This list includes all benthic (attached) marine algae belonging to the phyla (divisions) Chlorophycota (Chlorophyta), Phaeophycota (Phaeophyta), Rhodophycota (Rhodophyta) and the genera Vaucheria and Tribonema (Xanthophycota) that are generally known as seaweeds. It also includes the seagrasses (Magnioliophyta). This list is extracted from a world-wide database of algae and seagrasses being prepared as part of the Species2000 project. The database is searchable at: http://www.seaweed.ie/search/searchchoice.htm where it incorporates detailed references, notes, some synonyms, common names, some pictures, and much of the distributional data that forms part of the present list. As this database is "live" it may not include exactly the same data in the list below; it does, however, explain much of the sources for the records included here.
The present list was compiled and checked by the Michael Guiry. Its initial foundation was the species listed in the Species Directory of the Marine Fauna and Flora of the British Isles and Surrounding Seas (Guiry, 1997), which was then systematically built up from the most recent key works and check-lists for each geographical area as follows:
The overall arrangement of phyla (divisions) classes, orders and families is largely that of Silva, Basson & Moe (1996) with some modifications resulting from later work. Individual taxonomic decisions are too numerous to detail here but are also listed in the web version of the database. Categories below the level of species (subspecies, varieties and formae) are not included here for reasons of space. Nomenclatural authorities are given in full and, as far as possible, fit in with the full names as listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992). Non-botanists should note that it is not the normal practice to cite the date of publication or date of combination for plants; however, I have, for convenience, included the date when known. Those familiar with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature should also note that it is the practice under the Botanical Code to cite the original author(s) in parentheses and the author(s) making a new combination outside such parentheses. So, there are only two possibilities: there may be the name of an authority or authorities with no parentheses or there will be the names of an authority or authorities in parentheses with another name or names outside it. Botanical authors should note the legitimate use of diacritical marks in certain instances (e.g., Hydrolithon samoënse; Schottera nicaëensis) to facilitate correct pronunciation. It should also be noted that whilst "ex" is part of nomenclatural authority citation, "in" is part of bibliographical citations and should not be used except in this context. The following recently altered spellings should also be noted: Acanthophora nayadiformis for A. najadiformis; Chondracanthus teedei for C. teedii; and Halopithys for Halopitys. A number of nomenclaturally illegitimate names are still included (but not indicated) such as Sargassum vulgare. The binomial Scytosiphon lomentaria is included on the assumption that its proposed conservation will be accepted. A number of doubtful records, such as Ecklonia buruncinata from the Canary Islands, are included pending clarification. The genusPilinia is included in the Phaeophycota even though there is doubt as to whetherP. rimosa, the type, is a green or a brown alga.The seagrass lists were compiled from a variety of sources and the nomenclature is that of Phillips & Meñez (1988).
- North Eastern Atlantic: East Greenland (Pedersen, 1976), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson, 1972; Munda, 1979), Spitsbergen (Vinogradova, 1995), Faroes (Irvine, 1982), Norway (Rueness, 1997), Baltic Sea (Nielsen et al., 1995), Netherlands (Stegenga et al., 1997), Belgium and France (Coppejans, 1995; Feldmann, 1954; Feldmann & Magne, 1964), Northern Spain (Veiga, Cremades & Bárabara, 1998, and others), Portugal (Ardré, 1970, and others), Southern Spain (Seoane-Camba, 1965; Conde et al., 1996, and others), Morocco (Dangeard, 1949), Madeira and the Salvage Islands (Levring, 1974; Audiffred & Weisscher, 1984), and the Azores (Neto, 1994; Tittley & Neto, 1994). Unpublished lists from Helgoland and the Canary Islands provided by Drs Bartsch and Kuhlenkamp and Drs Haroun, Gil-Rodríguez and Díaz de Castro, respectively, were invaluable. This list is not exhaustive but is included to given an indication of the sources.
- Mediterranean: The excellent brown (Ribera et al., 1992) and green (Gallardo et al., 1993) check-lists were used as the basis for an initial list; however, no overall summary exists for the red algae. The Mediterranean list was completed from a wide range of sources which are far too numerous to cite here but which are listed in the database version cited above.
I am grateful to all those who helped me in the compilation of this list, in particular to Professor G. Furnari, Dr Fabio Rindi, Ms Eilís Nic Dhonncha, and Ms Sandy Lawson.
- Ardré, F. 1970. Contribution à l'étude des algues marines du Portugal. I. La flore. Portugalia Acta Biologica sér. B, 10: 137-555.
- Audiffred, P. A. J. and Weisscher, F. L. M. 1984. Marine algae of Selvagem Grande (Salvage Islands, Macaronesia). Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 36: 5-37.
- Brummitt, R. K. and Powell, C. E., Eds. 1992. Authors of Plant Names. A list of authors of scientific names of plants, with recommended standard forms of these names including abbreviations. Key, Royal Botanic Gardens.
- Caram, B. and Jónsson, S. 1972. Nouvel inventaire des algues marines de l'Islande. Acta Botanica Islandica 1: 5-31.
- Conde, F., Flores-Moya, A., Soto, J., Altamirano, M. and Sánchez, A. 1996. Check-list of Andalusia (S. Spain) seaweeds. III. Rhodophyceae. Acta Botanica Malacitana 21: 7-33.
- Coppejans, E. 1995. Flora algologique des côtes du Nord de la France et de la Belgique. Meise, Jardin Botanique National de la Belgique.
- Dangeard, P. 1949. Les algues marines de la côte occidentale du Maroc. Botaniste 34: 89-189.
- Feldmann, J. 1954. Inventaire de la flore marine de Roscoff. Algues, champignons, lichens et spermatophytes. Travaux Station Biologique de Roscoff Ser. 2, Suppl. 6: 152.
- Feldmann, J. and Magne, M. F. 1964. Additions a l'inventaire de la flore marine de Roscoff algues, champignons, lichens. Travaux Station Biologique de Roscoff 15(New supplement): 1-23 [+ 5].
- Gallardo, T., Gómez Garreta, A., Ribera, M. A., Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., Giaccone, G. and Boudouresque, C. F. 1993. Check-list of Mediterranean Seaweeds, II. Chlorophyceae Wille s.l. Botanica marina 36: 399-421.
- Guiry, M. D. 1997. Benthic red, brown and green algae. The Species Directory of the Marine Fauna and Flora of the British Isles and Surrounding Seas. C. M. Howson and B. E. Picton. Belfast & Ross-on-Wye, Ulster Museum & Marine Conservation Society: 341-367.
- Irvine, D. E. G. 1982. Seaweeds of the Faroes 1: The flora. Bulletin Brtish Museum Natural History, Botany 10: 109-131.
- Levring, T. 1974. The marine algae of the Archipelago of Madeira. Boletim Museu Municipal do Funchal 28: 5-111.
- Munda, I. M. 1979. Addition to the check-list of benthic marine algae from Iceland. Botanica marina 22: 459-463.
- Neto, A. I. 1994. Checklist of the benthic marine macroalgae of the Azores. Arquipélago. Ciências Biológicas e Marinhas 12A: 15-34.
- Nielsen, R., Kristiansen, A., Mathiesen, L. and Mathiesen, H. 1995. Distributional index of the benthic marine macroalgae of the Baltic Sea area. Acta Botanica Fennica 155: 1-70.
- Pedersen, P. M. 1976. Marine benthic algae from southernmost Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 199(3): 1-80.
- Phillips, R. C. and Meñez, E. G. 1988. Seagrasses. Washington, D