WoRMS taxon details

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorKarlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000

233037  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:233037)

accepted
Species
marine
Ballantine D. 1956. Two new marine species of Gymnodinium isolated from the Plymouth area. J. mar.biol. Ass. U.K. 35: 467-474., available online at https://doi.org/10.1017/s0025315400010316 [details]   
Trusted: edited by a thematic editorDistribution Devonport (New Zealand)  
Trusted: edited by a thematic editortype locality contained in Devonport (New Zealand) [details]
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:50156  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:50156 [details]
Guiry, Michael D. (2015). Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2017). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=233037 on 2017-12-15

Date
action
by
2006-07-26 09:25:08Z
created
Camba Reu, Cibran
2008-11-21 06:40:06Z
checked
2015-06-26 12:00:51Z
changed

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original description Ballantine D. 1956. Two new marine species of Gymnodinium isolated from the Plymouth area. J. mar.biol. Ass. U.K. 35: 467-474., available online at https://doi.org/10.1017/s0025315400010316 [details]   

original description  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorKarlodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) J.Larsen, 2000) Leadbeater B.S.C. & Dodge J.D. 1966. The fine structure of Woloszynskia micra sp. nov., a new marine dinoflagellate. Br. phycol. Bull. 3: 1-17. [details]   

basis of record Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Chang, F.H.; Charleston, W.A.G.; McKenna, P.B.; Clowes, C.D.; Wilson, G.J.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Myzozoa: dinoflagellates, perkinsids, ellobiopsids, sporozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 175-216. [details]   

additional source Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source Adolf J.E., Bachvaroff T.R., Krupatkina D.N., Nonogaki H., Brown P.J.P., Lewitus A.J., Harvey H.R. & Place A.R. 2006. Species specificity and potential roles of Karlodinium micrum toxin. African Journal of Marine Science 28: 415-419. [details]   

additional source Deeds J.R., Terlizzi D.E., Adolf J.E., Stoecker D.K. & Place A.R. 2002. Toxic activity from cultures of Karlodinium micrum (=Gyrodinium galatheanum) (Dinophyceae) - a dinoflagellate associated with fish mortalities in an estuarine aquaculture facility. Harmful Algae 1: 169-189. [details]   

additional source Abbott B.C. & Ballantine D. 1957. The toxin from Gymnodinium veneficum Ballantine. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 36: 169-189. [details]   

additional source Lutaenko, K.A.; Furota, T.; Nakayama; S.; Shin, K.; Xu, J. (2013). Atlas of Marine Invasive Species in the NOWPAP Region. Beijing: NOWPAP DINRAC (Northwest Pacific Action Plan, Data and Information Network Regional Center). 189 pp. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Steidinger, K. A., M. A. Faust, and D. U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 131–154 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College [details]   

additional source Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2017). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

redescription Bergholtz T., Daugbjerg N., Moestrup Ø. & Fernández-Tejedor M. 2005. On the identity of Karlodinium veneficum and the description of Karlodinium armiger sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), based on light and electron microscopy, nuclear-encoded LSU rDNA, and pigment composition. J. Phycol. 42: 170-193. [details]   

new combination reference Daugbjerg, N.; Hansen, G.; Larsen, J.; Moestrup, O. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia. 39(4): 302-317., available online at https://doi.org/10.2216/i0031-8884-39-4-302.1 [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorKarlodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) J.Larsen, 2000) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorKarlodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) J.Larsen, 2000) Liu J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. China Science Press. 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorWoloszynskia micra B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge, 1966) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2017). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorWoloszynskia micra B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge, 1966) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorWoloszynskia micra B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge, 1966) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

redescription  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorWoloszynskia micra B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge, 1966) Bergholtz T., Daugbjerg N., Moestrup Ø. & Fernández-Tejedor M. 2005. On the identity of Karlodinium veneficum and the description of Karlodinium armiger sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), based on light and electron microscopy, nuclear-encoded LSU rDNA, and pigment composition. J. Phycol. 42: 170-193. [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorWoloszynskia micra B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge, 1966) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorWoloszynskia micra B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge, 1966) Campbell, P.H. (1973). Studies on brackish water phytoplankton. UNC.SG.73.07. pp. 1-406. Chapel Hill: Sea Grant Publications, University of North Carolina. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGyrodinium galatheanum (Baarud) Taylor, 1992) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2017). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGyrodinium galatheanum (Baarud) Taylor, 1992) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGyrodinium galatheanum (Baarud) Taylor, 1992) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGyrodinium galatheanum (Baarud) Taylor, 1992) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium galatheanum Braarud, 1957) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2017). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium galatheanum Braarud, 1957) Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium galatheanum Braarud, 1957) Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium galatheanum Braarud, 1957) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium galatheanum Braarud, 1957) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium galatheanum Braarud, 1957) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium galatheanum Braarud, 1957) Lakkis, S. (2011). Le phytoplancton marin du Liban (Méditerranée orientale): biologie, biodiversité, biogéographie. Aracne: Roma. ISBN 978-88-548-4243-4. 293 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium galatheanum Braarud, 1957) Dyntaxa. (2013). Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013]., available online at http://www.dyntaxa.se [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) Loeblich III, 1970) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2017). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) Loeblich III, 1970) Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) Loeblich III, 1970) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) Loeblich III, 1970) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) Loeblich III, 1970) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium veneficum D.Ballantine, 1956) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2017). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium veneficum D.Ballantine, 1956) Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium veneficum D.Ballantine, 1956) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium veneficum D.Ballantine, 1956) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorGymnodinium veneficum D.Ballantine, 1956) Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorKarlodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) J.Larsen, 2000) Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2017). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. , available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorKarlodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) J.Larsen, 2000) Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

new combination reference  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorKarlodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) J.Larsen, 2000) Daugbjerg, N.; Hansen, G.; Larsen, J.; Moestrup, O. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia. 39(4): 302-317., available online at https://doi.org/10.2216/i0031-8884-39-4-302.1 [details]   

context source (Deepsea) Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), available online at http://www.iobis.org/ [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. BioInvasions Records. 1: 235-245., available online at http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien 
 

From editor or global species database
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:50156 [details]

From regional or thematic species database
Trusted: edited by a thematic editorHarmful effect Toxic to a range of marine invertebrates and fish. Produces so-called karlotoxins that exhibit a broad-spectrum lytic effect on membranes from very diverse cell types [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in Norway (Nation) : Shipping [details]

From other sources
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorSynonymy Gómez (2005) is not sure whether or not Karlodinium veneficum is synonym of K. vitiligo [details]