WoRMS source details

Zenetos, A., Gofas, S., Morri, C., Rosso, A, Violanti, D., Garcia Raso, J. E., Cinar, M. E., Almogi-Labin, A., Ates, A. S., Azzurro, E., Ballesteros, E., Bianchi, C. N., Bilecenoglu, M., Gambi, M. C., Giangrande, A., Gravili, C., Hyams-Kaphzan, O., Karachle, P. K., Katsanevakis, S., Lipej, L., Mastrototaro, F., Mineur, F., Pancucci-Papadopoulou, M. A., Ramos Espla, A., Salas, C., San Martin, G., Sfriso, A., Streftaris, N., and Verlaque, M. (2012). Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2012. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part 2. Introduction trends and pathways. Mediterranean Marine Science. 13(2): 328-352.
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Zenetos, A., Gofas, S., Morri, C., Rosso, A, Violanti, D., Garcia Raso, J. E., Cinar, M. E., Almogi-Labin, A., Ates, A. S., Azzurro, E., Ballesteros, E., Bianchi, C. N., Bilecenoglu, M., Gambi, M. C., Giangrande, A., Gravili, C., Hyams-Kaphzan, O., Karachle, P. K., Katsanevakis, S., Lipej, L., Mastrototaro, F., Mineur, F., Pancucci-Papadopoulou, M. A., Ramos Espla, A., Salas, C., San Martin, G., Sfriso, A., Streftaris, N., and Verlaque, M.
2012
Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2012. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part 2. Introduction trends and pathways
Mediterranean Marine Science
13(2): 328-352
Publication
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
More than 60 marine non-indigenous species (NIS) have been removed from previous lists and 84 species have been added, bringing the total to 986 alien species in the Mediterranean [775 in the eastern Mediterranean (EMED), 249 in the central Mediter-ranean (CMED), 190 in the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA) and 308 in the western Mediterranean (WMED)]. There were 48 new entries since 2011 which can be interpreted as approximately one new entry every two weeks. The number of alien species continues to increase, by 2-3 species per year for macrophytes, molluscs and polychaetes, 3-4 species per year for crustaceans, and 6 species per year for fish. The dominant group among alien species is molluscs (with 215 species), followed by crustaceans (159) and poly-chaetes (132). Macrophytes are the leading group of NIS in the ADRIA and the WMED, reaching 26-30% of all aliens, whereas in the EMED they barely constitute 10% of the introductions. In the EMED, molluscs are the most species-rich group, followed by crustaceans, fish and polychaetes. More than half (54%) of the marine alien species in the Mediterranean were probably introduced by corridors (mainly Suez). Shipping is blamed directly for the introduction of only 12 species, whereas it is assumed to be the most likely pathway of introduction (via ballasts or fouling) of another 300 species. For approximately 100 species shipping is a probable pathway along with the Suez Canal and/or aquaculture. Approximately 20 species have been introduced with certainty via aquaculture, while >50 species (mostly macroalgae), occurring in the vicinity of oyster farms, are assumed to be introduced accidentally as contaminants of imported species. A total of 18 species are assumed to have been introduced by the aquarium trade. Lessepsian species decline westwards, while the reverse pattern is evident for ship-mediated species and for those introduced with aquaculture. There is an increasing trend in new introductions via the Suez Canal and via shipping.
