WoRMS taxon details

Cynarina Brüggemann, 1877

204646  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:204646)

accepted
Genus
Mussa (Lithophyllia) Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Protolobophyllia Yabe & Sugiyama, 1935 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Rhodocyathus Bourne, 1905 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym

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marine, fresh, terrestrial
Brüggemann, F. (1877). Notes on the stony corals in the collection of the British Museum. III. A revision of the Recent solitary Mussaceae. <em>Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 4.</em> 20: 300-313. [details]   
Description 'Agreeing in all respects with Scolymia, except that the coral is free when adult, turbinate, and covered with a thick...  
Description 'Agreeing in all respects with Scolymia, except that the coral is free when adult, turbinate, and covered with a thick epitheca. From Antillia it differs in having the costae roughly spinose; the free edges of the larger septa lacero-dentate, the septal teeth increasing in size from within outwards, the calicular fossa very shallow; the calice circular in the adult, compressed in the young (the reverse being the case in Antillia). From Homophyllia it is likewise distinguished by the structure of its costae, septa, and fossa; besides, Homophyllia is always fixed by its base, and shows a very thin, appressed epitheca, whereas the latter is thick and only loosely adherent in Cynarina.' (Brüggemann, 1877: 305) [details]
Hoeksema, B. W.; Cairns, S. (2024). World List of Scleractinia. Cynarina Brüggemann, 1877. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=204646 on 2024-06-17
Date
action
by
1997-02-03 14:17:27Z
created
2000-07-18 15:57:33Z
changed
2006-09-11 06:44:08Z
changed
Martinez, Olga
2013-09-02 17:11:15Z
changed
2019-02-19 09:26:15Z
changed
2019-10-10 22:21:05Z
changed
2022-06-21 13:11:58Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Brüggemann, F. (1877). Notes on the stony corals in the collection of the British Museum. III. A revision of the Recent solitary Mussaceae. <em>Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 4.</em> 20: 300-313. [details]   

original description  (of Protolobophyllia Yabe & Sugiyama, 1935) Yabe H, Sugiyama T. (1935). Revised list of the reef-corals from the Japanese seas and of the fossil reef corals of the raised reefs and the Ryukyu limestone of Japan. <em>Journal of the Geological Society of Japan.</em> 42: 379-403.
page(s): 382 [details]   

original description  (of Rhodocyathus Bourne, 1905) Bourne, G.C. (1905). Report on the solitary corals collected by Professor Herdman, at Ceylon, in 1902. <em>Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar.</em> 4: 187-241, pls. 1-4. [details]   

context source (Hexacorallia) Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record Veron JEN. (1986). Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. <em>Angus & Robertson Publishers.</em>  [details]   

additional source Veron JEN, Pichon M. (1980). Scleractinia of Eastern Australia – Part III. Family Agariciidae, Siderastreidae, Fungiidae, Oculinidae, Merulinidae, Mussidae, Pectinidae, Caryophyllidae, Dendrophylliidae. <em>Australian Institute of Marine Science Monograph Series.</em> 4: 1-459. [details]   

additional source Veron JEN. (2000). Corals of the World. Vol. 1–3. <em>Australian Institute of Marine Science and CRR, Queensland, Australia.</em>  [details]   

additional source Budd AF, Fukami H, Smith ND, Knowlton N. (2012). Taxonomic classification of the reef coral family Mussidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia). <em>Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.</em> 166 (3): 465-529., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00855.x [details]   

additional source Arrigoni R, Terraneo TI, Galli P, Benzoni F (2014) Lobophylliidae (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) reshuffled: Pervasive . non-monophyly at genus level. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 73: 60-64.  [details]   

