Foraminifera taxon details

Glandulina d'Orbigny, 1839

112194  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:112194)

accepted
Genus
Atractolina von Schlicht, 1870 · unaccepted (Objective junior synonym Loeblich...)  
Objective junior synonym Loeblich & Tappan, 1987
Nodosaria (Glanduline) d'Orbigny, 1826 · unaccepted (name not available. ICZN Art. 11...)  
name not available. ICZN Art. 11 (b)(i): 11 (g): vernacular
Psecadium Neugeboren, 1856 · unaccepted (Subjective junior synonym Opinion...)  
Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Loeblich & Tappan, 1987

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  1. Species Glandulina abbreviata Neugeboren, 1850
  2. Species Glandulina abbreviata Gümbel, 1861 †
  3. Species Glandulina acuminata Costa, 1856 †
  4. Species Glandulina acutata Kseneva, 1997 †
  5. Species Glandulina affihumilis Khalilov, 1951 †
  6. Species Glandulina annulata Terquem & Berthelin, 1875 †
  7. Species Glandulina annulus Friedberg, 1898 †
  8. Species Glandulina antarctica Parr, 1950
  9. Species Glandulina antiqua Said & Kenawy, 1956 †
  10. Species Glandulina apiculata Costa, 1856 †
  11. Species Glandulina aptiensis Myatlyuk, 1980 †
  12. Species Glandulina armamenta Khalilov, 1951 †
  13. Species Glandulina armata Reuss, 1866 †
  14. Species Glandulina bacillaris Dunikowski, 1879 †
  15. Species Glandulina balakhmatovae Dain, 1958 †
  16. Species Glandulina basispinata Cushman, 1935 †
  17. Species Glandulina bassa McCulloch, 1977
  18. Species Glandulina bicameora Dunikowski, 1879 †
  19. Species Glandulina bicamerata Herrmann, 1917 †
  20. Species Glandulina biconica Issler, 1908 †
  21. Species Glandulina candela Egger, 1857 †
  22. Species Glandulina clippertonensis McCulloch, 1977
  23. Species Glandulina concava Friedberg, 1898 †
  24. Species Glandulina concinna Reuss, 1855 †
  25. Species Glandulina constricta Franke, 1936 †
  26. Species Glandulina contracta Cushman & Todd, 1945 †
  27. Species Glandulina costata Bornemann, 1854 †
  28. Species Glandulina costata Terquem, 1866 †
  29. Species Glandulina crassa Dunikowski, 1879 †
  30. Species Glandulina cubensis Cushman & Bermúdez, 1937 †
  31. Species Glandulina cuspidata Franzenau, 1894 †
  32. Species Glandulina cylindrica Alth, 1850 †
  33. Species Glandulina deformis Costa, 1856 †
  34. Species Glandulina dimorpha (Bornemann, 1855)
  35. Species Glandulina elegans Neugeboren, 1856 †
  36. Species Glandulina elliptica Reuss, 1863 †
  37. Species Glandulina elongata Bornemann, 1855 †
  38. Species Glandulina elongata Costa, 1856 †
  39. Species Glandulina elongata Reuss, 1860 †
  40. Species Glandulina extensa Schwager, 1878 †
  41. Species Glandulina glans (d'Orbigny in Jones & Parker, 1860)
  42. Species Glandulina globulus Reuss, 1863 †
  43. Species Glandulina gracilis Reuss, 1866 †
  44. Species Glandulina gracilis Seguenza, 1880 †
  45. Species Glandulina granulosa Zheng, 1979
  46. Species Glandulina gutta Dunikowski, 1879 †
  47. Species Glandulina haddingi Brotzen, 1936 †
  48. Species Glandulina haidingerina Neugeboren, 1850 †
  49. Species Glandulina hainanensis Wang & He, 1978 †
  50. Species Glandulina hantkeni Franzenau, 1894 †
  51. Species Glandulina hosiusii Franzenau, 1894 †
  52. Species Glandulina inaequalis Egger, 1857 †
  53. Species Glandulina inflata Costa, 1853 †
  54. Species Glandulina kalimnensis Parr, 1938 †
  55. Species Glandulina koreana McCulloch, 1977
  56. Species Glandulina laevigata (d'Orbigny, 1826)
  57. Species Glandulina laguncula Bornemann, 1854 †
  58. Species Glandulina marginuliniformis (Frizzell, 1943) †
  59. Species Glandulina marsupiiformis Wiśniowski, 1890 †
  60. Species Glandulina microscopica Dunikowski, 1879 †
  61. Species Glandulina morsumensis van Voorthuysen, 1962 †
