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Hestetun, J.T.; Vacelet, J.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Borchiellini, C.; Kelly, M.; Ríos P.; Cristobo, J.; Rapp, H.T. (2016). The systematics of carnivorous sponges. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 94, 327–345.
10.1016/j.ympev.2015.08.022 [view]
Hestetun, J.T.; Vacelet, J.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Borchiellini, C.; Kelly, M.; Ríos P.; Cristobo, J.; Rapp, H.T.
The systematics of carnivorous sponges
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
94, 327–345
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Carnivorous sponges are characterized by their unique method of capturing mesoplanktonic prey coupled with the complete or partial reduction of the aquiferous system characteristic of the phylum Porifera. Current systematics place the vast majority of carnivorous sponges within Cladorhizidae, with certain species assigned to Guitarridae and Esperiopsidae. Morphological characters have not been able to show whether this classification is evolutionary accurate, and whether carnivory has evolved once or in several lineages. In the present paper we present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the carnivorous sponges, interpret these results in conjunction with morphological characters, and propose a revised classification of the group. Molecular phylogenies were inferred using 18S rDNA and a combined dataset of partial 28S rDNA, COI and ALG11 sequences. The results recovered carnivorous sponges as a clade closely related to the families Mycalidae and Guitarridae, showing family Cladorhizidae to be monophyletic and also including carnivorous species currently placed in other families. The genus Lycopodina is resurrected or species currently placed in the paraphyletic subgenus Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) featuring forceps spicules and lacking sigmas or sigmancistras. The genera Chondrocladia and Cladorhiza are found to be monophyletic. However, results indicate that the subgenus Chondrocladia is polyphyletic with respect to the subgenera Meliiderma and Symmetrocladia. Euchelipluma, formerly Guitarridae, is retained, but transferred to Cladorhizidae. The four known carnivorous species currently in Esperiopsis are transferred to Abyssocladia. Neocladia is a junior homonym and is here renamed Koltunicladia. Our results provide strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that carnivory in sponges has evolved only once. While spicule characters mostly reflect monophyletic groups at the generic level, differences between genera represent evolution within family Cladorhizidae rather than evolution of carnivory in separate lineages. Conflicting spicule characters can be reinterpreted to support the inclusion of all carnivorous sponges within Cladorhizidae, and a carnivorous habit should thus be considered the main diagnostic character in systematic classification.
Systematics, Taxonomy
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2015-11-11 09:01:57Z
2017-12-15 10:08:33Z
2018-01-02 15:07:14Z

Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) symmetrica (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) accepted as Abyssocladia symmetrica (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (source of synonymy)
Esperiopsis desmophora Hooper & Lévi, 1989 accepted as Abyssocladia desmophora (Hooper & Lévi, 1989) (source of synonymy)
Esperiopsis flagrum Lehnert, Stone & Heimler, 2006 accepted as Abyssocladia flagrum (Lehnert, Stone & Heimler, 2006) (source of synonymy)
Esperiopsis koltuni Ereskovsky & Willenz, 2007 accepted as Abyssocladia koltuni (Ereskovsky & Willenz, 2007) (source of synonymy)
Esperiopsis symmetrica Ridley & Dendy, 1886 accepted as Abyssocladia symmetrica (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (source of synonymy)
Euchelipluma Topsent, 1909 (basis of record)
Euchelipluma elongata Lehnert, Stone & Heimler, 2006 (basis of record)
Euchelipluma pristina Topsent, 1909 (basis of record)
Koltunicladia Hestetun, Vacelet, Boury-Esnault, Borchiellini, Kelly, Rios, Cristobo & Rapp, 2016 (original description)
Koltunicladia flabelliformis (Koltun, 1970) (basis of record)
Lycopodina Lundbeck, 1905 (basis of record)
Lycopodina bilamellata (Lévi, 1993) (basis of record)
Lycopodina callithrix (Hentschel, 1914) (basis of record)
Lycopodina calyx (Hentschel, 1914) (basis of record)
Lycopodina comata (Lundbeck, 1905) (basis of record)
Lycopodina ecoprof (Lopes & Hajdu, 2014) (basis of record)
Lycopodina globularis (Lévi, 1964) (basis of record)
Lycopodina gracilis (Koltun, 1955) (basis of record)
Lycopodina hadalis (Lévi, 1964) (basis of record)
Lycopodina hydra (Lundbeck, 1905) (basis of record)
Lycopodina hypogea (Vacelet & Boury-Esnault, 1996) (basis of record)
Lycopodina infundibulum (Levinsen, 1887) (basis of record)
Lycopodina lebedi (Koltun, 1962) (basis of record)
Lycopodina lycopodium (Levinsen, 1887) (basis of record)
Lycopodina microstrongyla (Lopes, Bravo & Hajdu, 2011) (basis of record)
Lycopodina minuta (Lambe, 1900) (basis of record)
Lycopodina occidentalis (Lambe, 1893) (basis of record)
Lycopodina parvula (Hestetun, Fourt, Vacelet, Boury-Esnault & Rapp, 2015) (basis of record)
Lycopodina rastrichela (Hestetun, Fourt, Vacelet, Boury-Esnault & Rapp, 2015) (basis of record)
Lycopodina robusta (Levinsen, 1887) (basis of record)
Lycopodina vaceleti (van Soest & Baker, 2011) (basis of record)
Lycopodina versatilis (Topsent, 1890) (basis of record)

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