additional source Kitahara, M.V., J. Stolarski, S.D. Cairns, F. Benzoni, J.L. Stake & D.J. Miller. (2012). The first modern solitary Agariciidae (Anthozoa, Scleractinia) revealed by molecular and microstructural analysis. <em>Invertebrate Systematics.</em> 26 (3): 303-315., available online at https://doi.org/10.1071/is11053
page(s): 305, 307 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Huang D, Arrigoni R, Benzoni F, Fukami H, Knowlton N, Smith ND, Stolarski J, Chou LM, Budd AF. (2016). Taxonomic classification of the reef coral family Lobophylliidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia). <em>Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.</em> 178(3): 436-481., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12391 [details]   

additional source Neave, Sheffield Airey. (1939-1996). Nomenclator Zoologicus vol. 1-10 Online. <em>[Online Nomenclator Zoologicus at Checklistbank. Ubio link has gone].</em> , available online at https://www.checklistbank.org/dataset/126539/about [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
   

From editor or global species database
Comparison Two synapomorphies have been recovered for the moderately supported Cynarina clade (bootstrap support of 62): weakly or moderately developed septal (multiaxial) lobes (likelihood of 1 based on the Mk1 model), and strong costa medial lines (likelihood 1). The sister relationship between Cynarina and Lobophyllia recovered here is unsurprising given their previous affiliation, and the inclusive clade is indeed supported by the synapomorphy of unequal tooth size between the wall and septum (likelihood 0.90). They can however be distinguished easily based on Cynarina's synapomorphies, as well as its solitary form and low-moderate (tabular, instead of vesicular) endotheca. Within Lobophylliidae, in which species are predominantly colonial, Cynarina is the only genus that is exclusively solitary. Lobophyllia vitiensis (Brüggemann, 1877: 304), Homophyllia australis (Milne Edwards and Haime, 1849a, vol. 11: 239) and Micromussa pacifica Benzoni and Arrigoni in Arrigoni et al., 2016a, are typically monostomatous but can sometimes form polystomatous coralla (Arrigoni et al., 2014b; e.g. NHMUK 1840.11.30.79, syntype of Caryophyllia australis). The congeneric of the monostomatous Sclerophyllia margariticola Klunzinger, 1879: 4—S. maxima (Sheppard and Salm, 1988: 276)—is colonial. [details]

Description 'Agreeing in all respects with Scolymia, except that the coral is free when adult, turbinate, and covered with a thick epitheca. From Antillia it differs in having the costae roughly spinose; the free edges of the larger septa lacero-dentate, the septal teeth increasing in size from within outwards, the calicular fossa very shallow; the calice circular in the adult, compressed in the young (the reverse being the case in Antillia). From Homophyllia it is likewise distinguished by the structure of its costae, septa, and fossa; besides, Homophyllia is always fixed by its base, and shows a very thin, appressed epitheca, whereas the latter is thick and only loosely adherent in Cynarina.' (Brüggemann, 1877: 305) [details]

Diagnosis Solitary. Budding intracalicular. Corallites monomorphic; discrete. Calice width large (> 15 mm), with high relief (> 6 mm). Septa in ≥ four cycles (≥ 48 septa). Free septa irregular. Septa spaced < six septa per 5 mm. Costosepta unequal in relative thickness. Columellae trabecular and spongy (> three threads), < 1/4 of calice width. Septal (multiaxial) lobes weakly or moderately developed. Epitheca reduced. Endotheca usually low-moderate (tabular), but may be abundant. Tooth base at midcalice elliptical-parallel. Tooth tip orientation parallel. Teeth tall (> 0.6 mm); widely spaced (> 1 mm), with > six teeth per septum. Tooth shape unequal between first and third order septa. Tooth size unequal between wall and septum. Granules scattered on septal face; weak (rounded). Interarea palisade. Walls formed by dominant paratheca and partial septotheca. Thickening deposits in concentric rings with extensive stereome. Costa centre clusters strong; > 0.6 mm between clusters; medial lines strong. Septum centre clusters weak; > 0.5 mm between clusters; medial lines weak. [details]