  62. Species Glandulina neglecta Neugeboren, 1856 †
  63. Species Glandulina nipponica Asano, 1951
  64. Species Glandulina nitidissima Neugeboren, 1850 †
  65. Species Glandulina nodosa Neugeboren, 1850 †
  66. Species Glandulina nodosaroides Dunikowski, 1879 †
  67. Species Glandulina nucula Neugeboren, 1850 †
  68. Species Glandulina nummularia Gümbel, 1870 †
  69. Species Glandulina oblonga Costa, 1855 †
  70. Species Glandulina obtusa Costa, 1856 †
  71. Species Glandulina obtusa Terquem, 1886 †
  72. Species Glandulina ornata Marie, 1941 †
  73. Species Glandulina ornatissima Karrer, 1878 †
  74. Species Glandulina ovalis Alth, 1850 †
  75. Species Glandulina ovalis Neugeboren, 1850 †
  76. Species Glandulina ovula d'Orbigny, 1846
  77. Species Glandulina panicea Mittermaier, 1896 †
  78. Species Glandulina papillata Costa, 1856 †
  79. Species Glandulina peelensis Ten Dam, 1947 †
  80. Species Glandulina punctata Egger, 1857 †
  81. Species Glandulina pupiformis Gümbel, 1869 †
  82. Species Glandulina pusilla Costa, 1855 †
  83. Species Glandulina pyrula Costa, 1856 †
  84. Species Glandulina rara McCulloch, 1977
  85. Species Glandulina rekitaensis Franzenau, 1920 †
  86. Species Glandulina reussi Neugeboren, 1856 †
  87. Species Glandulina robusta Brotzen, 1936 †
  88. Species Glandulina schattenbergi Kuhn, 1936 †
  89. Species Glandulina schlichti Franzenau, 1894 †
  90. Species Glandulina semistriata Collins, 1958
  91. Species Glandulina silvestrii Selli, 1947 †
  92. Species Glandulina simplex Hussey, 1949 †
  93. Species Glandulina simulans Silvestri, 1903 †
  94. Species Glandulina striata Drooger, 1953 †
  95. Species Glandulina strobilus Reuss, 1866 †
  96. Species Glandulina subconica Alth, 1850 †
  97. Species Glandulina subinflata Grzybowski, 1896 †
  98. Species Glandulina suezensis McCulloch, 1977
  99. Species Glandulina surinamensis Hofker, 1983 †
  100. Species Glandulina symmetrica (McCulloch, 1977)
  101. Species Glandulina tuberculata Terquem, 1882 †
  102. Species Glandulina undulata Karrer, 1868 †
  103. Species Glandulina abbreviata Bornemann, 1854 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria septangularis (Bornemann, 1854) † (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Riegraf (1985))
  104. Species Glandulina adunca Costa, 1856 † accepted as Marginulina adunca (Costa, 1856) † (Opinion of McDougall (1981))
  105. Species Glandulina aequalis Reuss, 1863 accepted as Pseudoglandulina aequalis (Reuss, 1863) accepted as Pseudonodosaria aequalis (Reuss, 1863)
  106. Species Glandulina annulata Stache, 1864 † accepted as Lagenoglandulina annulata (Stache, 1864) † (Opinion of Hornibrook, 1971)
  107. Species Glandulina aperta Stache, 1864 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria aperta (Stache, 1864) † (Opinion of Hornibrook (1971))
  108. Species Glandulina bajociana Terquem, 1877 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria humilis (Roemer, 1841) † (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Zsiborás and Görög (2020))
  109. Species Glandulina caudigera Schwager, 1883 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria caudigera (Schwager, 1883) † (Opinion of Valchev (2000))
  110. Species Glandulina conica Terquem, 1862 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria vulgata (Bornemann, 1854) † (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Riegraf (1985) Primary junior homonym of Glandulina conica Neugeboren, 1850)
  111. Species Glandulina conica Neugeboren, 1850 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria conica (Neugeboren, 1850) † (Opinion of Mallory (1959), McDougall (1989))
  112. Species Glandulina cuneiformis Terquem, 1866 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria cuneiformis (Terquem, 1866) † (Opinion of Riegraf (1985))
