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Zenetos, A.; Gofas, S.; Verlaque, M.; Cinar, M.; Garcia Raso, J.; Bianchi, C.; Morri, C.; Azzurro, E.; Bilecenoglu, M.; Froglia, C.; Siokou, I.; Violanti, D.; Sfriso, A.; San Martin, G.; Giangrande, A.; Katagan, T.; Ballesteros, E.; Ramos-Espla, A.; Mastrototaro, F.; Ocana, O.; Zingone, A.; Gambi, M.; Streftaris, N. (2010). Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution. Mediterranean Marine Science. 11(2): 381-493.
155063
10.12681/mms.87 [view]
Zenetos, A.; Gofas, S.; Verlaque, M.; Cinar, M.; Garcia Raso, J.; Bianchi, C.; Morri, C.; Azzurro, E.; Bilecenoglu, M.; Froglia, C.; Siokou, I.; Violanti, D.; Sfriso, A.; San Martin, G.; Giangrande, A.; Katagan, T.; Ballesteros, E.; Ramos-Espla, A.; Mastrototaro, F.; Ocana, O.; Zingone, A.; Gambi, M.; Streftaris, N.
2010
Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution
Mediterranean Marine Science
11(2): 381-493
Publication
The state-of-art on alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is presented, making distinctions among the four subregions defined in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive: (i) the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED); (ii) the Central Mediterranean Sea (CMED); (iii) the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA); and (iv) the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED). The updated checklist (December 2010) of marine alien species within each subregion, along with their acclimatization status and origin, is provided. A total of 955 alien species is known in the Mediterranean, the vast majority of them having being introduced in the EMED (718), less in the WMED (328) and CMED (267) and least in the Adriatic (171). Of these, 535 species (56%) are established in at least one area. Despite the collective effort of experts who attempted in this work, the number of introduced species remains probably underestimated. Excluding microalgae, for which knowledge is still insufficient, aliens have increased the total species richness of the Mediterranean Sea by 5.9%. This figure should not be directly read as an indication of higher biodiversity, as spreading of so many aliens within the basin is possibly causing biotic homogenization. Thermophilic species, i.e. Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Pacific, and circum(sub)tropical, account for 88.4% of the introduced species in the EMED, 72.8% in the CMED, 59.3% in the WMED and 56.1% in the Adriatic. Cold water species, i.e. circumboreal, N Atlantic, and N Pacific, make up a small percentage of the introduced species, ranging between 4.2% and 21.6% and being more numerous in the Adriatic and less so in the EMED. Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 75 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.
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Acanthophora nayadiformis (Delile) Papenfuss, 1968 (additional source)
Acanthurus monroviae Steindachner, 1876 (additional source)
Acartia (Acanthacartia) fossae Gurney, 1927 (additional source)
Acartia (Acanthacartia) tonsa Dana, 1849 (additional source)
Acartia (Odontacartia) centrura Giesbrecht, 1889 (additional source)
Acrochaetium robustum Børgesen, 1915 (additional source)
Acrochaetium subseriatum Børgesen, 1932 (additional source)
Acrothamnion preissii (Sonder) E.M.Wollaston, 1968 (additional source)
Acrothrix gracilis Kylin, 1907 (additional source)
Agardhiella subulata (C.Agardh) Kraft & M.J.Wynne, 1979 (additional source)
Aglaothamnion feldmanniae Halos, 1965 (additional source)
Allolepidapedon fistulariae Yamaguti, 1940 (additional source)
Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Amphibalanus eburneus (Gould, 1841) (additional source)
Anadara granosa (Linnaeus, 1758) accepted as Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Anadara kagoshimensis (Tokunaga, 1906) (additional source)
Anarhichas lupus Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Anguilla japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 (additional source)
Anilocra pilchardi Bariche & Trilles, 2006 (additional source)
Anoplodactylus californicus Hall, 1912 (additional source)
Antithamnion amphigeneum A.Millar, 1990 (additional source)
Antithamnion hubbsii E.Y.Dawson, 1962 (additional source)
Antithamnionella boergesenii (Cormaci & G.Furnari) Athanasiadis, 1996 (additional source)
Antithamnionella elegans (Berthold) J.H.Price & D.M.John, 1986 (additional source)
Antithamnionella spirographidis (Schiffner) E.M.Wollaston, 1968 (additional source)
Antithamnionella ternifolia (J.D.Hooker & Harvey) Lyle, 1922 (additional source)
Apionsoma (Apionsoma) misakianum (Ikeda, 1904) (additional source)
Apoglossum gregarium (E.Y.Dawson) M.J.Wynne, 1985 (additional source)
