WoRMS source details

Nygren, Arne. (2004). Revision of Autolytinae (Syllidae: Polychaeta). Zootaxa. 680: 1-314.
23023
Nygren, Arne
2004
Revision of Autolytinae (Syllidae: Polychaeta)
Zootaxa
680: 1-314
Publication
World Polychaeta Database (WPolyDb). Monograph
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
Autolytinae is revised based on available types, and newly collected specimens. Out of 170 nominal species, 18 are considered as incertae sedis, 43 are regarded as junior synonyms, and 25 are referred to as nomina dubia. The relationships of Autolytinae is assessed from 51 morphological characters and 211 states for 76 ingroup-taxa, and 460 molecular characters from mitochondrial 16S rDNA and nuclear 18S rDNA for 31 ingroup-taxa; outgroups include 12 non-autolytine syllid polychaetes. Two analyses are provided, one including morphological data only, and one with combined morphological and molecular data sets. The resulting strict consensus tree from the combined data is chosen for a reclassification. Three main clades are identified: Procerini trib. n., Autolytini Grube, 1850, and Epigamia gen. n. Proceraea Ehlers, 1864 and Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 are referred to as nomen protectum, while Scolopendra Slabber, 1781, Podonereis Blainville, 1818, Amytis Savigny, 1822, Polynice Savigny, 1822, and Nereisyllis Blainville, 1828 are considered nomina oblita. The following new generic synonymies are introduced: Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845, senior synonym to Autolytus Grube, 1850; Pterautolytus Ehlers, 1907, and Regulatus Imajima, 1966, both junior synonyms to Proceraea Ehlers, 1864; and Autosyllis Imajima & Hartman, 1964, junior synonym to Virchowia Langerhans, 1879. The following new genera are described: Epigamia, Pachyprocerastea, Planicirrata, Paraproceraea, and Imajimaea. The following new species are described: Proceraea pleijeli from the Atlantic coast of Spain, Proceraea paraurantiaca from the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of France and Spain, and Proceraea hanssoni and Myrianida flava from Washington State, U.S.A. Proceraea madeirensis constitutes a new name for P. fasciata Langerhans, 1879 and 50 new combinations are introduced. Additionally, a number of species-level synonymies are proposed. Phylogenetic name definitions are given in parallel to a Linnean classification. Corresponding author: Arne Nygren, E-mail: arne.nygren@zool.gu.se 
Systematics, Taxonomy
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Amytis Savigny, 1822 accepted as Proceraea Ehlers, 1864 (status source)
Amytis prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) accepted as Proceraea prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) (source of synonymy)
Autolytides Malaquin, 1893 accepted as Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 (source of synonymy)
Autolytinae Langerhans, 1879 (redescription)
Autolytinae incertae sedis (basis of record)
Autolytini Langerhans, 1879 (redescription)
Autolytus Grube, 1850 accepted as Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus (Autolytides) Malaquin, 1893 accepted as Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus (Autolytides) anoplos Monro, 1933 accepted as Proceraea anopla (Monro, 1933) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Autolytides) inermis Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida inermis (Saint Joseph, 1887) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Autolytus) dentalius Imajima, 1966 accepted as Myrianida dentalia (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Autolytus) pentadentatus Imajima, 1966 accepted as Myrianida pentadentata (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Autolytus) spinoculatus Imajima, 1966 accepted as Myrianida spinoculata (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Autolytus) tsugarus Imajima, 1966 accepted as Imajimaea tsugara (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Polybostrichus) triangulifer Grube, 1878 (status source)
Autolytus (Proceraea) ornatus Marion & Bobretzky, 1875 accepted as Myrianida rubropunctata (Grube, 1860) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus (Proceraea) picta Ehlers, 1864 accepted as Proceraea picta Ehlers, 1864 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus (Regulatus) Imajima, 1966 accepted as Proceraea Ehlers, 1864 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus (Regulatus) alternata Imajima & Hartman, 1964 accepted as Epigamia alternata (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Regulatus) boreatus Imajima, 1966 accepted as Proceraea boreata (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Regulatus) charcoti Gravier, 1906 accepted as Epigamia charcoti (Gravier, 1906) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Regulatus) misakiensis Imajima, 1966 accepted as Proceraea misakiensis (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Regulatus) misakiensis longilappetus Imajima, 1966 accepted as Proceraea longilappeta (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Regulatus) mukaishimus Imajima, 1966 accepted as Proceraea mukaishima (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Regulatus) nipponensis Imajima & Hartman, 1964 accepted as Epigamia noroi (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus (Regulatus) penetrans Wright & Woodwick, 1977 accepted as Proceraea penetrans (Wright & Woodwick, 1977) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Regulatus) setoensis Imajima, 1966 accepted as Proceraea setoensis (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Regulatus) usaensis Imajima, 1966 accepted as Epigamia usaensis (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Regulatus) vulgarius Imajima, 1966 accepted as Proceraea vulgaria (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Stephanosyllis) Claparède, 1864 accepted as Proceraea Ehlers, 1864 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus alexandri Malmgren, 1867 accepted as Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (new combination reference)
Autolytus alternata Imajima & Hartman, 1964 accepted as Epigamia alternata (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (new combination reference)
Autolytus arboreus Westheide, 1974 accepted as Myrianida arborea (Westheide, 1974) (new combination reference)
Autolytus benazzii Cognetti, 1953 accepted as Myrianida brachycephala (Marenzeller, 1874) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus bicolor Rullier, 1972 (status source)
Autolytus bidens Treadwell, 1941 accepted as Odontosyllis enopla Verrill, 1900 (additional source)
Autolytus brachycephalus (Marenzeller, 1874) accepted as Myrianida brachycephala (Marenzeller, 1874) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus branchiatus Averincev, 1972 accepted as Virchowia branchiata (Averincev, 1972) (new combination reference)
Autolytus brevicirrata Winternitz, 1936 accepted as Myrianida brevicirrata (Winternitz, 1936) (new combination reference)
Autolytus charcoti Gravier, 1906 accepted as Epigamia charcoti (Gravier, 1906) (new combination reference)
Autolytus convolutus Cognetti, 1953 accepted as Myrianida convoluta (Cognetti, 1953) (new combination reference)
Autolytus dentalius Imajima, 1966 accepted as Myrianida dentalia (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus devaneyi Hartmann-Schröder, 1992 accepted as Myrianida australiensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1982) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus edwardsi Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida edwarsi (Saint Joseph, 1887) (new combination reference)
Autolytus edwarsi Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida edwarsi (Saint Joseph, 1887) (new combination reference)
Autolytus ehbiensis Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida prolifera (O.F. Müller, 1788) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus emertoni Verrill, 1881 (basis of record)
Autolytus fallax Malmgren, 1867 accepted as Proceraea cornuta (Agassiz, 1862) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus fasciatus (Bosc, 1802) accepted as Proceraea fasciata (Bosc, 1802) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus gibber Ehlers, 1897 accepted as Autolytus maclearanus McIntosh, 1885 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus groenlandicus Wesenberg-Lund, 1947 accepted as Autolytus emertoni Verrill, 1881 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus hesperidium Claparède, 1868 accepted as Myrianida hesperidium (Claparède, 1868) (new combination reference)
Autolytus incertus Malmgren, 1867 accepted as Proceraea prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus inermis Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida inermis (Saint Joseph, 1887) (new combination reference)
Autolytus irregularis Imajima & Hartman, 1964 accepted as Myrianida irregularis (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (new combination reference)
Autolytus juventudensis San Martín, 1994 accepted as Myrianida juventudensis (San Martín, 1994) (new combination reference)
Autolytus labordai San Martín & López, 2002 accepted as Epigamia labordai (San Martín & López, 2002) (new combination reference)
Autolytus langerhansi Gidholm, 1967 accepted as Myrianida langerhansi (Gidholm, 1967) (new combination reference)
Autolytus longeferiens Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus longigula Verrill, 1881 accepted as Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus longoprimicirratus López, San Martín & Jiménez, 1997 accepted as Myrianida longoprimicirrata (López, San Martín & Jiménez, 1997) (new combination reference)
Autolytus longstaffi Ehlers, 1912 (status source)
Autolytus lugens Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida quindecimdentata (Langerhans, 1884) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus maclearanus McIntosh, 1885 (additional source)
Autolytus macrophtalmus (Marenzeller, 1875) accepted as Epigamia macrophtalma (Marenzeller, 1875) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus magnus Berkeley, 1923 accepted as Epigamia magna (Berkeley, 1923) (new combination reference)
Autolytus megodon Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Proceraea scapularis (Claparède, 1864) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus mirabilis Verrill, 1882 accepted as Myrianida brachycephala (Marenzeller, 1874) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus multidentatus Hartmann-Schröder, 1959 accepted as Odontosyllis multidentatus (Hartmann-Schröder, 1959) (status source)