  113. Species Glandulina cylindracea (Reuss, 1845) † accepted as Pseudonodosaria cylindracea (Reuss, 1845) †
  114. Species Glandulina cylindrica Neugeboren, 1850 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria cylindrica (Neugeboren, 1850) † (Opinion of Beckmann in Bolli et al. (1994) [Pseudonodosaria?])
  115. Species Glandulina discreta Reuss, 1850 accepted as Pseudonodosaria discreta (Reuss, 1850) accepted as Pseudonodosaria brevis (d'Orbigny, 1846) (type species of Pseudonodosaria)
  116. Species Glandulina dubia Terquem, 1870 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria dubia (Terquem, 1870) † (Opinion of Copestake and Johnson (2014), Zsiborás and Görög (2020))
  117. Species Glandulina erecta Stache, 1864 † accepted as Glandulina aperta Stache, 1864 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria aperta (Stache, 1864) † (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Hornibrook (1971))
  118. Species Glandulina hybrida Terquem & Berthelin, 1875 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria hybrida (Terquem & Berthelin, 1875) † (Opinion of Cifelli (1959) [Subjective junior synonym of P. diformis in Opinion of Riegraf (1985)])
  119. Species Glandulina immutabilis Schwager, 1865 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria vulgata (Bornemann, 1854) † (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Seibold and Seibold (1956))
  120. Species Glandulina incisa Neugeboren, 1850 † accepted as Pseudoglandulina incisa (Neugeboren, 1850) † (Opinion of Bolli and Beckmann in Bolli et al. (1994))
  121. Species Glandulina inflata Bornemann, 1855 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria inflata (Bornemann, 1855) † (Opinion of Cicha et al. (1998))
  122. Species Glandulina irregularis Franke, 1936 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria irregularis (Franke, 1936) † (Opinion of He (1999))
  123. Species Glandulina labiata Schwager, 1866 † accepted as Ellipsoglandulina labiata (Schwager, 1866) †
  124. Species Glandulina lagenoides Olszewski, 1875 † accepted as Pseudoglandulina lagenoides (Olszewski, 1875) † accepted as Pseudonodosaria lagenoides (Olszewski, 1875) † (Opinion of Cushman (1944))
  125. Species Glandulina lahuseni Uhlig, 1883 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria lahuseni (Uhlig, 1883) † (unaccepted > superseded combination, Opinion of Grigelis (1985), Grigelis and Norling (1999))
  126. Species Glandulina major Bornemann, 1854 † accepted as Rectoglandulina major (Bornemann, 1854) †
  127. Species Glandulina manifesta Reuss, 1851 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria manifesta (Reuss, 1851) † (Opinion of Sliter (1968))
  128. Species Glandulina melo Bornemann, 1854 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria melo (Bornemann, 1854) † (Opinion of Riegraf (1985))
  129. Species Glandulina metensis Terquem, 1862 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria metensis (Terquem, 1862) † (Opinion of Riegraf et al. (1984), Zsiborás and Görög (2020))
  130. Species Glandulina mitis Wiśniowski, 1890 † accepted as Rectoglandulina mitis (Wiśniowski, 1890) † (Opinion of Gofman (1967))
  131. Species Glandulina multicostata (Bornemann, 1854) † accepted as Pseudoglandulina multicostata (Bornemann, 1854) † accepted as Pseudonodosaria multicostata (Bornemann, 1854) † (Opinion of Barnard (1949))
  132. Species Glandulina mutabilis Reuss, 1863 † accepted as Pseudoglandulina mutabilis (Reuss, 1863) † accepted as Pseudonodosaria humilis (Roemer, 1841) † (Opinion of Bartenstein and Brand (1951) )
  133. Species Glandulina napaeformis Stache, 1864 † accepted as Glandulina annulata Stache, 1864 † accepted as Lagenoglandulina annulata (Stache, 1864) † (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Hornibrook (1971))
