WoRMS taxon details

Alexandrium monilatum (J.F.Howell) Balech, 1995

231875  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:231875)

accepted
Species
marine, fresh, terrestrial
(of Gonyaulax monilata J.F.Howell, 1953) Howell J.F. 1953. Gonyaulax monilata, sp. nov., the causative dinoflagellate of a red tide on the east coast of Florida in August-September, 1951. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 72: 153-156.  [details]   
Type locality contained in Atlantic Coast of Florida  
type locality contained in Atlantic Coast of Florida [details]
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:42957  
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:42957 [details]

Description Cell size is medium to large. It is very anteriorly-posteriorly flattened, like a rather irregular loaf; sometimes epithecal...  
Description Cell size is medium to large. It is very anteriorly-posteriorly flattened, like a rather irregular loaf; sometimes epithecal shoulders may be noted. This species forms rather long chains. The apical pore region is somewhat projected and rather large. The cingulum is very deep, without lists, and descending (1- 1.3). The sulcus abruptly curves dorsally in the portion containing the S.p. plate. There are no emphasized sulcal lists. The PO is large and oval. Its dorsal margin is somewhat irregular and rather flattened. The left margin is regularly convex, and the right one is concave. The ventral end is sharply pointed. The foramen or comma is relatively small, is shaped almost the same as the plate, and barely extends dorsally beyond the midpoint of the plate. The callus is barely emphasized, but it extends almost to the comma's dorsal end in what seems to be the right margin of the reinforced or folded canopy. A large, almost circular connecting pore is located a little to the right of the comma's dorsal end. Small granules and pores are located on the plate's periphery. The very charasheristic I ' is shofl and completely disconnected from the PO. It is pentagonal and wider than long. The right anterior margin that borders 4' is longer than the left anterior one. In cultured material from the U.S.A. (Galveston in Texas), this piate is much narrower than in the planktonic material from a different U.S.A. location (Florida). Rarely, 1' appears to have a ventral pore close to its anterior apex, but this could be the result of alterations in the general pores that are rather conspicuously located near the anterior margins. One of these could have enlarged or several could have combined. According to K. A. Steidinger (personal communication), a well-defined ventral pore occurs in Florida specimens. 2' and 3' have the usual shape for the genus. However, 3' is larger, particularIy in width, than in other species. Furthermore, in most thecae, 3' has between one to four crests that extend from the margin that borders with the PO. They spread divergently towards the posterior margin but do not reach it. 6" is medium wide. Its sulcal margin is neither very concave nor strongly projecting posteriorly, as in several other species. The exteinal margins of 1"' and 5"' are not much longer than their internal margins. 1 "" is short and wide. Its anterior and posterior margins are long and parallel. The two external margins are short and not quite equal. The internal margin is reinforced and convex and sometimes has a small roll or protuberance in the middle. 2"" (type B) is wide, short, and boomerang-shaped. Its dorsal margin, which touches the 3 "', is rather longer than the left side. The ten sulcal plates are quite characteristic, especially the S.p., which is very different from those of the other species. The S.a. is rather narrow and has a posterior sinus that is regular and very deep. When the plate is not flattened, the anterior part is quite bent ventrally making the sinus seem to go almost to the anterior margin. When the plate is flattened, the anterior margin usually has a right part that is somewhat more elevated than the rest. The S.s.a. is wide with reinforced anterior and right margins. The S.s.p. is characterized by having, along the internal margin, a prolonged reinforcement that is directed towards the anterior-right corner. This plate is rather short and wide. The S.d.a. is triangular and approximately as wide as long. Its anterior-internal margin is oblique, lacks marked inflections, and has a reinforcement that is not very thick and is rather regular. The anterior internal corner is abruptly truncated. In this case, it is a true truncation -- abrupt, straight, and still somewhat concave. The S.d.p. is a rather weak plate that tapers posteriorly. Its anterior margin has two parts: the right one is almost horizontal and the oblique left portion borders the S.ac.p. The internal margin is concave and the external is convex. Sm [details]
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2024). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Alexandrium monilatum (J.F.Howell) Balech, 1995. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=231875 on 2024-03-02
Date
action
by
2006-07-13 10:06:39Z
created
2006-07-27 06:59:07Z
changed
Camba Reu, Cibran
2008-11-20 10:21:18Z
checked
2008-11-21 08:21:07Z
changed
2010-10-27 09:50:34Z
changed
2015-06-26 12:00:51Z
changed

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original description  (of Gonyaulax monilata J.F.Howell, 1953) Howell J.F. 1953. Gonyaulax monilata, sp. nov., the causative dinoflagellate of a red tide on the east coast of Florida in August-September, 1951. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 72: 153-156.  [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245., available online at http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

basis of record Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world's oceans. <em>Acta Bot. Croat.</em> 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world's oceans. <em>Acta Bot. Croat.</em> 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Steidinger, K. A., M. A. Faust, and D. U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 131–154 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College [details]   

additional source Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source Balech, E. (2002). Dinoflagelados tecados tóxicos en el Cono Sur Americano. <em>In: Sar, E.A., Ferrario, M.E. & Reguera, B. (Eds.). Floraciones Algales Nocivas en el Cono Sur Americano. Instituto Español de Oceanografía.</em> pp. 123-144. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Rogers, J. E.; Leblond, J. D.; Moncreiff, C. A. (2006). Phylogenetic relationship of <i>Alexandrium monilatum</i> (Dinophyceae) to other <i>Alexandrium</i> species based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. <em>Harmful Algae.</em> 5(3): 275-280., available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2005.08.005 [details]   