Remark Cynarina was established by Brüggemann (1877: 305) for a new species Cynarina savignyi Brüggemann, 1877: 305, which was collected from the Gulf of Suez and deposited at the British Museum (now NHMUK). Brüggemann (1877: 306) stated on the description of C. savignyi that, 'of this species, the Museum contains a considerable series of specimens; yet I have taken the description from a single example, because this is the only one which is fully adult and at the same time beautifully regular in its septal apparatus.' Indeed, we found eight specimens at NHMUK that were examined by Brüggemann (1877), and the largest of which fits his description and should be considered the holotype of the species. However, Brüggemann (1877: 305) was less specific in his description for the genus, and clearly used all of the specimens available to him at that time. Therefore we regard all eight specimens (NHMUK 1858.2.12.3, 1869.2.25.39, and one unlabelled lot) as syntypical material for the genus. Cynarina savignyi was named after J. C. Savigny, who discovered and figured the species as Caryophyllia carduus in Audouin (1826: 233, pl. 4: figs 2.1, 2.2, 2.3). The latter species name was already used in Madrepora carduus Ellis and Solander, 1786: 153, pl. 35 (= Madrepora lacera Pallas, 1766: 298), an Atlantic species, whereas Cynarina savignyi is a junior synonym of Caryophyllia lacrymalis Milne Edwards and Haime, 1849a, vol. 11: 238, which remained the only valid species in Cynarina until Budd et al. (2012) transferred Indophyllia macassarensis Best and Hoeksema, 1987: 394, into the genus. Our morphological analysis support this placement as Cynarina lacrymalis and C. macassarensis form a clade, but molecular sampling is needed to verify this result. Cynarina has been affiliated with Lobophyllia and Symphyllia in the past. Matthai (1928) considered the solitary forms represented by Scolymia Haime, 1852: 279, Homophyllia Brüggemann, 1877: 310, Sclerophyllia Klunzinger, 1879: 4, and Cynarina to be early monocentric stages of the colonial Lobophyllia, and placed them in tentative synonymy under the latter. Wells (1937) followed this line of reasoning when he synonymised Scolymia under Mussa Oken, 1815: 73, Homophyllia under Lobophyllia de Blainville, 1830: 321, and Sclerophyllia + Cynarina under Symphyllia Milne Edwards and Haime, 1848a, vol. 27: 491. Vaughan and Wells (1943) and Wells (1956) preserved this scheme but placed Cynarina under Lobophyllia instead. Subsequently, Wells (1964) resurrected all of the solitary taxa above except for Sclerophyllia. The latter, together with Rhodocyathus Bourne, 1905: 191, and Protolobophyllia Yabe and Sugiyama, 1935: 381, were considered as synonyms of Cynarina (Wells, 1964; Veron and Pichon, 1980). However, the most recent phylogenetic analysis by Arrigoni et al. (2015), supported by our results here, indicated that Sclerophyllia is a distinct genus and has since been resurrected (see below). Acanthophyllia Wells, 1937: 242, was described as a fully solitary coral that, in comparison with Cynarina, possesses even larger lobate teeth, much bigger over the wall than near the columella. Although this separation was maintained by Wells (1964), Veron and Pichon (1980) studied the holotype of its type species A. deshayesiana and detected only minor differences in internal lobe development between Acanthophyllia and Cynarina, tentatively listing Acanthophyllia as a junior synonym. Here, we also find septal tooth size and septal lobe development to be comparable between the two taxa, thus supporting the generic synonymy presented by Veron and Pichon (1980). Some exceptional specimens identified as C. lacrymalis by Wells (1964, pls 20, 21) that were collected from Gubbins Reef in Australia and Banc Gail in New Caledonia have more rounded tooth tips and well-developed septal lobes. These peculiar corals have superficial affinities to Caryophylliidae and are in need of more detailed examinations. Cynarina is widely distribut [details]

From other sources
Remark Type species: Cynarina savignyi Bruggemann, 1877 from the Red Sea (Veron, 1986). [details]
    Definitions

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LanguageName 
English Scolymiameat coralknob coraldoughnut coralbutton coral  [details]
Japanese コハナガタサンゴ属  [details]