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Asteroidea source details

Clark, A.M. & Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp.
6324
Clark, A.M. & Courtman-Stock, J.
1976
The echinoderms of southern Africa
Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp
Publication
This is a key to the Echinoderms of South Africa (except the Holothurians). The area is limited to Capricorn (South-east) and to Walvis bay (South-west). After all the surveys done by H.L. Clark (1923) and Mortensen (1933a, of the Asterozoa), only a small number of new taxa have been discovered. The number of species included is ca. 280.
South Africa
Bathyal, Continental slope
Fauna and Flora, Faunistic inventories, Checklists, Catalogues
Faunistic guides, Identification guides
Systematics, Taxonomy
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Allostichaster capensis (Perrier, 1875) (additional source)
Anseropoda Nardo, 1834 (additional source)
Anseropoda grandis Mortensen, 1933 (additional source)
Anseropoda habracantha H.L. Clark, 1923 (basis of record)
Anseropoda novemradiata (Bell, 1905) (basis of record)
Asteracanthion africanus Müller & Troschel, 1842 accepted as Marthasterias africana (Müller & Troschel, 1842) (source of synonymy)
Asterias capensis Perrier, 1875 accepted as Allostichaster capensis (Perrier, 1875) (source of synonymy)
Asterias exigua Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Patiriella exigua (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Parvulastra exigua (Lamarck, 1816) (source of synonymy)
Asterias mammillata Audouin, 1826 accepted as Pentaceraster mammillatus (Audouin, 1826) (source of synonymy)
Asterias savignyi Audouin, 1826 accepted as Luidia savignyi (Audouin, 1826) (source of synonymy)
Asterias schmideliana Bruzelius, 1805 accepted as Culcita schmideliana (Bruzelius, 1805) (source of synonymy)
Asterina exigua (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Patiriella exigua (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Parvulastra exigua (Lamarck, 1816) (source of synonymy)
Astropecten pontoporeus Sladen, 1883 accepted as Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) (source of synonymy)
Astropecten pontoporeus Sladen, 1883 accepted as Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) (basis of record)
Austrofromia schultzei (Döderlein, 1910) accepted as Fromia schultzei Döderlein, 1910 (basis of record)
Austrofromia schultzei (Döderlein, 1910) accepted as Fromia schultzei Döderlein, 1910 (source of synonymy)
Benthopecten pedicifer (Sladen, 1889) (additional source)
Brisinga cricophora Sladen, 1889 (additional source)
Calliaster baccatus Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Ceramaster trispinosus H.L. Clark, 1923 (basis of record)
Chondraster elattosis H.L. Clark, 1923 (additional source)
Cladaster macrobrachius H.L. Clark, 1923 (basis of record)
Coronaster volsellatus (Sladen, 1889) (additional source)
Cosmasterias felipes (Sladen, 1889) (additional source)
Crossaster penicillatus Sladen, 1889 (additional source)
Culcita schmideliana (Bruzelius, 1805) (additional source)
Diplopteraster multipes (M. Sars, 1866) (additional source)
Echinaster ornatus Perrier, 1869 accepted as Henricia ornata (Perrier, 1869) (source of synonymy)
Eustolasterias stenactis H.L. Clark, 1926 accepted as Sclerasterias stenactis (H.L. Clark, 1926) accepted as Sclerasterias mazophora (Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891) (source of synonymy)
Goniodiscus sebae Müller & Troschel, 1842 accepted as Culcita novaeguineae Müller & Troschel, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Goniopecten intermedius Perrier, 1881 accepted as Plutonaster intermedius (Perrier, 1881) (source of synonymy)
Henricia abyssalis (Perrier, 1894) (source of synonymy)