Autolytus multidenticulatus Westheide, 1974 accepted as Myrianida multidenticulata (Westheide, 1974) (new combination reference)
Autolytus neapolitanus Cognetti, 1953 (additional source)
Autolytus newtoni Malmgren, 1867 accepted as Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus nipponensis Imajima & Hartman, 1964 accepted as Epigamia noroi (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus noroi Imajima & Hartman, 1964 accepted as Epigamia noroi (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (new combination reference)
Autolytus obliquatus Chamberlin, 1919 (redescription)
Autolytus paradoxus Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus pictus Ehlers, 1864 accepted as Proceraea picta Ehlers, 1864 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus planipalpus Chamberlin, 1919 accepted as Epigamia planipalpa (Chamberlin, 1919) (new combination reference)
Autolytus prismaticus (O.F. Müller, 1776) accepted as Proceraea prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus prolifer (O.F. Müller, 1788) accepted as Myrianida prolifera (O.F. Müller, 1788) (new combination reference)
Autolytus prolifer australiensis Hartmann-Schröder, 1982 accepted as Myrianida australiensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1982) (new combination reference)
Autolytus prolifera (O.F. Müller, 1788) accepted as Myrianida prolifera (O.F. Müller, 1788) (new combination reference)
Autolytus punctatus Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida brachycephala (Marenzeller, 1874) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus quindecemdentatus [auct. misspelling for 'quindecimdentatus'] accepted as Myrianida quindecimdentata (Langerhans, 1884) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus quindecimdentatus Langerhans, 1884 accepted as Myrianida quindecimdentata (Langerhans, 1884) (new combination reference)
Autolytus quinquedecimdentatus [auct. misspelling] accepted as Myrianida quindecimdentata (Langerhans, 1884) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus rangiroaensis Hartmann-Schröder, 1992 accepted as Myrianida rangiroaensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1992) (new combination reference)
Autolytus roseus Claparède, 1864 (status source)
Autolytus rubrolineatus Gildhom, 1967 accepted as Myrianida irregularis (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus rubropunctatus (Grube, 1860) accepted as Myrianida rubropunctata (Grube, 1860) (new combination reference)
Autolytus rubrovittatus Claparède, 1864 (status source)
Autolytus sardai San Martín & Alós, 1987 accepted as Epigamia macrophtalma (Marenzeller, 1875) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus smittiae Malaquin, 1893 (status source)
Autolytus solitarius Webster & Benedict, 1887 (status source)
Autolytus spirifer Augener, 1913 accepted as Virchowia spirifer (Augener, 1913) (new combination reference)
Autolytus syllisetosus Langerhans, 1884 (status source)
Autolytus torquens Chamberlin, 1919 accepted as Autolytus obliquatus Chamberlin, 1919 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus trilineatus Berkeley & Berkeley, 1945 accepted as Proceraea prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus tyrrhenicus Cognetti, 1953 accepted as Myrianida tyrrhenica (Cognetti, 1953) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus usaensis Imajima, 1966 accepted as Epigamia usaensis (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Epigamia charcoti (Gravier, 1906)  (inaccurate)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Epigamia usaensis (Imajima, 1966)  (inaccurate)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Levidorum scotiarum Hartman, 1967  (inaccurate)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Myrianida pulchella Day, 1953  (inaccurate)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Phyllosyllis Ehlers, 1897  (inaccurate)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Phyllosyllis albida Ehlers, 1897  (inaccurate)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Planicirrata Nygren, 2004  (inaccurate)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Planicirrata proceraeae (Hartmann-Schröder & Rosenfeldt, 1990)  (inaccurate)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Proceraea fasciata (Bosc, 1802)  (inaccurate)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Proceraea ornata Verrill, 1873  (inaccurate)
Holotype NHMUK 1932.12.24.106, locality Gorgona Island, identified as Chaunorhynchus crosslandi Monro, 1933
Holotype NHMW 2512, locality Madeiran Exclusive Economic Zone, identified as Proceraea madeirensis Nygren, 2004
Holotype SMNH 5947, locality Gulf of Cadiz, identified as Proceraea pleijeli Nygren, 2004
Holotype SMNH 5948, locality Gulf of Cadiz, identified as Proceraea paraurantiaca Nygren, 2004
Holotype SMNH 5949, locality Washington (State), identified as Proceraea hanssoni Nygren, 2004
Holotype SMNH 5952, locality San Juan Island, identified as Myrianida flava Nygren, 2004
Holotype ZMH P-13620, locality Galapagos, identified as Myrianida arborea (Westheide, 1974)
 Association

