Lower littoral fringe
Lower littoral fringe: The bottom of the littoral fringe. In the UK, characterized by he Pelvetia/Porphyra belt with patchy Verrucaria maura and Fucus spiralis (on sheltered shores). Verrucaria mucosa present above the main barnacle population. May also include salt marsh species on shale/pebbles in shelter (Hiscock, 1996).
- [[LowerLittoralFringe|Lower littoral fringe]]