Apogon fasciatus (White, 1790) accepted as Ostorhinchus fasciatus (White, 1790) (additional source)
Apoprionospio pygmaea (Hartman, 1961) accepted as Prionospio pygmaeus Hartman, 1961 (additional source)
Arietellus pavoninus Sars G.O., 1905 (additional source)
Arius parkii Günther, 1864 accepted as Carlarius parkii (Günther, 1864) (additional source)
Ashtoret lunaris (Forskål, 1775) (additional source)
Asparagopsis armata Harvey, 1855 (additional source)
Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan de Saint-Léon, 1845 (additional source)
Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) elegans (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821) (additional source)
Astacolus insolitus (Schwager, 1866) (additional source)
Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Austrominius modestus (Darwin, 1854) (additional source)
Balanus trigonus Darwin, 1854 (additional source)
Beryx splendens Lowe, 1834 (additional source)
Bonamia ostreae Pichot, Comps, Tigé, Grizel & Rabouin, 1980 (additional source)
Bonnemaisonia hamifera Hariot, 1891 (additional source)
Botryocladia madagascariensis G.Feldmann, 1945 (additional source)
Branchiomma bairdi (McIntosh, 1885) (additional source)
Bugula fulva Ryland, 1960 accepted as Bugulina fulva (Ryland, 1960) (additional source)
Calanopia biloba Bowman, 1957 (additional source)
Calanopia elliptica (Dana, 1849) (additional source)
Calanopia media Gurney, 1927 (additional source)
Calanopia minor Scott A., 1902 (additional source)
Calappa hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 (additional source)
Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 (additional source)
Carcharhinus altimus (Springer, 1950) (additional source)
Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle, 1839) (additional source)
Caulerpa mexicana Sonder ex Kützing, 1849 (additional source)
Caulerpa racemosa var. lamourouxii f. requienii (Montagne) Weber Bosse, 1913 (additional source)
Caulerpa scalpelliformis (R.Brown ex Turner) C.Agardh, 1817 (additional source)
Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh, 1817 (additional source)
Cellana rota (Gmelin, 1791) (additional source)
Centrolabrus exoletus (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Centropages furcatus (Dana, 1849) (additional source)
Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes, 1828) (additional source)
Ceramium strobiliforme G.W.Lawson & D.M.John, 1982 (additional source)
Ceratonereis mirabilis Kinberg, 1865 (additional source)
Cerithium litteratum (Born, 1778) (additional source)
Cerithium nodulosum Bruguière, 1792 (additional source)
Chaetozone corona Berkeley & Berkeley, 1941 (additional source)
Chama pacifica Broderip, 1835 (additional source)
Champsodon nudivittis (Ogilby, 1895) (additional source)
Champsodon vorax Günther, 1867 (additional source)
Charybdis (Charybdis) feriata (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Charybdis (Charybdis) japonica (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861) (additional source)
Chaunax suttkusi Caruso, 1989 (additional source)
Cheilodipterus novemstriatus (Rüppell, 1838) (additional source)
Cheilopogon furcatus (Mitchill, 1815) (additional source)
Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Chirocentrus dorab (Forsskål, 1775) (additional source)
Chondria coerulescens (J.Agardh) Falkenberg, 1901 accepted as Chondria coerulescens (J.Agardh) Sauvageau, 1897 (additional source)
Chondria pygmaea Garbary & Vandermeulen, 1990 (additional source)
Chorda filum (Linnaeus) Stackhouse, 1797 (additional source)
Circe scripta (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Cladophora herpestica (Montagne) Kützing, 1849 accepted as Lychaete herpestica (Montagne) M.J.Wynne, 2017 (additional source)
Cladosiphon zosterae (J.Agardh) Kylin, 1940 (additional source)
Clavellisa ilishae Pillai, 1962 (additional source)
Clementia papyracea (Gmelin, 1791) (additional source)
Clytia linearis (Thorneley, 1900) (additional source)
Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889 (additional source)
Codium taylorii P.C.Silva, 1960 (additional source)
Conus arenatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 (additional source)
Conus fumigatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 (additional source)
Conus inscriptus Reeve, 1843 (additional source)
Conus rattus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 (additional source)
Cordylophora caspia (Pallas, 1771) (additional source)
Coryne eximia Allman, 1859 (additional source)
Cossura coasta Kitamori, 1960 (additional source)
Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål, 1775) (additional source)
Cushmanina striatopunctata (Parker & Jones, 1865) (additional source)
Cyclopterus lumpus Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1816 (additional source)