Henricia ornata (Perrier, 1869) (additional source)
Henricia retecta A.M. Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976 (original description)
Henricia reticulata (H.L. Clark, 1923) accepted as Henricia retecta A.M. Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976 (source of synonymy)
Hippasteria strongylactis H.L. Clark, 1926 accepted as Hippasteria phrygiana strongylactis H.L. Clark, 1926 accepted as Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) (basis of record)
Hymenaster gennaeus H.L. Clark, 1923 accepted as Hymenaster rex Perrier, 1885 (additional source)
Hymenaster lamprus H.L. Clark, 1923 (additional source)
Hymenaster latebrosus Sladen, 1882 (additional source)
Linckia miliaris (Muller & Troschel, 1840) accepted as Linckia laevigata (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Luidia africana Sladen, 1889 accepted as Luidia sarsi africana Sladen, 1889 accepted as Luidia sarsii africana Sladen, 1889 (additional source)
Luidia savignyi (Audouin, 1826) (additional source)
Luidiaster hirsutus Studer, 1884 accepted as Cheiraster (Luidiaster) hirsutus (Studer, 1884) (additional source)
Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Marthasterias rarispina (Perrier, 1875) accepted as Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Mithrodia gigas Mortensen, 1935 accepted as Thromidia gigas (Mortensen, 1935) (basis of record)
Odontaster australis H.L. Clark, 1926 (additional source)
Oreaster lincki (de Blainville, 1830) accepted as Protoreaster lincki (Blainville, 1830) (source of synonymy)
Palmipes novemradiata Bell, 1905 accepted as Anseropoda novemradiata (Bell, 1905) (source of synonymy)
Pararchaster pedicifer Sladen, 1889 accepted as Benthopecten pedicifer (Sladen, 1889) (source of synonymy)
Parasterina formosa Mortensen, 1933 accepted as Callopatiria formosa (Mortensen, 1933) (source of synonymy)
Patiria Gray, 1840 (additional source)
Patiria formosa (Mortensen, 1933) accepted as Callopatiria formosa (Mortensen, 1933) (basis of record)
Patiria granifera Gray, 1847 accepted as Callopatiria granifera (Gray, 1847) (basis of record)
Patiria stellifera (Möbius, 1859) accepted as Asterina stellifera (Möbius, 1859) (basis of record)
Patiriella exigua (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Parvulastra exigua (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Pentaceraster mammillatus (Audouin, 1826) (additional source)
Perissasterias polyacantha H.L. Clark, 1923 (additional source)
Plutonaster Sladen, 1889 (additional source)
Plutonaster intermedius (Perrier, 1881) (basis of record)
Plutonaster proteus H.L. Clark, 1923 accepted as Plutonaster bifrons (Wyville Thomson, 1873) (additional source)
Poraniopsis capensis H.L. Clark, 1923 accepted as Poraniopsis echinaster Perrier, 1891 (basis of record)
Protoreaster lincki (Blainville, 1830) (additional source)
Pseudarchaster brachyactis H.L. Clark, 1923 accepted as Pseudarchaster tessellatus Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Pseudarchaster tessellatus Sladen, 1889 (additional source)
Pteraster affinis Smith, 1876 (additional source)
Pteraster capensis Gray, 1847 (additional source)
Pteraster fornicatus Mortensen, 1933 (additional source)
Sclerasterias Perrier, 1891 (basis of record)
Sclerasterias stenactis (H.L. Clark, 1926) accepted as Sclerasterias mazophora (Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891) (basis of record)
Sphaeriodiscus bourgeti (Perrier, 1885) (additional source)
Spoladaster brachyactis (H.L. Clark, 1923) accepted as Spoladaster veneris (Perrier, 1879) (additional source)
Stegnobrisinga splendens H.L. Clark, 1926 (additional source)
Stichaster felipes Sladen, 1889 accepted as Cosmasterias felipes (Sladen, 1889) (source of synonymy)
Toraster tuberculatus (Gray, 1847) (additional source)
