The phylogeographic patterns among populations of Mesopodopsis slabberi (Crustacea, Mysida), an ecological important mysid species of marine and estuarine habitats, were analysed by means of DNA sequencing of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and the 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Samples of M. slabberi collected from five Atlantic and two Western Mediterranean populations were investigated. Very high levels of within-population molecular diversity were observed in all samples (mean h=0.807 and pi=0.0083), with exception of the Mediterranean Ebro population which contained only one haplotype. Differentiation among populations was high, and a clear phylogeographic break was observed between the Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. Moreover, a strong differentiation was detected between both populations in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Alicante and Ebro delta), while two divergent lineages occurred in sympatry within the Atlantic Mondego estuary. The high congruence between both the COI and 16S rRNA sequence data, the reciprocal monophyly of the different mitochondrial clades and the levels of nucleotide divergence between them suggest the presence of a complex of cryptic species within M. slabberi. Estimations of divergence time between the different mitochondrial lineages indicate that a split occurred during the late Miocene/early Pliocene. Such a divergence could be concordant with vicariant events during sea-level drops within the Mediterranean region at that time. However, within the Mediterranean Sea, the potential of divergence through ecological diversification cannot be ruled out.