Copepoda taxon details

Nitokra Boeck, 1865

115198  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:115198)

accepted
Genus
Nitokra typica typica Boeck, 1865 (type by original designation)
Nitocra Boeck, 1865· accepted, alternate representation (Both spellings in use)
Species Nitokra arctolongus Shen & Tai, 1973
Species Nitokra australis Soyer, 1975
Species Nitokra balli Rouch, 1972
Species Nitokra balnearia Por, 1964
Species Nitokra baltica Arlt, 1983
Species Nitokra bdellurae (Liddell, 1912)
Species Nitokra bisetosa Mielke, 1993
Species Nitokra blochi Soyer, 1975
Species Nitokra cari Petkovski, 1954
Species Nitokra chelifer Wilson C.B., 1932
Species Nitokra delaruei Soyer, 1975
Species Nitokra divaricata Chappuis, 1923
Species Nitokra dubia Sars G.O., 1927
Species Nitokra elegans (Scott T., 1905)
Species Nitokra elongata Marcus, 1968
Species Nitokra evergladensis Bruno & Reid in Bruno, Reid & Perry, 2002
Species Nitokra fluviatilis Galhano, 1968
Species Nitokra fragilis Sars G.O., 1905
Species Nitokra galapagoensis Mielke, 1997
Species Nitokra gracilimana Giesbrecht, 1902
Species Nitokra hamata Bodin, 1970
Species Nitokra hibernica (Brady, 1880)
Species Nitokra humphreysi Karanovic & Pesce, 2002
Species Nitokra husmanni Kunz, 1976
Species Nitokra hyperidis Jakobi, 1956
Species Nitokra incerta (Richard, 1893)
Species Nitokra inuber (Shmankevich, 1875)
Species Nitokra japonica (Miura, 1962)
Species Nitokra karanovici Chullasorn, Kangtia & Klangsin, 2014
Species Nitokra laingensis Fiers, 1986
Species Nitokra malaica Kiefer, 1929
Species Nitokra medusaea Humes, 1953
Species Nitokra minor Willey, 1930
Species Nitokra oligochaeta Giesbrecht, 1882
Species Nitokra palustris (Brady, 1880)
Species Nitokra paradoxa Daday, 1903
Species Nitokra phlegraea Brehm, 1909
Species Nitokra phreatica Bozic, 1964
Species Nitokra pietschmanni Chappuis, 1934
Species Nitokra platypus Daday, 1906
  » Subspecies Nitokra platypus bakeri Chappuis, 1930
  » Subspecies Nitokra platypus pietschmanni Chappuis, 1934 accepted as Nitokra pietschmanni Chappuis, 1934 (synonomized by Chang & Yoon, 2008)
Species Nitokra pontica Jakubisiak, 1938
Species Nitokra psammophila Noodt, 1952
Species Nitokra pseudospinipes Yeatman, 1983
Species Nitokra quadriseta Wells & Rao, 1987
Species Nitokra reunionensis Bozic, 1969
Species Nitokra salina (Schmankevitsch, 1875)
Species Nitokra sewelli Gurney, 1927
Species Nitokra simplex Schmeil, 1894
Species Nitokra sphaeromata Bowman, 1988
Species Nitokra stygia (Apostolov, 1976)
Species Nitokra subterranea Chappuis, 1928
Species Nitokra taylori Gómez, Carrasco & Morales-Serna, 2012
Species Nitokra tenuicornis Brady & Robertson D., 1873
Species Nitokra treforti (Daday, 1884)
Species Nitokra tridens (Bozic, 1969)
Species Nitokra uenoi Miura, 1962
Species Nitokra vietnamensis Tran & Chang, 2012
Species Nitokra wolterecki Brehm, 1909
Species Nitokra yahiai (Blanchard & Richard, 1891)