Tylaster meridionalis Mortensen, 1933 accepted as Spoladaster brachyactis (H.L. Clark, 1923) accepted as Spoladaster veneris (Perrier, 1879) (basis of record)
Agulhas Bank for Pseudarchaster brachyactis H.L. Clark, 1923 
Algoa Bay for Spoladaster brachyactis (H.L. Clark, 1923) 
Baie de l'Observatoire for Pteraster affinis Smith, 1876 
Cape Natal for Anseropoda novemradiata (Bell, 1905) 
Cape of Good Hope for Henricia ornata (Perrier, 1869) 
Cape of Good Hope for Pteraster capensis Gray, 1847 
Cape Point for Ceramaster patagonicus euryplax H.L. Clark, 1923 
Cape Point for Cladaster macrobrachius H.L. Clark, 1923 
Cape Point for Hymenaster lamprus H.L. Clark, 1923 
Cape Town for Dipsacaster sladeni capensis A.M. Clark, 1952 
Durban for Sclerasterias stenactis (H.L. Clark, 1926) 
Durban for Stegnobrisinga splendens H.L. Clark, 1926 
East London for Anseropoda habracantha H.L. Clark, 1923 
False Bay (South Africa) for Calliaster baccatus Sladen, 1889 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Cosmasterias felipes (Sladen, 1889) 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Henricia retecta A.M. Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Mediaster capensis capensis H.L. Clark, 1923 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Patiria formosa (Mortensen, 1933) 
Kaap Infante  for Chondraster elattosis H.L. Clark, 1923 
Kerguelen Islands for Luidiaster hirsutus Studer, 1884 
Lambert's Bay for Anseropoda grandis Mortensen, 1933 
Mauritius for Coscinasterias calamaria (Gray, 1840) 
Morgan for Mithrodia gigas Mortensen, 1935 
Moroccan Exclusive Economic Zone for Henricia abyssalis (Perrier, 1894) 
Mozambique for Acanthaster planci (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Mozambique for Archaster angulatus Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Mozambique for Asterodiscides elegans (Gray, 1847) 
Mozambique for Astropecten antares Döderlein, 1926 
Mozambique for Astropecten granulatus natalensis John, 1948  (inaccurate)
Mozambique for Astropecten hemprichi Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Mozambique for Astropecten polyacanthus phragmorus Fisher, 1913 
Mozambique for Culcita schmideliana (Bruzelius, 1805) 
Mozambique for Linckia guildingi Gray, 1840 
Mozambique for Linckia laevigata (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Mozambique for Linckia multifora (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Luidia maculata Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Mozambique for Luidia savignyi (Audouin, 1826) 
Mozambique for Patiriella exigua (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Protoreaster lincki (Blainville, 1830) 
Port Nolloth for Tylaster meridionalis Mortensen, 1933 
Red Sea for Astropecten hemprichi Müller & Troschel, 1842 
Rio De Janeiro for Patiria stellifera (Möbius, 1859) 
Saint Thomas for Brisinga cricophora Sladen, 1889 
Saldanha Bay for Hippasteria strongylactis H.L. Clark, 1926 
Saldanha Bay for Odontaster australis H.L. Clark, 1926 
South Africa for Austrofromia schultzei (Döderlein, 1910) 
South Africa (country) for Allostichaster capensis (Perrier, 1875) 
South Africa (country) for Anseropoda grandis Mortensen, 1933 
South Africa (country) for Anseropoda habracantha H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Anseropoda novemradiata (Bell, 1905) 
South Africa (country) for Anthenoides marleyi Mortensen, 1925 
South Africa (country) for Asterina gracilispina H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Asterodiscides elegans (Gray, 1847) 
South Africa (country) for Astropecten anacanthus H.L. Clark, 1926 
South Africa (country) for Astropecten antares Döderlein, 1926 
South Africa (country) for Astropecten granulatus natalensis John, 1948 
