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HABs taxon details

Pyrodinium bahamense Plate, 1906

231886  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:231886)

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Plate L. 1906. <i>Pyrodinium bahamense</i> n.g., n. sp. die Leucht-Peridinee des „Feuersees“ von Nassau, Bahamas. Arch. Protistenk. 7: 411-429.. [details]   
Note Fuego Lagoon or Waterloo, New Providence,...  
From regional or thematic species database
Type locality Fuego Lagoon or Waterloo, New Providence, Nassau (Bahamas) [details]
Distribution P. bahamense is a warm water species. It was reported in the Pacific coast of tropical America from South Mexico to Ecuador...  
Distribution P. bahamense is a warm water species. It was reported in the Pacific coast of tropical America from South Mexico to Ecuador and in the Caribbean Sea, and in SE Asia, (Philippines, Indonesia…). Their cysts were recorded in other tropical areas. [details]

Harmful effect Pyrodinium bahamense is highly toxic producer of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) which has caused numerous deaths of...  
Harmful effect Pyrodinium bahamense is highly toxic producer of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) which has caused numerous deaths of shellfish consumers in different parts of the world. In the Palau Islands, Pyrodinium bahamense cells were collected and analyzed in 1981 (Harada et al., 1982). They contained STX, NEO, GTX5 and two unidentified compounds called PBT1 and PBT2. Contaminated shellfish (Spondylus butleri, Tridacna crocea, Septifer bilocularis) contained the same toxins as well as GTX3 or GTX5 according to the different species. Major toxins produced by P. bahamense are generally STX, dcSTX and GTX5 (Gedaria et al., 2007). They are found in mussels, oysters, scallops, clams but also in the gills of herbivorous fish. However, in a Malaysian strain, toxins detected were STX, Neo-STX, GTX5, 6 and dcSTX (Usup et al., 1995). [details]

Identification Pyrodinium bahamense is easy to identify by LM as it has a unique morphology. Two varieties were recognized in the past,...  
Identification Pyrodinium bahamense is easy to identify by LM as it has a unique morphology. Two varieties were recognized in the past, but recent work concludes they cannot be distinguished based on morphology or toxin production. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic analysis using partial LSU rDNA sequence data revealed two clearly separated ribotypes within the Pyrodinium clade, an Indo-Pacific and Atlantic-Caribbean ribotype, suggesting that Pyrodinium bahamense is a species complex. [details]

Verified sequences Strain IRL (Landsberg et al. 2006):
LSU rDNA AB970715  
Verified sequences Strain IRL (Landsberg et al. 2006):
LSU rDNA AB970715 [details]
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2024). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Pyrodinium bahamense Plate, 1906. Accessed through: Lundholm, N.; Churro, C.; Escalera, L.; Fraga, S.; Hoppenrath, M.; Iwataki, M.; Larsen, J.; Mertens, K.; Moestrup, Ø.; Murray, S.; Tillmann, U.; Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards) IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae at: https://www.marinespecies.org/hab/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=231886 on 2024-02-28
Lundholm, N.; Churro, C.; Escalera, L.; Fraga, S.; Hoppenrath, M.; Iwataki, M.; Larsen, J.; Mertens, K.; Moestrup, Ø.; Murray, S.; Tillmann, U.; Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae. Pyrodinium bahamense Plate, 1906. Accessed at: https://www.marinespecies.org/hab/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=231886 on 2024-02-28
Date
action
by
2006-07-13 10:06:39Z
created
2006-07-27 06:59:07Z
changed
Camba Reu, Cibran
2007-10-17 15:07:21Z
changed
db_admin
2008-09-09 10:27:16Z
changed
2008-11-21 08:21:07Z
changed
2010-10-27 09:50:34Z
changed
2015-06-26 12:00:51Z
changed

original description Plate L. 1906. <i>Pyrodinium bahamense</i> n.g., n. sp. die Leucht-Peridinee des „Feuersees“ von Nassau, Bahamas. Arch. Protistenk. 7: 411-429.. [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245., available online at http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

context source (Bermuda) Wall, D.; Dale, B. (1969). The “Hystrichosphaerid” resting spore of the Dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense, 1906. Journal of Phycology, 5(2): 140-149 [details]   

basis of record Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world's oceans. <em>Acta Bot. Croat.</em> 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2023). AlgaeBase. <em>World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.</em> searched on YYYY-MM-DD., available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source Steidinger, K. A., M. A. Faust, and D. U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 131–154 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College [details]   

additional source Böhm A. 1931. Peridineen aus dem Persischen Gulf und dem Golf von Oman. Arch Protistenk. 74: 188-197. [details]   

additional source Zenetos, A.; Çinar, M.E.; Pancucci-Papadopoulou, M.A.; Harmelin, J.-G.; Furnari, G.; Andaloro, F.; Bellou, N.; Streftaris, N.; Zibrowius, H. (2005). Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species. <em>Mediterranean Marine Science.</em> 6 (2): 63-118., available online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273213810_Annotated_list_of_marine_alien_species_in_the_Mediterranean_with_records_of_the_worst_invasive_species [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source Landsberg, J. H.; Hall, S.; Johannessen, J. N.; White, K. D.; Conrad, S. M.; Abbott, J. P.; Flewelling, L. J.; Richardson, R. W.; Dickey, R. W.; Jester, E. L.; Etheridge, S. M.; Deeds, J. R.; Van Dolah, F. M.; Leighfield, T. A.; Zou, Y.; Beaudry, C. G.; Benner, R. A.; Rogers, P. L.; Scott, P. S.; Kawabata, K.; Wolny, J. L.; Steidinger, K. A. (2006). Saxitoxin puffer fish Poisoning in the United States, with the first report of <i>Pyrodinium bahamense</i> as the putative toxin source. <em>Environmental Health Perspectives.</em> 114(10): 1502-1507., available online at https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8998 [details]   