  134. Species Glandulina nitida Neugeboren, 1850 † accepted as Nodosaria subnitida Nuttall, 1928 † (Nomen novum in Nuttall (1928) Secondary junior homonym of N. nitida d'Orbigny, 1826)
  135. Species Glandulina nitida Ten Dam, 1944 † accepted as Glandulina peelensis Ten Dam, 1947 † (Nomen novum in ten Dam (1947) Junior homonym of Glandulina nitida Neugeboren, 1850)
  136. Species Glandulina obconica Reuss, 1868 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria obconica (Reuss, 1868) † (Opinion of Styk (1975))
  137. Species Glandulina obtusissima Reuss, 1863 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria obtusissima (Reuss, 1863) † (unaccepted > superseded combination, Opinion of Finger (1992), Hanagata et al. (2023))
  138. Species Glandulina oviformis Terquem, 1864 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria oviformis (Terquem, 1864) † (Opinion of Brand (1990))
  139. Species Glandulina ozawai Cushman, 1931 accepted as Glandulina aequalis Reuss, 1863 accepted as Pseudoglandulina aequalis (Reuss, 1863) accepted as Pseudonodosaria aequalis (Reuss, 1863) (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Le Calvez (1970) G. ozawai is a new name for Glandulina Reussi Cushman & Ozawa, 1930)
  140. Species Glandulina parallela Marsson, 1878 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria parallela (Marsson, 1878) †
  141. Species Glandulina pigmaea Schwager, 1865 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria vulgata (Bornemann, 1854) † (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Seibold and Seibold (1956))
  142. Species Glandulina pulchra Franke, 1936 † accepted as Nodosaria pulchra (Franke, 1936) † (Opinion of Riegraf (1985))
  143. Species Glandulina pupoides (Bornemann, 1854) † accepted as Pseudoglandulina pupoides (Bornemann, 1854) † accepted as Rectoglandulina pupoides (Bornemann, 1854) † accepted as Pseudolangella pupoides (Bornemann, 1854) † accepted as Pseudonodosaria pupoides (Bornemann, 1854) † (Opinion of Bartenstein and Brand (1937))
  144. Species Glandulina pygmaea Reuss, 1851 † accepted as Rectoglandulina pygmaea (Reuss, 1851) † (Opinion of Said and Kenawy (1956), Cati (1964))
  145. Species Glandulina pygmea Terquem, 1866 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria pygmea (Terquem, 1866) † (Opinion of Riegraf (1985), Zsiborás and Görög (2020))
  146. Species Glandulina quinquecostata Bornemann, 1854 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria quinquecostata (Bornemann, 1854) † (Opinion of Riegraf (1985))
  147. Species Glandulina radicula (Linnaeus, 1758) accepted as Nodosaria radicula (Linnaeus, 1758)
  148. Species Glandulina rapiformis Franke, 1936 † accepted as Nodosaria kuhni Franke, 1936 † (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Riegraf (1985))
  149. Species Glandulina regularis Terquem & Berthelin, 1875 † accepted as Lingulina regularis (Terquem & Berthelin, 1875) † (Opinion of Riegraf (1985))
  150. Species Glandulina retrorsa (Reuss, 1863) † accepted as Unidens retrorsa (Reuss, 1863) † accepted as Bradystomella retrorsa (Reuss, 1863) †
  151. Species Glandulina reussi Cushman & Ozawa, 1930 † accepted as Glandulina ozawai Cushman, 1931 accepted as Glandulina aequalis Reuss, 1863 accepted as Pseudoglandulina aequalis (Reuss, 1863) accepted as Pseudonodosaria aequalis (Reuss, 1863) (New name in Cushman (1931) G. reussi preoccupied by Neugeboren (1856))
  152. Species Glandulina rimosa Stache, 1864 † accepted as Glandulina annulata Stache, 1864 † accepted as Lagenoglandulina annulata (Stache, 1864) † (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Hornibrook (1971))