additional source Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2023). AlgaeBase. <em>World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.</em> searched on YYYY-MM-DD., available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

new combination reference Balech, E. (1985). The genus <i>Alexandrium</i> or <i>Gonyaulax</i> of the <i>tamarensis</i> group. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White and D.G. Baden (Eds.) Toxic Dinoflagellates. New York: Elsevier. P. 33–38. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

toxicology source Bass E.J., Pinion J.P. & Sharif M.E. 1983. Characterization of a hemolysin from <i>Gonyaulax monilata</i> Howell. Aquat. Toxicol. 3: 15-22. [details]   

toxicology source Clemons G.P., Pinion J.P., Bass E., Pham D.V., Sharif M. & Wutoh J.G. 1980. A hemolytic principle associated with the red-tide dinoflagellate <i>Gonyaulax monilata</i>. Toxicon 18: 323-326. [details]   

toxicology source Hsia, M. H.; Morton, S. L.; Smith, L. L.; Beauchesne, K. R.; Huncik, K. M.; Moeller, P. D. (2006). Production of goniodomin A by the planktonic, chain-forming dinoflagellate <i>Alexandrium monilatum</i> (Howell) Balech isolated from the Gulf Coast of the United States. <em>Harmful Algae.</em> 5(3): 290-299., available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2005.08.004 [details]   
 
 Present  Present in aphia/obis/gbif/idigbio   Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
   

From editor or global species database
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:42957 [details]

From regional or thematic species database
Description Cell size is medium to large. It is very anteriorly-posteriorly flattened, like a rather irregular loaf; sometimes epithecal shoulders may be noted. This species forms rather long chains. The apical pore region is somewhat projected and rather large. The cingulum is very deep, without lists, and descending (1- 1.3). The sulcus abruptly curves dorsally in the portion containing the S.p. plate. There are no emphasized sulcal lists. The PO is large and oval. Its dorsal margin is somewhat irregular and rather flattened. The left margin is regularly convex, and the right one is concave. The ventral end is sharply pointed. The foramen or comma is relatively small, is shaped almost the same as the plate, and barely extends dorsally beyond the midpoint of the plate. The callus is barely emphasized, but it extends almost to the comma's dorsal end in what seems to be the right margin of the reinforced or folded canopy. A large, almost circular connecting pore is located a little to the right of the comma's dorsal end. Small granules and pores are located on the plate's periphery. The very charasheristic I ' is shofl and completely disconnected from the PO. It is pentagonal and wider than long. The right anterior margin that borders 4' is longer than the left anterior one. In cultured material from the U.S.A. (Galveston in Texas), this piate is much narrower than in the planktonic material from a different U.S.A. location (Florida). Rarely, 1' appears to have a ventral pore close to its anterior apex, but this could be the result of alterations in the general pores that are rather conspicuously located near the anterior margins. One of these could have enlarged or several could have combined. According to K. A. Steidinger (personal communication), a well-defined ventral pore occurs in Florida specimens. 2' and 3' have the usual shape for the genus. However, 3' is larger, particularIy in width, than in other species. Furthermore, in most thecae, 3' has between one to four crests that extend from the margin that borders with the PO. They spread divergently towards the posterior margin but do not reach it. 6" is medium wide. Its sulcal margin is neither very concave nor strongly projecting posteriorly, as in several other species. The exteinal margins of 1"' and 5"' are not much longer than their internal margins. 1 "" is short and wide. Its anterior and posterior margins are long and parallel. The two external margins are short and not quite equal. The internal margin is reinforced and convex and sometimes has a small roll or protuberance in the middle. 2"" (type B) is wide, short, and boomerang-shaped. Its dorsal margin, which touches the 3 "', is rather longer than the left side. The ten sulcal plates are quite characteristic, especially the S.p., which is very different from those of the other species. The S.a. is rather narrow and has a posterior sinus that is regular and very deep. When the plate is not flattened, the anterior part is quite bent ventrally making the sinus seem to go almost to the anterior margin. When the plate is flattened, the anterior margin usually has a right part that is somewhat more elevated than the rest. The S.s.a. is wide with reinforced anterior and right margins. The S.s.p. is characterized by having, along the internal margin, a prolonged reinforcement that is directed towards the anterior-right corner. This plate is rather short and wide. The S.d.a. is triangular and approximately as wide as long. Its anterior-internal margin is oblique, lacks marked inflections, and has a reinforcement that is not very thick and is rather regular. The anterior internal corner is abruptly truncated. In this case, it is a true truncation -- abrupt, straight, and still somewhat concave. The S.d.p. is a rather weak plate that tapers posteriorly. Its anterior margin has two parts: the right one is almost horizontal and the oblique left portion borders the S.ac.p. The internal margin is concave and the external is convex. Sm [details]

Harmful effect This species is generally associated with fish kills, especially on the east coast of Florida (Howell, 1953). A. monilatum would synthesize haemolytic products (Bass et al., 1983; Clemons et al., 1980). It is typically an ichthyotoxic species either grown in culture or collected in situ, and which also produces goniodomines (Anderson et al., 2012; Hsia et al., 2006). [details]

Identification This species is unmistakable. The characters that most easily distinguish this species are the general shape and the S.p.  [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in Bulgarian part of the Black Sea : Shipping [details]

Verified sequences Strain JR07 (Rogers et al. 2006):
SSU rDNA AY883005  [details]