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Phillips, L.M., R.I. Leihy & S.L. Chown. (2022). Improving species‐based area protection in Antarctica. Conservation Biology. 36(4): e13885.Aug 2022.
10.1111/cobi.13885 [view]
Phillips, L.M., R.I. Leihy & S.L. Chown
Improving species‐based area protection in Antarctica.
Conservation Biology
36(4): e13885.Aug 2022
Area protection is a major mechanism deployed for environmental conservation in Antarctica. Yet, the Antarctic protected areas network is widely acknowledged as inadequate, in part because the criteria for area protection south of 60°S are not fully applied. The most poorly explored of these criteria is the type locality of species, which provides the primary legal means for Antarctic species-based area protection and a method for conserving species even if little is known about their habitat or distribution. The type locality criterion has not been systematically assessed since its incorporation into the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty in 1991, so the extent to which the criterion is being met or might be useful for area protection is largely unknown. To address the matter, we created and analyzed a comprehensive database of Antarctic type localities of terrestrial and lacustrine lichens, plants, and animals. We compiled the database via a literature search of key taxonomic and geographic terms and then analyzed the distance between type localities identifiable to a ≤ 25km2 resolution and current Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs) and human infrastructure. We used a distance-clustering approach for localities outside current ASPAs to determine candidate protected areas that could contain these unprotected localities. Of the 386 type localities analyzed, 108 were within or overlapped current ASPAs. Inclusion of the remaining 278 type localities in the ASPA network would require the designation of a further 105 protected areas. Twenty-four of these areas included human infrastructure disturbance. Given the slow rate of ASPA designation, growing pace of human impacts on the continent, and the management burden associated with ASPAs, we propose ways in which the type locality criterion might best be deployed. These include a comprehensive, systematic conservation planning approach and an alternative emphasis on the habitat of species, rather than on a single locality.
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2022-08-01 13:49:12Z
2023-04-03 13:43:15Z

Adropion greveni (Dastych, 1984) (additional source)
Aphelenchoides vaughani Maslen, 1979 (additional source)
Aphrodroma brevirostris (Lesson, 1831) (additional source)
Aptenodytes forsteri Gray, 1844 (additional source)
Aptenodytes patagonicus Miller, 1778 (additional source)
Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875) (additional source)
Austroplaca cirrochrooides (Vain.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup (additional source)
Austroplaca lucens (Nyl.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup, 2013 (additional source)
Barbaria jenningsi (Dastych, 1984) (basis of record)
Belgica antarctica Jacobs, 1900 (additional source)
Caloplaca sublobulata (Nyl.) Zahlbr., 1931 accepted as Gondwania sublobulata (Nyl.) S.Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, Elix, A. Thell, J. Kim, M.-H. Jeong, N.-N. Yu, A.S. Kondratiuk & J.-S. Hur, in Kondratyuk, Kärnefelt, Thell, Elix, Kim, Jeong, Yu & Hur, 2014 (additional source)
Chionis albus Gmelin, 1789 (additional source)
Daption capense (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Dastychius improvisus (Dastych, 1984) (additional source)
Diomedea antipodensis Robertson & Warham, 1992 (additional source)
Diomedea epomophora Lesson, 1825 (additional source)
Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Diomedea sanfordi Murphy, 1917 (additional source)
Drepanopus bispinosus Bayly, 1982 (additional source)
Eucypris fontana (Graf, 1931) accepted as Cypridopsis silvestrii (Daday, 1902) (additional source)
