WoRMS source details

Dohrmann, M.; Kelley, C.; Kelly, M.; Pisera, A.; Hooper, J.N.A.; Reiswig, H.M. (2017). An integrative systematic framework helps to reconstruct skeletal evolution of glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida). Frontiers in Zoology. 14: 18.
10.1186/s12983-017-0191-3 [view]
Dohrmann, M.; Kelley, C.; Kelly, M.; Pisera, A.; Hooper, J.N.A.; Reiswig, H.M.
An integrative systematic framework helps to reconstruct skeletal evolution of glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida)
Frontiers in Zoology
14: 18.
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
Background Glass sponges (Class Hexactinellida) are important components of deep-sea ecosystems and are of interest from geological and materials science perspectives. The reconstruction of their phylogeny with molecular data has only recently begun and shows a better agreement with morphology-based systematics than is typical for other sponge groups, likely because of a greater number of informative morphological characters. However, inconsistencies remain that have far-reaching implications for hypotheses about the evolution of their major skeletal construction types (body plans). Furthermore, less than half of all described extant genera have been sampled for molecular systematics, and several taxa important for understanding skeletal evolution are still missing. Increased taxon sampling for molecular phylogenetics of this group is therefore urgently needed. However, due to their remote habitat and often poorly preserved museum material, sequencing all 126 currently recognized extant genera will be difficult to achieve. Utilizing morphological data to incorporate unsequenced taxa into an integrative systematics framework therefore holds great promise, but it is unclear which methodological approach best suits this task. Results Here, we increase the taxon sampling of four previously established molecular markers (18S, 28S, and 16S ribosomal DNA, as well as cytochrome oxidase subunit I) by 12 genera, for the first time including representatives of the order Aulocalycoida and the type genus of Dactylocalycidae, taxa that are key to understanding hexactinellid body plan evolution. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Aulocalycoida is diphyletic and provide further support for the paraphyly of order Hexactinosida; hence these orders are abolished from the Linnean classification. We further assembled morphological character matrices to integrate so far unsequenced genera into phylogenetic analyses in maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), Bayesian, and morphology-based binning frameworks. We find that of these four approaches, total-evidence analysis using MP gave the most plausible results concerning congruence with existing phylogenetic and taxonomic hypotheses, whereas the other methods, especially ML and binning, performed more poorly. We use our total-evidence phylogeny of all extant glass sponge genera for ancestral state reconstruction of morphological characters in MP and ML frameworks, gaining new insights into the evolution of major hexactinellid body plans and other characters such as different spicule types. Conclusions Our study demonstrates how a comprehensive, albeit in some parts provisional, phylogeny of a larger taxon can be achieved with an integrative approach utilizing molecular and morphological data, and how this can be used as a basis for understanding phenotypic evolution. The datasets and associated trees presented here are intended as a resource and starting point for future work on glass sponge evolution.
Abyssal, Deep-Sea
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2017-03-21 12:35:03Z

Aulocalycidae Ijima, 1927 (taxonomy source)
Aulocalycoida accepted as Aulocalycidae Ijima, 1927 (taxonomy source)
Cyrtaulon Schulze, 1886 (taxonomy source)
Dactylocalycidae Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Deanea Bowerbank, 1875 accepted as Hunteria Van Soest & Hooper, 2020 (additional source)
Diaretula Schmidt, 1879 (additional source)
Heterorete Dendy, 1916 (additional source)
Hexactinellida (additional source)
Hexactinosida accepted as Sceptrulophora (status source)
Hexasterophora (additional source)
Hexasterophora incertae sedis (original description)
Hexasterophora incertae sedis (basis of record)
Homoieurete Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (taxonomy source)
Hyalocaulus Marshall & Meyer, 1877 (additional source)
Lyssacinosida (additional source)
Myliusia Gray, 1859 (additional source)
Sceptrulophora (status source)
Sceptrulophora incertae sedis (additional source)
Uncinateridae Reiswig, 2002 (taxonomy source)
Bahamian for Dactylocalyx pumiceus Stutchbury, 1841 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Euryplegma auriculare Schulze, 1886 

Molecular phylogenetic evidence indicates that the two families (Aulocalycidae and Uncinateridae) belong in ... [details]


Monophyly of this family is currently not resolved by molecular data. [details]


In their current scope, this family and its subfamilies are artificial taxa to accommodate sceptrulophoran genera ... [details]


Molecular and morphological phylogenetic evidence indicate that some genera are more closely related to ... [details]


The order Fieldingida was abolished and its only family moved to "Hexactinosida", suborder Sceptrulophora (now ... [details]