  153. Species Glandulina rorundata (Reuss, 1860) accepted as Glandulina rotundata Reuss, 1850 accepted as Pseudonodosaria rotundata (Reuss, 1850) (Incorrect subsequent spelling and wrong authority in Gross (2001))
  154. Species Glandulina rotundata Reuss, 1850 accepted as Pseudonodosaria rotundata (Reuss, 1850)
  155. Species Glandulina rotundata Bornemann, 1854 † accepted as Glandulina vulgata Bornemann, 1854 † accepted as Rectoglandulina vulgata (Bornemann, 1854) † accepted as Pseudonodosaria vulgata (Bornemann, 1854) † (Nomen novum (errata) Junior homonym of G. rotundata Bornemann, 1850)
  156. Species Glandulina rudis Costa, 1855 † accepted as Clavulina rudis (Costa, 1855) † accepted as Cylindroclavulina rudis (Costa, 1855) †
  157. Species Glandulina septangularis Bornemann, 1854 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria septangularis (Bornemann, 1854) † (Opinion of Riegraf (1985))
  158. Species Glandulina sexcostata Bornemann, 1854 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria sexcostata (Bornemann, 1854) † (Opinion of Riegraf et al. (1984))
  159. Species Glandulina solita Schwager, 1866 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria solita (Schwager, 1866) † (unaccepted > superseded combination, Opinion of Srinivasan and Sharma (1980))
  160. Species Glandulina spinata Cushman, 1935 accepted as Bombulina spinata (Cushman, 1935) (Type species of Bombulina)
  161. Species Glandulina subovata Stache, 1864 † accepted as Lagenoglandulina subovata (Stache, 1864) † accepted as Lagenoglandulina annulata (Stache, 1864) † (Type species of Lagenoglandulina)
  162. Species Glandulina symmetrica Stache, 1864 † accepted as Pseudoglandulina symmetrica (Stache, 1864) † accepted as Pseudonodosaria symmetrica (Stache, 1864) †
  163. Species Glandulina tenuis Bornemann, 1854 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria tenuis (Bornemann, 1854) † (Opinion of Fuchs (1970), Strong 1984)
  164. Species Glandulina tenuistriata (Franke, 1927) † accepted as Pseudonodosaria tenuistriata (Franke, 1927) † (Opinion of Sztrákos (2005))
  165. Species Glandulina theca Schwager, 1865 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria vulgata (Bornemann, 1854) † (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Seibold and Seibold (1956))
  166. Species Glandulina turbinata Terquem & Berthelin, 1875 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria dubia (Terquem, 1870) † (Subjective junior synonym Opinion of Riegraf (1985))
  167. Species Glandulina turbiniformis Terquem, 1870 † accepted as Pseudonodosaria turbiniformis (Terquem, 1870) † (Opinion of Riegraf et al. (1984))
  168. Species Glandulina vulgata Bornemann, 1854 † accepted as Rectoglandulina vulgata (Bornemann, 1854) † accepted as Pseudonodosaria vulgata (Bornemann, 1854) †
  169. Species Glandulina angulata d'Orbigny, 1846 (uncertain > nomen dubium, Opinion of Papp & Schmid (1985))
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Orbigny, A. D. d'. (1839). Foraminifères, in de la Sagra R., Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l'ile de Cuba. <em>A. Bertrand.</em> 1-224., available online at https://books.google.pt/books?id=KpVeAAAAcAAJ&pg
page(s): p. 12 [details]   
Type locality contained in Cuban Exclusive Economic Zone  
type locality contained in Cuban Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Hayward, B.W.; Le Coze, F.; Vachard, D.; Gross, O. (2021). World Foraminifera Database. Glandulina d'Orbigny, 1839. Accessed at: https://www.marinespecies.org/Foraminifera/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=112194 on 2024-02-23
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2006-09-12 06:54:36Z
changed
Martinez, Olga
2013-03-08 15:12:32Z
checked
2014-04-23 09:24:32Z
changed
2017-01-21 14:55:00Z
changed

