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|Invasions of alien gammarid species and retreat of natives in the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea, Poland)|
|Grabowski, M.; Konopacka, A.; Jazdzewski, K.; Janowska, E. (2006). Invasions of alien gammarid species and retreat of natives in the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea, Poland). Helgol. Mar. Res. 60(2): 90-97|
|In: Helgoland Marine Research. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 1438-387X, more|
Introduced species; Gammaridae Leach, 1814 [WoRMS]; Europe, Central [gazetteer]; Poland, Vistula R. [gazetteer]; Marine
During the last decades of the twentieth century, the alien gammarid species Gammarus tigrinus, Dikerogammarus haemobaphes, Pontogammarus robustoides and Obesogammarus crassus invaded the lower Vistula River and its deltaic, partly brackish regions. In brackish waters of the Vistula Lagoon the native Atlantic-boreal species Gammarus zaddachi and Gammarus duebeni have been replaced or at least outnumbered by the aliens. As compared to our earlier studies, through the years 1998-2004 we could observe nearly total decline of the native gammarid populations along the coasts of the Lagoon, and overdomination of the North-American G. tigrinus in most places. Possible reasons for the observed phenomena are e.g. increasing pollution and eutrophication of the Lagoon accompanied by competition between the native and the alien species.
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