. Univ. Kiel in Geol.Pal.Inst.und Museum,Kiel (eds), 19
    • Wollenburg, J. & A. Mackensen, 1998, Living benthic foraminifers from the central Arctic Ocean: faunal composition, standing stock and diversity, Mar. Micropal., 34, 153-185.
    • Wollenburg, J. & A. Mackensen, 1998, On the vertical distribution of living (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifers in the Arctic Ocean, J. Foram. Res., 28, 268-285.
      Wollenburg, J., 1995, Benthische Foraminiferenfaunen als Wassermassen , Produktions und Eisdriftanzeiger im Arktischen Ozean: Berichte zur Polarforschung in AWI, Bremerhaven (eds), Bremerhaven, v. 179, p. 1 227
    • Southern North Sea
    • Moodley, L., 1992, Experimental Ecology of Benthic Foraminifera in Soft Sediments and its (Paleo) Environmental Significance: Diss. Univ. Enschede, 140 p.
    • Mediterranean Sea:
    • Cimerman, F. & Langer, M.R., 1991, Mediterranean Foraminifera: Slovenska Akademija Znanosti, Ljubljana, 118 p.
    • Jorissen, F.J., 1988, Benthic Foraminifera from the Adriatic Sea; principles of phenotypic variation: Utrecht Micropal. Bull., 37.
    • Mullineaux, L.S. & Lohmann, G.P., 1981, Late Quaternary stagnations and recirculation of the eastern Mediterranean: Changes in the deep water recorded by fossil benthic Foraminifera: J. Foram. Res., 11, 20 39.
    • Parker, F.L., 1958, Eastern Mediterranean Foraminifera, Sediment Cores from the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea: Rept. Swed. Deep Sea Exped. 1947 1948, 8, no.4, 219 283.
    • Wright, R., 1978, Neogene benthic foraminifers from DSDP Leg 42A, Mediterranean Sea: in Hsü, K. & Montadert, L. et al. (eds.), Initial Repts. Deep Sea Drilling Project (Joides), 42, 709 726.
    • North Atlantic
    • Barker, R.W., 1960, Taxonomic Notes on the Species Figured by H. B. Brady in his Report on the Foraminifera Dredged by H. M. S. Challenger During the years 1873 1876: Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral., Spec. Pub. 9, 238 p.
    • Caralp, M.H., 1984, Quaternary calcareous benthic foraminifers, Leg 80: in de Graciansky, P.C.& Poag, C.W.et al. (eds): Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 80, Washington, 725 755.
    • Gooday, A.J., 1986, Soft shelled Foraminifera in meiofaunal samples from the bathyal northeast Atlantic: Sarsia, 71, 275 287.
    • Hermelin, J.O.R. & Scott, D.B., 1985, Recent benthic Foraminifera from the central North Atlantic: Micropaleontology, v. 31, p. 199 220
    • Arctic
    • Gudmundsson, G., 1998, Distribution limits of Pyrgo species at the biogeographic boundaries of the Arctic and the North-Atlantic boreal regions, J. Foram. Res., 28, p. 240-256.
    • Wollenburg, J. & A. Mackensen, 1998, Living benthic foraminifers from the central Arctic Ocean: faunal composition, standing stock and diversity, Mar. Micropal., 34, 153-185.
    • Wollenburg, J., 1995, Benthische Foraminiferenfaunen als Wassermassen , Produktions und Eisdriftanzeiger im Arktischen Ozean: Berichte zur Polarforschung in AWI, Bremerhaven (eds), Bremerhaven, v. 179, p. 1 227

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