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Date
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2015-02-03 02:27:18Z
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2016-02-04 20:58:27Z
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Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAequorea globosa Eschscholtz, 1829 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArhynchite arhynchite (Ikeda, 1924) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArtemia franciscana Kellog, 1906 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArticulina mayori Cushman, 1922 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArticulina pacifica Cushman, 1944 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAscophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, 1863 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCaligus fugu Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCaligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCampanularia morgansi Millard, 1957 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCatenicella paradoxa Rosso, 2009 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCelleporaria fusca (Busk, 1854) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChaetodon austriacus Rüppell, 1836 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChaetodon larvatus Cuvier, 1831 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChampsodon capensis Regan, 1908 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCibicides mabahethi Said, 1949 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCodium arabicum Kützing, 1856 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCoscinospira acicularis (Batsch, 1791) represented as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpirolina acicularis (Batsch, 1791) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMonalysidium acicularis (Batsch, 1791) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCycloforina quinquecarinata (Collins, 1958) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDidemnum vexillum Kott, 2002 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorElamena mathoei (Desmarest, 1823) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEpinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål, 1775) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEpinephelus merra Bloch, 1793 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEpistomaroides punctatus (Said, 1949) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEpistomaroides punctulata (d'Orbigny, 1826) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEquulites elongatus (Günther, 1874) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEucheilota ventricularis McCrady, 1859 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorFabienna oligonema (Kramp, 1955) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaliscera bigelowi Kramp, 1947 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHalitiara inflexa Bouillon, 1980 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHippopodina iririkiensis Tilbrook, 1999 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHolacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLagena oceanica Albani, 1974 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorProcerolagena oceanica (Albani, 1974) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLaonice norgensis Sikorski, 2003 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLernanthropus callionymicola El-Rashidy & Boxshall, 2012 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLoxostomina costulata (Cushman, 1922) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLysmata kempi Chace, 1997 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMicroporella browni Harmelin, Ostrovsky, Cáceres-Chamizo & Sanner, 2011 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMicroporella genisii (Audouin, 1826) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMicroporella harmeri Hayward, 1988 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMicrospongium globosum Reinke, 1888 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMimachlamys sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNephasoma (Nephasoma) eremita (Sars, 1851) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOchetostoma erythrogrammon Rüppell & Leuckart, 1828 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOstracion cubicus Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPalaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPalisada maris-rubri (K.W.Nam & Saito) K.W.Nam, 2007 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParanthias furcifer (Valenciennes, 1828) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPararotalia spinigera Loeblich & Tappan, 1957 (ex. Le Calvez, 1949) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParasmittina protecta (Thornely, 1905) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParatrochammina madeirae Brönniman, 1979 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPerkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyllodoce longifrons Ben-Eliahu, 1972 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlanispirinella exigua (Brady, 1879) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPseudodiaptomus marinus Sato, 1913 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPseudohauerinella dissidens (McCulloch, 1977) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPseudomassilina australis (Cushman, 1932) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPseudotriloculina subgranulata (Cushman, 1918) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorQuinqueloculina milletti (Wiesner, 1923) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAdelosina milletti Wiesner, 1923 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorScatophagus argus (Linnaeus, 1766) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorScorpiodinipora costulata (Canu & Bassler, 1929) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSeptloculina rotunda El Nakhal, 1990 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSeptloculina tortuosa El Nakhal, 1990 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSerpula hartmanae Reish, 1968 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSigmoihauerina bradyi (Cushman, 1917) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSiphonaperta distorqueata (Cushman, 1954) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSiphonaperta pittensis (Albani, 1974) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSphaerocoryne bedoti Pictet, 1893 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpiophanes algidus Meißner, 2005 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpiroloculina attenuata Cushman & Todd, 1944 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNaxotia attenuata (Cushman & Todd, 1944) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpiroloculina nummiformis Said, 1949 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpurilla major (Eliot, 1903) accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBaeolidia moebii Bergh, 1888 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStolephorus insularis Hardenberg, 1933 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStylarioides grubei Salazar-Vallejo, 2011 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSynanceia verrucosa Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTaeniacanthus lagocephali Pearse, 1952 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTeredothyra dominicensis (Bartsch, 1921) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTretomphaloides clara (Cushman, 1934) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTriloculina asymmetrica Said, 1949 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTriloculinella asymmetrica (Said, 1949) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorUronema marinum Womersley, 1984 (additional source)
Mediterranean Sea Area for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCodium arabicum Kützing, 1856  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea Area for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMicrospongium globosum Reinke, 1888  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea Area for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOsmundea oederi (Gunnerus) G.Furnari, 2008  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea Area for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPalisada maris-rubri (K.W.Nam & Saito) K.W.Nam, 2007  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea Area for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSolieria J.Agardh, 1842  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea Area for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorUronema marinum Womersley, 1984  (origin: alien)