Eudyptes chrysocome (Forster, 1781) (additional source)
Eudyptes chrysolophus (Brandt, 1837) (additional source)
Eupodes minutus (Strandtmann, 1967) (additional source)
Fregetta tropica (Gould, 1844) (additional source)
Fulmarus glacialoides (Smith, 1840) (additional source)
Gamasellus racovitzai (Trouessart, 1903) (additional source)
Garrodia nereis (Gould, 1841) (additional source)
Geomonhystera villosa (Bütschli, 1873) Andrássy, 1981 (additional source)
Grevenius asper (Murray, 1906) (basis of record)
Halobaena caerulea (Gmelin, 1789) (additional source)
Harpacticus furcatus Lang, 1936 represented as Harpacticus furcatus furcatus Lang, 1936 (additional source)
Hebesuncus schusteri (Dastych, 1984) (additional source)
Hydrurga leptonyx (Blainville, 1820) (additional source)
Laimaphelenchus helicosoma (Maslen, 1979) Peneva & Chipev, 1999 (additional source)
Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (additional source)
Leptonychotes weddellii (Lesson, 1826) (additional source)
Leucocarbo atriceps (King, 1828) (additional source)
Leucocarbo bransfieldensis (Murphy, 1936) (additional source)
Leucocarbo georgianus (Lönnberg, 1906) (additional source)
Lobodon carcinophaga (Hombrot & Jacquinot, 1842) accepted as Lobodon carcinophagus (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1842) (additional source)
Macronectes giganteus (Gmelin, 1789) (additional source)
Macronectes halli Mathews, 1912 (additional source)
Mesobiotus blocki (Dastych, 1984) (additional source)
Mesobiotus furciger (Murray, 1907) (additional source)
Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Neocypridopsis frigogena (Graf, 1931) (additional source)
Neohyadesia signyi Hughes & Goodman, 1969 (additional source)
Notahypsibius arcticus (Murray, 1907) (basis of record)
Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl, 1820) (additional source)
Ommatophoca rossii Gray, 1844 (additional source)
Pachyptila belcheri (Mathews, 1912) (additional source)
Pachyptila desolata (Gmelin, 1789) (additional source)
Pagodroma nivea (Forster, 1777) (additional source)
Panagrolaimus davidi Timm, 1971 (additional source)
Pelecanoides georgicus Murphy & Harper, 1916 (additional source)
Pelecanoides urinatrix (Gmelin, 1789) (additional source)
Phoebetria fusca (Hilsenberg, 1822) (additional source)
Phoebetria palpebrata (Forster, 1785) (additional source)
Plectus antarcticus de Man, 1904 (additional source)
Plectus frigophilus Kirjanova, 1958 (additional source)
Procellaria aequinoctialis Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Procellaria cinerea Gmelin, 1789 (additional source)
Pseudechiniscus suillus (Ehrenberg, 1853) represented as Pseudechiniscus (Pseudechiniscus) suillus (Ehrenberg, 1853) (additional source)
Pterodroma inexpectata (Forster, 1844) (additional source)
Pterodroma lessonii (Garnot, 1826) (additional source)
Pterodroma mollis (Gould, 1844) (additional source)
Puffinus gravis (O'Reilly, 1818) (additional source)
Puffinus griseus (Gmelin, 1789) (additional source)
Puffinus tenuirostris (Temminck, 1835) (additional source)
Pygoscelis adeliae (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841) (additional source)
Pygoscelis antarcticus (Forster, 1781) (additional source)
Pygoscelis papua (Forster, 1781) (additional source)
Stercorarius antarcticus (Lesson, 1831) (additional source)
Stercorarius maccormicki Saunders, 1893 (additional source)
Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan, 1763 (additional source)
Sterna vittata Gmelin, 1789 (additional source)
Teratocephalus pseudolirellus Maslen, 1979 (additional source)
Teratocephalus rugosus Maslen, 1979 (additional source)
Teratocephalus tilbrooki Maslen, 1979 (additional source)
Thalassarche chrysostoma (Forster, 1785) (additional source)
Thalassarche impavida Mathews, 1912 (additional source)
Thalassarche melanophris (Temminck, 1828) (additional source)
Thalassarche salvini (Rothschild, 1893) (additional source)
Thalassoica antarctica (Gmelin, 1789) (additional source)

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