source of synonymy Mertens, K. N.; Wolny, J.; Carbonell-Moore, C.; Bogus, K.; Ellegaard, M.; Limoges, A.; De Vernal, A.; Gurdebeke, P.; Omura, T.; Al-Muftah, A.; Matsuoka, K. (2015). Taxonomic re-examination of the toxic armored dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense Plate 1906: Can morphology or LSU sequencing separate P. bahamense var. compressum from var. bahamense?. <em>Harmful Algae.</em> 41: 1-24., available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2014.09.010 [details]   

source of synonymy Balech, E. 1985. A revision of <i>Pyrodinium bahamense</i> Plate (Dinoflagellata). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 45:17-34. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

new combination reference Steidinger K.A., Tester L.S. & Taylor F.J.R. 1980. A redescription of <i>Pyrodinium bahamense</i> var. <i>compressa</i> (Böhm) stat. nov. from Pacific red tides. Phycologia 19: 329-334. [details]   

toxicology source Harada T., Oshima Y., Kamiya H. & Yasumoto T. 1982. Confirmation of paralytic shellfish toxins in the dinoflagellate <i>Pyrodinium bahamense</i> var. <i>compressa</i> and bivalves in Palau. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48: 821-825. [details]  OpenAccess publication 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
   

From regional or thematic species database
Description The Kofoidian plate formula of P. bahamense is Po, pc, 4', 0a, 6'' , 6c, 5 + ?s, 5''', 2''''. Cells are usually subspherical to laterally ellipsoidal, covered with thecal plates and ornamented with apical projection or node and anterior projection. Major thecal plates are thick with many tiny knobs that are evenly distributed on the plates. Trichocyst pores are also numerous and clearly visible and sometimes distributed along the sutures. Cingular lists are well developed without ribs. Sulcal fins are prominent on both sides of the sulcal region and sometimes cover most parts of the sulcus. Tiny knobs are present on cingular lists and sulcal fins. An apical projection is formed from the extension of sutures around the apical pore plates although the extension of the suture can be very variable from almost no extension (just a node) to five times the height of the suture. The apical pore plate is circular-triangular and contacts with plates 2', 3' and 4'', and comma-shaped dorsio-ventrally accompanied by a small pore the shape of which is variable. The 1' is irregularly rhomboidal, smallest among the apical plates and not directly in contact with the apical pore plate. The suture between the 1' and 4' is sometimes incompletely developed near the apical pore plate. A small ventral pore is present near the left anterior part of the 4' plate. Around the apical pore plate, sutures extend to the anterior, forming a structure like a short and wide cylinder or a shallow and wide hole. At the posterior end of the vegetative cell, two projections develop. The left projection is always larger and taller than the right, and sometimes ornamented with a membrane rising up from sutures. However, the length and width of these projections can be variable with chain formation. The large posterior sulcal plate (S.p.) is irregularly quadrangular in shape and sometimes has small posterior connecting pores on the left side. The sulcal sinisteral anterior plate (S.s.a.) and the first postcingular plate are clearly separated by a well-developed suture, similar to those seen in other plate boundaries.  [details]

Distribution P. bahamense is a warm water species. It was reported in the Pacific coast of tropical America from South Mexico to Ecuador and in the Caribbean Sea, and in SE Asia, (Philippines, Indonesia…). Their cysts were recorded in other tropical areas. [details]

Harmful effect Pyrodinium bahamense is highly toxic producer of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) which has caused numerous deaths of shellfish consumers in different parts of the world. In the Palau Islands, Pyrodinium bahamense cells were collected and analyzed in 1981 (Harada et al., 1982). They contained STX, NEO, GTX5 and two unidentified compounds called PBT1 and PBT2. Contaminated shellfish (Spondylus butleri, Tridacna crocea, Septifer bilocularis) contained the same toxins as well as GTX3 or GTX5 according to the different species. Major toxins produced by P. bahamense are generally STX, dcSTX and GTX5 (Gedaria et al., 2007). They are found in mussels, oysters, scallops, clams but also in the gills of herbivorous fish. However, in a Malaysian strain, toxins detected were STX, Neo-STX, GTX5, 6 and dcSTX (Usup et al., 1995). [details]

Identification Pyrodinium bahamense is easy to identify by LM as it has a unique morphology. Two varieties were recognized in the past, but recent work concludes they cannot be distinguished based on morphology or toxin production. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic analysis using partial LSU rDNA sequence data revealed two clearly separated ribotypes within the Pyrodinium clade, an Indo-Pacific and Atlantic-Caribbean ribotype, suggesting that Pyrodinium bahamense is a species complex. [details]

Type locality Fuego Lagoon or Waterloo, New Providence, Nassau (Bahamas) [details]

Verified sequences Strain IRL (Landsberg et al. 2006):
LSU rDNA AB970715 [details]

Website and databases developed and hosted by VLIZ · Page generated 2024-02-28 · contact: Nina Lundholm