Species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 represented as Nitokra affinis affinis Gurney, 1927
Species Nitokra fallaciosa Klie, 1937 represented as Nitokra fallaciosa fallaciosa Klie, 1937
Species Nitokra lacustris (Schmankevitsch, 1875) represented as Nitokra lacustris lacustris (Schmankevitsch, 1875)
Species Nitokra mediterranea Brian, 1928 represented as Nitokra mediterranea mediterranea Brian, 1928
Species Nitokra pusilla Sars G.O., 1911 represented as Nitokra pusilla pusilla Sars G.O., 1911
Species Nitokra reducta Schäfer, 1936 represented as Nitokra reducta reducta Schäfer, 1936
Species Nitokra spinipes Boeck, 1865 represented as Nitokra spinipes spinipes Boeck, 1865
  » Subspecies Nitokra spinipes orientalis Sewell, 1924
  » Subspecies Nitokra spinipes spinipes Boeck, 1865
  » Subspecies Nitokra spinipes armata Lang, 1965 accepted as Nitokra spinipes Boeck, 1865 represented as Nitokra spinipes spinipes Boeck, 1865 (synonomized by Chang & Yoon, 2008)
Species Nitokra typica Boeck, 1865 represented as Nitokra typica typica Boeck, 1865

Species Nitokra brevisetosa Daday, 1901 accepted as Viguierella coeca brevisetosa (Daday, 1901) accepted as Phyllognathopus coecus brevisetosus (Daday, 1901)
Species Nitokra muelleri Douwe, 1905 accepted as Nitokra lacustris (Schmankevitsch, 1875) represented as Nitokra lacustris lacustris (Schmankevitsch, 1875) (synonomized by Chang & Yoon, 2008)
Species Nitokra parafragilis Roe, 1958 accepted as Nitokra spinipes Boeck, 1865 represented as Nitokra spinipes spinipes Boeck, 1865 (synonym)
Species Nitokra tau Giesbrecht, 1881 accepted as Ameira parvula (Claus, 1866) (synonym )
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Not documented
Nomenclature Bowman (1988) argued that, following ICZN (3rd edition) arts. 11(b)(v), 33(c) and 79(c), Nitocra is an incorrect subsequent...  
Nomenclature Bowman (1988) argued that, following ICZN (3rd edition) arts. 11(b)(v), 33(c) and 79(c), Nitocra is an incorrect subsequent spelling, and Nitokra cannot be suppresed as an unused senior synonym, and therefore, the "commonly" used spelling Nitocra should be replaced by the original spelling Nitokra. Some years later, Mielke (1993) suggested that the spelling Nitocra should prevail since "apart from rare exceptions only the name Nitocra has been used since" the description of Nitokra mihi by Boeck (1865). Mielke (1993) suggested to follow Bowman's second choice, "to supress Nitokra and validate Nitocra, in accordance with usage". Some "principal changes" introduced in the 4th edition of the ICZN appear in pages XXVI-XXIX. Change number 12 says "In most cases an author will be required to maintain the particular spelling in prevailing use for a name, even if it is found not to be the original spelling;..."). Also, art 33.3. and 33.3.1. say: "Any subsequent spelling of a name different from the correct original spelling, other than a mandatory change or an emendation, is an "incorrect subsequent spelling"; it is not an available name and, like an incorrect original spelling [Art. 32.4], it does not enter into homonymy and cannot be used as a substitute name, but when an incorrect subsequent spelling is in prevailing usage and is attributed to the publication of the original spelling, the subsequent spelling and attribution are to be preserved and the spelling is deemed to be a correct original spelling." The same reasoning was used by Wells (2007:88) who says "Bowman (1988) recognised that the name of this common and speciose genus has been misspelt—as Nitocra— since 1881 and argued that the original spelling (Nitokra) should be resumed. Mielke (1993) disagreed, believing the name that had been in common use for so long should prevail. At that time Mielke’s view would have required a ruling from the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature but to the best of my knowledge a case was not submitted. However, the situation is now resolved—in favour of Nitocra—by the adoption in Article 33 of the 4th Edition of the ICZN, 1999, of a new section 33.3.1. which allows “an incorrect subsequent spelling” to stand when it is in “prevailing usage” and has always been properly attributed to the original author."


