MSBIAS source details

SourceID142482
NameKroh, A. & Smith, A.B. (2010): The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 8/2: 147-212.
Type Publication
Linkhttp://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&issn=1477-2019&volume=8&issue=2&spage=147
AbstractThe relationships of post-Palaeozoic echinoids at family level are established through phylogenetic analysis of 169 taxa and 306 skeletal characters (excluding pedicellariae). Previous phylogenetic analyses of echinoids have either examined specific subgroups in detail or have looked at a relatively small number of taxa selected from across the class, with sparse sampling potentially affecting the reliability of results adversely. Our new analyses represent a compromise between encompassing the diversity of form that exists, while keeping the number of taxa to a level that does not make rigorous analysis impossibly time-consuming. In constructing the taxon-character data matrix we have encountered a surprising lack of primary data on plating pattern, lantern, and girdle structure for many supposedly “well-known” taxa. A well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis was obtained and is used as the basis for a formal classification. Characters generally have a high retention index (>0.7) but low consistency index (<0.25) suggesting that, although characters are largely retained after they first evolve, most also undergo occasional reversal or convergence. Although parts of the resulting trees are only weakly supported (e.g. the precise sister group of the Irregularia), other parts are unambiguously resolved. Not unexpectedly, deep nodes are often not supported by unique apomorphies and higher taxa acquire their characteristic set of features over time. Diagnoses based on crown group taxa thus often fail to encompass fossil stem-group members adequately. Establishing the relationships of taxa at the root of large groups is hampered by limited character resolution. The influence of fossil taxa on the topology was explored by comparing the tree topologies obtained with and without their inclusion. We show that removal of fossils from stem groups makes no difference where their crown group is morphologically conservative, but has a major influence where extant sister groups are separated by large morphological gaps. Completeness of the echinoid record and its match to the stratigraphical record of first occurrences is tested using various metrics and found to be highly congruent, with irregular echinoids showing a higher congruence than regular ones. Keywords: Echinoids; phylogeny; cladistics; evolution; classification
Taxonomic
terms
Echinodermata
Echinoidea
Taxa
(45)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAtelostomata (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrisasterinae Markov, 1994 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSchizasteridae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissidina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissopsinae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCamarodonta (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCarinacea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaridae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaridea Gray, 1825 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidarinae Mortensen, 1928a (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaroida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaroidea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClypeasteroida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinacea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinidae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinidea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardiinae Cooke, 1942 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocyamidae Lambert & Thiéry, 1914 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinoidea (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinothuriidae Thomson, 1872a (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinothurioida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEuechinoidea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorFibulariidae Gray, 1855 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHemiasteridae H. L. Clark, 1917 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHistocidaridae Lambert, 1900 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHistocidaridea Kroh & Smith, 2010 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHistocidaroidea Lambert, 1900 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHolasteroida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrregularia (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLaganiformes (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLoveniidae Lambert, 1905 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMeridosternata (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNeognathostomata (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOdontophora Kroh & Smith, 2010 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPaleopneustina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParechinidae Mortensen, 1903b (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPourtalesiidae A. Agassiz, 1881 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhabdocidaridae Lambert, 1900 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSchizasteridae Lambert, 1905 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorScutellina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangidae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangidea Fischer, 1966 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangoida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotidae Gregory, 1900 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorToxopneustidae Troschel, 1872 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorUrechinina (basis of record)
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z  created  db_admin
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