The sample that contained the type specimens also contained specimens of Cronoidea, Decapoda and Pennatulacea, and ... [details]

 Classification

According to Nygren (2004) the taxonomic position of this species within the Autolytinae is ambiguous but most ... [details]

 Classification

Procerini is a tribus of the subfamily Autolytinae and is parent taxon of the genera Procerarea, Virchowia, ... [details]

 Classification

Since this species belongs to Myrianida incertae sedis, the original generic name Autolytus (now synonym of ... [details]

 Classification

The genus was previously placed within Autolytinae, however it possibly belongs to an eusyllin taxon [details]

 Classification

The taxonomic position of this species within Autolytinae is ambiguous; thus, even tough the name Autolytus is ... [details]

 Classification

The taxonomic position of this species within Autolytinae is ambiguous; thus, even tough the name Autolytus is ... [details]

 Depth range

0-1 m. [details]

 Depth range

0-20 m. [details]

 Depth range

1 m. [details]

 Depth range

1 m. [details]

 Depth range

1-150 m. [details]

 Depth range

1-2 m. [details]

 Depth range

140 m. [details]

 Depth range

40 m. [details]

 Depth range

40-50 m. Unknown in the original description, found inside a fish basket. [details]

 Depth range

Fom shallow waters to 40 m, most common from 0-5 m.  [details]

 Depth range

From intertidal (USA) to subtidal (Japan and Atlantic).  [details]

 Depth range

From low intertidal to 10 m.  [details]

 Depth range

From low intertidal to subtidal.  [details]

 Depth range

From low intertidal, but mostly subtidal.  [details]

 Depth range

From low intertidal, but mostly subtidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal and shallow waters.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal and subtidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal to 12 m.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal to 140 meters. [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal to 30 m. [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal to 40 m. [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Littoral to 56 m.  [details]

 Depth range

Mostly intertidal.  [details]

 Depth range

Shallow waters to about 10 m.  [details]

 Depth range

Shallow waters, 0-10 m.  [details]

