The discovery of recent carbonate mounds and cold-water coral reefs along the European continental margins is a major achievement of the past decade. Different research projects have been developed, fueling vivid debates. The objectives of this study, which rides the wave of recent carbonate mound and cold-water coral research, are twofold: (1) to elucidate for the first time in history the nature and internal structure of a whole carbonate mound body, from base to top, and (2) to discuss the significance of the recent carbonate mound record. Challenger Mound, localized in Porcupine Seabight SW of Ireland, has been drilled during IODP Expedition Leg 307 "Modern Carbonate Mounds: Porcupine Drilling". The obtained mound record is compared with other mound structures in Porcupine Seabight and with a cluster of mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz, along the Moroccan margin. In this way, the author highlights that recent carbonate mounds form a specific and important category within the wide range of diverse deep-water carbonate systems.