Only a few spicular characters are useful in the determination of Cinachyrella (= Cinachyra of authors) species once the specimens are preserved. Based on these we recognize four species of this genus in the tropical and subtropical western Atlantic Ocean. C. alloclada and C. kuekenthali possess two or more size classes of oxeas but only one size class of tetractines, and both lack special accessory spicules. C. kuekenthali can be distinguished because the smallest size oxeas are roughened or crenulate. C. apion and C. arenosa have only one category of oxeote megascleres, but also have rhaphids for microscleres, often organized in trichodragmas; C. apion possesses protriaenes in a second, smaller size class, whereas C. arenosa adds plagiotriaenes and calthrops to the typical spicule complement. Characteristic specimens, spicules, and special features are illustrated.