 Depth range

Shallow waters, 1-30 m.  [details]

 Depth range

Shalow water (known from 1 m depth).  [details]

 Depth range

Sublittoral.  [details]

 Depth range

Sublittoral.  [details]

 Depth range

Sublittoral.  [details]

 Depth range

Subtidal.  [details]

 Diagnosis

Epigamia with long nuchal epaulettes; ciliation as 2 trochs per segment; long compound blades; trepan with 36 ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Epigamia with long nuchal epaulettes; compounds with long blades; trepan with teeth in 3 sizes, 1 large alternating ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Epigamia with very large eyes, dorsal cirri from chaetiger 3 flattened and filled with "empty" glands, and a trepan ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Epigamia with a DDU-group posterior to chaetiger 27, a much convoluted pharynx, and a trepan with 1 large tooth ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Epigamia with long alternating dorsal cirri and a trepan consisting of 27 teeth, 1 large alternating with 2 smaller ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Epigamia with a trepan of 27 teeth, 1 large alternating with 2 smaller in 2 rings, in addition small spines at the ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Epigamia with bright yellow middorsal line; trepan with 27 teeth, 1 large alternating with 2 smaller in 2 rings, ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with characteristic trepan: 2 large teeth laterally positioned with 7-10 dorsal teeth, and 14-17 ventral ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with spectacular coloration, yellowish to orange with blue spots, and blue appendages; trepan with c. 11 ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with 40 unequal teeth in trepan, 1 large alternating with 1 much smaller.  [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with unique trepan, 4-5 large teeth and 25-39 smaller, 1 large alternating with 4-13 smaller, large teeth ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with extension of nuchal epaulettes to end of chaetiger 2; cirrostyles much flattened.  [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with 24-33 equal teeth in trepan, and a well-developed basal ring with infradental spines; cirrophores ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with hyaline inclusions in all appendages, trepan with 33-43 equal teeth.  [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with dictinctly flattened dorsal cirrostyles; colour of live specimens white with orange to red dorsal ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with brilliant white median antenna and anal cirri; trepan with 16-18 equal teeth.  [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with five teeth in trepan, long sinuation past small proventricle, with 7-8 rows of muscle cells; ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with 4 dorsal red spots on each segment.  [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with unique trepan: 56-65 unequal teeth in several sizes, arranged in 9 groups with c. 6-8 unequal teeth ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with saffron-yellow colour; long alternating dorsal cirri with equal cirrophores, and unequal ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Myrianida with c. 20 equal teeth; nuchal epaulettes extending over chaetiger 2; equal cirri with equal cirrophores ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Proceraea with characteristic colour markings in red and black; nuchal epaulettes reaching end of chaetiger 2; ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Proceraea with 2 longitudinal lines; trepan with 18 large and 9 smaller teeth; arranged in 2 rings.  [details]

 Diagnosis

Proceraea with 2 indistinct longitudinal black lines along the sides.  [details]

 Diagnosis

Proceraea with 9 large teeth alternating with 18 smaller in 2 rings, small teeth fused for half their length.  [details]

 Diagnosis

Epigamous male with distinctly flattened basal part on bifid antennae.  [details]

 Diagnosis

Large orange Epigamia with c. 40-50 equal teeth; large equal cirrophores, long unequal dorsal cirrostyles; large ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Orange-greenish with brilliant orange proventricle, parapodial bases with one red spot; pharynx often sinuated like ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Procerini with flattened lanceolate cirrostyles.  [details]

 Diet

Feeds on Tubularia larynx, T. indivisa, T. crocea and Syncoryne eximia.  [details]

 Diet

Feeds on hydroids like Laomedea geniculata, L. longissima, and Lafoea sp. (Gidholm, 1967).  [details]

 Diet

Observed to feed on Laomedea geniculata, L. flabbelata, and L. longissima (Okada, 1929; Gidholm, 1967).  [details]