original description Orbigny, A. D. d'. (1839). Foraminifères, in de la Sagra R., Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l'ile de Cuba. <em>A. Bertrand.</em> 1-224., available online at https://books.google.pt/books?id=KpVeAAAAcAAJ&pg
page(s): p. 12 [details]   

original description  (of Nodosaria (Glanduline) d'Orbigny, 1826) Orbigny, A. D. d'. (1826). Tableau méthodique de la classe des Céphalopodes. <em>Annales des Sciences Naturelles.</em> vol. 7: 96-169, 245-314., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/5753959
page(s): p. 251 [details]   

original description  (of Psecadium Neugeboren, 1856) Neugeboren, J. L. (1856). Die foraminiferen aus der Ordnung der Stichostegier von Ober-Lapugy in Siebenbürgen. <em>Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe.</em> 12: 65-108., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/33415737
page(s): p. 99 [details]   

original description  (of Atractolina von Schlicht, 1870) Schlicht, E. von, 1870, Die Foraminiferen des Septarienthones von Pietzpuhl. Berlin, pls. 1-38. , available online at https://reader.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/fs1/object/display/bsb10482057_00005.html
page(s): p. 69 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

original description  (of Marginulina (Psecadium) Brotzen, 1936) Brotzen, F. (1936). Foraminiferen aus dem schwedischen untersten Senon von Eriksdal in Schonen. <em>Arsbok Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning ser. C.</em> 30(3): 1-206., available online at https://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c396-rapport.pdf [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

basis of record Gross, O. (2001). Foraminifera, <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 60-75 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Neave, Sheffield Airey. (1939-1996). Nomenclator Zoologicus vol. 1-10 Online. <em>[Online Nomenclator Zoologicus at Checklistbank. Ubio link has gone].</em> , available online at https://www.checklistbank.org/dataset/126539/about [details]   

additional source Loeblich, A. R.; Tappan, H. (1987). Foraminiferal Genera and their Classification. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. 970pp., available online at https://books.google.pt/books?id=n_BqCQAAQBAJ [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
   

From editor or global species database
Diagnosis Test elongate, ovate, tapering at each end, circular in section, microspheric generation with tiny and biserially arranged early chambers and uniserial and rectilinear later chambers, megalospheric test uniserial throughout, chambers increasing rapidly in size as added, strongly overlapping previous chambers, septa commonly resorbed, possibly as each new chamber is added or at the time of reproduction, leaving only a single open internal cavity, external sutures distinct, flush; wall calcareous, radial, commonly opaque except for a narrow hyaline and translucent band just below the aperture, surface smooth or less commonly finely striate; aperture terminal, radiate, provided with a short, straight entosolenian tube. Paleocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich & Tappan, 1987, Foraminiferal Genera and Their Classification) [details]