Hysterothylacium geschei n. sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) is described from the intestine of Cauque mauleanum (Steindachner) (Pisces: Atherinidae) from Lake Panguipulli (39º43’S; 72º13’W), Chile. Eleven (78.6%) out of 14 fish were infected, with a mean intensity (range) of 14.4 (1-55) worms. The new species can be differentiated from the two previously described species of freshwater fishes from South America by the presence of lateral alae, the number of caudal papillae, and the length of the spicules, oesophagus, intestinal caecum, distance vulva-anterior extremity and the length ratio intestinal caecum: ventricular appendix. From the fishes examined in Lake Panguipulli, including the introduced salmonid species Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and the authochthonous species Basilichthys australis Eigenmann (Atherinidae) and Percichthys trucha (Valenciennes) (Percichthyidae), only one specimen of P. trucha was found parasitized by a third-stage larva of this species.