South Africa (country) for Astropecten hemprichi Müller & Troschel, 1842 
South Africa (country) for Astropecten irregularis pontoporaeus Sladen, 1883 
South Africa (country) for Astropecten leptus H.L. Clark, 1926 
South Africa (country) for Astropecten polyacanthus phragmorus Fisher, 1913 
South Africa (country) for Benthopecten pedicifer (Sladen, 1889)  (doubtful)
South Africa (country) for Brisinga cricophora Sladen, 1889 
South Africa (country) for Calliaster acanthodes H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Calliaster baccatus Sladen, 1889 
South Africa (country) for Ceramaster patagonicus euryplax H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Ceramaster trispinosus H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Chondraster elattosis H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Cladaster macrobrachius H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Coronaster volsellatus (Sladen, 1889) 
South Africa (country) for Coscinasterias calamaria (Gray, 1840) 
South Africa (country) for Cosmasterias felipes (Sladen, 1889) 
South Africa (country) for Crossaster penicillatus Sladen, 1889 
South Africa (country) for Dipsacaster sladeni capensis A.M. Clark, 1952 
South Africa (country) for Disasterina leptalacantha var. africana Mortensen, 1933 
South Africa (country) for Hacelia capensis Mortensen, 1925 
South Africa (country) for Henricia abyssalis (Perrier, 1894) 
South Africa (country) for Henricia ornata (Perrier, 1869) 
South Africa (country) for Henricia retecta A.M. Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976 
South Africa (country) for Hippasteria phrygiana var. capensis Mortensen, 1933 
South Africa (country) for Hippasteria strongylactis H.L. Clark, 1926 
South Africa (country) for Hymenaster gennaeus H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Hymenaster lamprus H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Hymenaster latebrosus Sladen, 1882 
South Africa (country) for Lophaster quadrispinus H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Luidia africana Sladen, 1889 
South Africa (country) for Luidia maculata Müller & Troschel, 1842 
South Africa (country) for Luidia sagamina aciculata Mortensen, 1933  (inaccurate)
South Africa (country) for Luidia savignyi (Audouin, 1826) 
South Africa (country) for Luidiaster hirsutus Studer, 1884 
South Africa (country) for Marthasterias glacialis f. africana (Müller & Troschel, 1842) 
South Africa (country) for Marthasterias glacialis f. rarispina H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Mediaster capensis capensis H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Mediaster capensis var. durbanensis Mortensen, 1933 
South Africa (country) for Mithrodia gigas Mortensen, 1935 
South Africa (country) for Odontaster australis H.L. Clark, 1926 
South Africa (country) for Patiria formosa (Mortensen, 1933) 
South Africa (country) for Patiria granifera Gray, 1847 
South Africa (country) for Patiriella exigua (Lamarck, 1816) 
South Africa (country) for Pectinaster filholi Perrier, 1885 
South Africa (country) for Pentaceraster mammillatus (Audouin, 1826)  (inaccurate)
Unknown type, locality Cape Point, identified as Plutonaster proteus H.L. Clark, 1923
Unknown type, locality Cape Point, identified as Hymenaster gennaeus H.L. Clark, 1923
Holotype, locality Cape Verde, identified as Sphaeriodiscus bourgeti (Perrier, 1885)
Unknown type, locality False Bay (South Africa), identified as Luidia africana Sladen, 1889
Unknown type, locality False Bay (South Africa), identified as Pseudarchaster tessellatus Sladen, 1889
Unknown type, locality South Norway, identified as Diplopteraster multipes (M. Sars, 1866)
Holotype BM 1890.5.7.1007, locality Philippines, identified as Coronaster volsellatus (Sladen, 1889)
 Biology