Gómez, Carrasco & Morales-Serna, 2012 followed Mielke (1993), Wells (2007) but above all, the ICZN (1999) arts. 33.3 and 33.3.1. In the opinion of Samuel Gomez, the spelling Nitokra should be replaced by Nitocra. [details]
Walter, T.C. & Boxshall, G. (2018). World of Copepods database. Nitokra Boeck, 1865. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/copepoda/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=115198 on 2018-08-22
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2006-09-26 06:56:50Z
changed
Martinez, Olga
2010-07-28 20:41:46Z
checked
2015-09-03 06:24:32Z
changed
2018-07-20 13:20:38Z
changed

basis of record Huys, R. (2001). Copepoda - Harpacticoida. In: Costello, M.J. et al. (eds.) European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels. 50:268-280. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Gómez, S., N.K. Carrasco & F.N. Morales-Serna, 2012. (2012). A new species of Nitocra Boeck, 1865 (Harpacticoida, Ameiridae, Ameirinae) from South Africa, with notes on its ecology and remarks on the statusof Nitocra sewelli husmanni Kunz, 1976. Zookeys. 244:33-58. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Bodin, P. (1997). Catalogue of the new marine harpacticoid copepods. Studiedocumenten van het K.B.I.N. = Documents de Travail de l'I.R.Sc.N.B., 89. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 304 pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 274 [details]   

additional source Boeck, A. (1865). Oversigt over de ved Norges Kyster jagttagne Copepoder henhorende til Calanidernes, Cyclopidernes og Harpactidernes Familier. Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-Selskabet i Christiania. 1864: 226-282.
page(s): 274 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Nomenclator Zoologicus Online. , available online at http://uio.mbl.edu/NomenclatorZoologicus/ [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
From editor or global species database
Nomenclature Bowman (1988) argued that, following ICZN (3rd edition) arts. 11(b)(v), 33(c) and 79(c), Nitocra is an incorrect subsequent spelling, and Nitokra cannot be suppresed as an unused senior synonym, and therefore, the "commonly" used spelling Nitocra should be replaced by the original spelling Nitokra. Some years later, Mielke (1993) suggested that the spelling Nitocra should prevail since "apart from rare exceptions only the name Nitocra has been used since" the description of Nitokra mihi by Boeck (1865). Mielke (1993) suggested to follow Bowman's second choice, "to supress Nitokra and validate Nitocra, in accordance with usage". Some "principal changes" introduced in the 4th edition of the ICZN appear in pages XXVI-XXIX. Change number 12 says "In most cases an author will be required to maintain the particular spelling in prevailing use for a name, even if it is found not to be the original spelling;..."). Also, art 33.3. and 33.3.1. say: "Any subsequent spelling of a name different from the correct original spelling, other than a mandatory change or an emendation, is an "incorrect subsequent spelling"; it is not an available name and, like an incorrect original spelling [Art. 32.4], it does not enter into homonymy and cannot be used as a substitute name, but when an incorrect subsequent spelling is in prevailing usage and is attributed to the publication of the original spelling, the subsequent spelling and attribution are to be preserved and the spelling is deemed to be a correct original spelling." The same reasoning was used by Wells (2007:88) who says "Bowman (1988) recognised that the name of this common and speciose genus has been misspelt—as Nitocra— since 1881 and argued that the original spelling (Nitokra) should be resumed. Mielke (1993) disagreed, believing the name that had been in common use for so long should prevail. At that time Mielke’s view would have required a ruling from the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature but to the best of my knowledge a case was not submitted. However, the situation is now resolved—in favour of Nitocra—by the adoption in Article 33 of the 4th Edition of the ICZN, 1999, of a new section 33.3.1. which allows “an incorrect subsequent spelling” to stand when it is in “prevailing usage” and has always been properly attributed to the original author."


Gómez, Carrasco & Morales-Serna, 2012 followed Mielke (1993), Wells (2007) but above all, the ICZN (1999) arts. 33.3 and 33.3.1. In the opinion of Samuel Gomez, the spelling Nitokra should be replaced by Nitocra. [details]