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W├Ârheide, G.; Dohrmann, M.; Erpenbeck, D.; Larroux, C.; Maldonado, M.; Voigt, O.; Borchiellini, C.; Lavrov, D.V. (2012). Deep phylogeny and evolution of sponges (phylum Porifera). In: Becerro MA, Uriz MJ, Maldonado M, Turon X (eds) Advances in Sponge Science: Phylogeny, Systematics, Ecology. Advances in Marine Biology. 61: 1-78.
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Wörheide, G.; Dohrmann, M.; Erpenbeck, D.; Larroux, C.; Maldonado, M.; Voigt, O.; Borchiellini, C.; Lavrov, D.V.
2012
Deep phylogeny and evolution of sponges (phylum Porifera). <i>In</i>: Becerro MA, Uriz MJ, Maldonado M, Turon X (eds) Advances in Sponge Science: Phylogeny, Systematics, Ecology.
Advances in Marine Biology
61: 1-78
Publication
Proceedings of the 8th International Sponge Conference (not part of the main volume, but published in addition to the proceedings)
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
Sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse taxon of benthic aquatic animals of great ecological, commercial, and biopharmaceutical importance. They are arguably the earliest-branching metazoan taxon, and therefore, they have great significance in the reconstruction of early metazoan evolution. Yet, the phylogeny and systematics of sponges are to some extent still unresolved, and there is an on-going debate about the exact branching pattern of their main clades and their relationships to the other non-bilaterian animals. Here, we review the current state of the deep phylogeny of sponges. Several studies have suggested that sponges are paraphyletic. However, based on recent phylogenomic analyses, we suggest that the phylum Porifera could well be monophyletic, in accordance with cladistic analyses based on morphology. This finding has many implications for the evolutionary interpretation of early animal traits and sponge development. We further review the contribution that mitochondrial genes and genomes have made to sponge phylogenetics and explore the current state of the molecular phylogenies of the four main sponge lineages (Classes), that is, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, Calcarea, and Homoscleromorpha, in detail. While classical systematic systems are lar- gely congruent with molecular phylogenies in the class Hexactinellida and in certain parts of Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha, the high degree of incongruence in the class Calcarea still represents a challenge. We highlight future areas of research to fill existing gaps in our knowledge. By reviewing sponge development in an evolutionary and phylogenetic context, we support previous suggestions that sponge larvae share traits and complexity with eumetazoans and that the simple sedentary adult lifestyle of sponges probably reflects some degree of secondary simplification. In summary, while deep sponge phylogenetics has made many advances in the past years, considerable efforts are still required to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the relationships among and within the main sponge lineages to fully appreciate the evolution of this extraordinary metazoan phylum.
Phylogeny, Phylogenesis
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2017-08-27 02:24:34Z
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