Sexually dimrophic species, epizoic on cake urchins Echinodiscus bisperforatus and E. auritus [details]

 Description

Clark & Courtman-Stock record the species as observed from South Africa, without further details. [details]

 Description

Description: disc scales with scattered pointed spinelets; single thick oral papilla, no infradental papilla; ... [details]

 Description

South african Atlantic species [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Gilbert Islands (Clark, 1954). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Saipan (Clark, 1954). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Maldives, Andamans, Lesser Sunda Island and southern Japan in depths from about 400-2800 m. ... [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in East Indies, Philippine and South Pacific Is. (Clark & Rowe, 1971); Australia (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

 Distribution

Also reported from Morocco and Ivory coast (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: also atlantic coast of S Africa (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: occurs ao on the Atlantic Coast of South Africa (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976 [554]) [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: South Africa, not known more precisely. [details]

 Distribution

From the Philippines in Lyman (1874). [details]

 Distribution

General distribution: temperate, discontinuous (Pacific and Atlantic Oceans), depth range 62-2963 m. (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

 Distribution

Tropical Indo-Pacific in Kalk (1958). [details]

 Ecology

benthic, continental shelf, continental slope. General distribution: temperate, South Africa, west Pacific Ocean, ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental slope. General distribution: temperate, discontinuous, South Africa, New Zealand, ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental slope. Depth range 318-2300 m. (Rowe & Gates, 1995). Also previously recorded in ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental shelf, continental slope, abyssal. General distribution: temperate, circumglobal ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, inshore, continental shelf, deposit feeder. General distribution: temperate, discontinuous (west ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA) No. 2278; paratypes in ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype South African Museum, Cape Town (South Africa) A.6445. Type locality: NW of Lion's Head, Cape Town, South ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa.Type locality: off East London, South Africa, 375m (Rowe & ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: Red Sea, in Lyman (1865) (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Also recorded from 'Coin Peros' by Bell (1909) - locality can't be traced. Described by Müller & Troschel ... [details]

 Remark

Lectotype Museum fürNnaturkunde an der Universität Humbolt zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany) 5429, paralectotype Museum ... [details]

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Lectotype Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands, paralectotypes Universitait van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, ... [details]

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Syntypes (7 specimens) ?Universitait van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Type locality: east of Sailus Besar, ... [details]

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Syntypes (probable) Natural History Museum, London (england). Type locality: off the coast of Ireland (Rowe & ... [details]

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Syntypes ?Zoologisches Museum, Göttingen (Germany) (3 specimens).Type locality: Amboina, Indonesia (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

 Remark

Syntypes Natural History Museum, London (England) 1882.12.23.444. Type locality: japan (35°11'N 139°28'E) (Rowe & ... [details]

 Remark

Syntypes undetermied. Type locality: Norway in Clark & Courtman-Stock (1976), but unknown in Rowe & Gates (1995). [details]

 Remark

Type data: status and whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: Unknown (Britain) (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Type data: syntypes whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: unknown (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Type specie of the genus Keraiophorus Michelin, 1862 (=Coelopleurus L. Agassiz, 1840 (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Type specie of the genus Cryptopelta H.L. Clark, 1909 (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Type species: Cidaris cretosa Mantell, 1829 (=Cidaris sceptrifera Mantell, 1822) by subsequent designation in ... [details]

 Remark

Type species: Ophiogymna elegans Ljungman, 1866 by monotypy (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Type species: Ophiacantha vipellis Lyman, 1883 by original designation (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Type species: Tristan da Cunha, 200 m. (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Remark

Types species: Spatangus pusillus Leske, 1778 (=Echinus cordatus Pennant, 1777) by subsequent designation (Rowe & ... [details]

 Spelling

Tropriometra in Kalk (1958). [details]

 Status

Lyman (1882) intended this to be a synonym of Ophioderma tonagan Lütken, 1872, but assigned his own name to it as ... [details]

 synonymy

H. retecta preoccupied by Hayashi 1940 [details]

 synonymy

A forma of M. gacialis [details]

 Synonymy

In Lyman (1874): Ophiothrix longipeda is a synonym of Ophiothrix propinqua Lyman. But Ophiothrix propinqua is a ... [details]

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Original combination for Henricia reticulata; H. reticulata is junior homonym of H. reticulata of Hayashi, 1940. [details]

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